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<title>Trends in urban office design and development</title></titleStmt>

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<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any

way</p>

<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>

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<u who="nm1141"> <kinesic desc="overhead projector is on showing transparency" iterated="n"/> two sets of handouts coming round # the blue handout which you've now all got <pause dur="0.5"/> and a single white sheet <pause dur="0.8"/> i should just explain that i was experimenting <pause dur="0.4"/> # scanning and then taking things into this handout and that has meant that some of the material isn't <pause dur="0.4"/> as clear as it should be <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and i will remedy that by giving you a supplementary sheet which has those images <pause dur="0.3"/> clearer next time we meet <pause dur="0.7"/> # so that's <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>th</trunc> <trunc>th</trunc> the second sheet is a white sheet which is just an extra one which i hadn't # <pause dur="0.6"/> included as i worked on the lecture <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> i should say <pause dur="0.3"/> as we go through this lecture <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>the</trunc> there's there's a lot of illustrations on <trunc>thi</trunc> in this lecture <pause dur="0.5"/> and i may not follow the handout slavishly in other words everything that's on the handout will be covered but not necessarily in the order that it's # on the handout <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> what i suggest you do is that i will try to make <trunc>s</trunc> i'm going to sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> talk without slides to start with <pause dur="0.8"/> # the introductory remarks <pause dur="0.4"/> and then # <pause dur="0.6"/> we'll go into sort of slides and

so on # and <pause dur="0.2"/> what you really <trunc>ne</trunc> need to try and do is to use the handout as a kind of aide-memoire <pause dur="0.6"/> of the issues and so on that we're talking about <pause dur="0.8"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> you might also think that # high technology T-V has hit us <pause dur="0.5"/> # <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is from # the Centre for Applied Language Studies <pause dur="0.4"/> they are doing some research into the vocabulary it's funny <trunc>int</trunc> <trunc>int</trunc> isn't it interesting you went quiet when i started this there was a kind of <pause dur="0.6"/> a a buzz while i was talking until the high technology bit came in <pause dur="0.4"/> and you thought i was in in for it <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> they are doing some research into the vocabulary which # different academics use <pause dur="0.4"/> # in order that they can better equip students international students coming here with the kinds of things that we say <pause dur="0.4"/> swings and roundabouts was the expression given as an example to me just now <pause dur="0.5"/> which was apparently used in four times in a lectures or in four <trunc>pe</trunc> four </u><u who="of1142" trans="overlap"> four times in thirty lectures </u><u who="nm1141" trans="overlap"> four times in thirty lectures and they hadn't <pause dur="0.2"/> realized

it you know swings and roundabouts might be a phrase we would use a lot but international students wouldn't recognize <pause dur="0.4"/> so here i am <pause dur="0.3"/> # strapped up <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> fortunately # Jeremy Paxman isn't in the audience <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and hopefully # <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> will get some useful material <pause dur="1.5"/> okay today's topic is <pause dur="0.2"/> trends in office design and development <pause dur="1.3"/> and as the opening quote says # <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <reading>office buildings are one of these great icons of the twentieth <trunc>se</trunc> century</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> and i'm going to show some slides in a minute which which perhaps give some <trunc>il</trunc> illustration of that <pause dur="0.5"/> an a <reading>visible index of economic activity <pause dur="0.2"/> social technology financial progress <pause dur="0.7"/> they've come to symbolize much of what this century is about</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> # what i'm going to be doing during the course of this lecture is <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="7"/> taking you through <pause dur="0.3"/> different periods if you like # of office development <pause dur="1.3"/> # and <pause dur="0.2"/> the factors if you like <pause dur="0.5"/> # that condition <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>u</trunc> the the types of buildings we create <pause dur="0.4"/> how we create them <pause dur="0.4"/> how we use them <pause dur="1.3"/> and also and this is very significant in the

context of property development <pause dur="0.4"/> # whilst <pause dur="0.2"/> work patterns change very fast by office cultures change perhaps very fast <pause dur="0.4"/> of course the fabric is essentially rather static <pause dur="0.5"/> you build a building and you might traditionally have expected it to been there sixty years <pause dur="0.5"/> well we've got some nineteen-sixties we've got <trunc>m</trunc> some much older office buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> some of which # <trunc>s</trunc> certainly # <pause dur="0.5"/> are <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> are still there but are pretty redundant <pause dur="0.4"/> others have been through various processes of alterations <pause dur="0.3"/> others soon will have to be altered <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact is the stock of buildings <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> is very fixed <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> despite the types of changes that are going on <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the demands we make on those buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> so i want to after some introductory remarks # cover these sort of different periods of of office development the nineteen-sixties' and as i've said seventies' building <pause dur="0.7"/> the bürolandschaft which is a sort of open plan office building buildings of the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> big bang offices <pause dur="0.2"/> big bang is something

which has kind of probably passed you by <pause dur="0.4"/> it was the deregulation of the Stock Exchange in the mid-nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> # and that resulted in certain sorts of office buildings being created particularly in the City of London <pause dur="0.6"/> nineteen-nineties' office buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> i've put on the handout this issue of office buildings and the city <pause dur="0.4"/> the impact that buildings have <pause dur="0.4"/> on the form if you like and character of our towns but i'm not going to talk too much about that <pause dur="0.6"/> and then some # concluding <kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="12"/> remarks <pause dur="1.7"/> so let's start with <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> this the introduction before we go into the <pause dur="0.3"/> lights down <pause dur="0.5"/> visuals on and all the rest of it <pause dur="2.6"/> on the handout i say that there are four <pause dur="0.2"/> aspects # <pause dur="0.4"/> if you like which you need to understand in trying to understand office development <pause dur="0.7"/> and i've also given you to sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="8"/> flesh that out which i <trunc>wa</trunc> just want you to have in the back of your mind as you go through the talk <pause dur="0.4"/> this diagram <pause dur="0.6"/> # which in a kind of way are also four aspects aspects to do with the workplace <pause dur="0.4"/>

systems <pause dur="0.3"/> culture and finance just have that <pause dur="0.8"/> # in the back of your mind and you can come back and and reread it <pause dur="0.7"/> # because it kind of provides a context for what we're going to be talking about <pause dur="0.8"/> but the four that i've listed on the handout came from <pause dur="0.4"/> # a a a <pause dur="0.2"/> a <pause dur="0.6"/> an article or a series of articles that now appear annually a thing called Trends in Office Design <pause dur="0.8"/> and you'll see that in the handout i've listed <pause dur="0.4"/> the last # five of them or the last four and say i'm expecting <pause dur="0.2"/> Office Design Two-Thousand to come any minute <pause dur="0.8"/> but in the nineteen-#-ninety-six # version of Trends in Office # Design or Office Trends <pause dur="0.7"/> # Saxon # who is an architect talked about these four areas the changing nature of work <pause dur="0.4"/> and the way buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> locate <pause dur="0.7"/> just think about that <pause dur="0.3"/> how <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> patterns of work have changed and are changing <pause dur="0.2"/> we talk these days about things like hotdesking <pause dur="0.4"/> we talk about hotelling <pause dur="0.7"/> how different that is <pause dur="0.3"/> from the patterns of work in offices let's say in the nineteen-sixties and seventies and i'll

illustrate that as we go through <pause dur="1.5"/> there are issues to do with development and investment how how do we <pause dur="0.2"/> go about procuring and producing office buildings <pause dur="0.7"/> one of the things i want to do is to highlight different traditions <pause dur="0.6"/> between the sort of <trunc>traditio</trunc> the # what i would call the Anglo-Saxon North American tradition of speculative office buildings <pause dur="0.7"/> and a more European tradition of what one might call bespoke <pause dur="0.2"/> or custom-built office buildings buildings that are commissioned by the occupiers <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than just lenting renting any building that comes along <pause dur="0.9"/> issues to do with how the urban system works where we locate our offices <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what do planning policies have to say about office locations <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll all know that we're trying to move away from greenfield developments <pause dur="0.4"/> that implies more urban office developments <pause dur="0.3"/> what does that mean for the form of offices <pause dur="1.3"/> and then issues to do with the design of the workplace and construction <pause dur="0.5"/> some of us recently <pause dur="0.5"/> in Berlin were seeing

different office buildings different standards of construction and many others of you will be going on <pause dur="0.4"/> visits when hopefully you'll be looking at office buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> there are different when we talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> trends in office design and development <pause dur="0.2"/> you need to keep these different sorts of areas <pause dur="0.3"/> in mind it's not just simply the building <pause dur="0.6"/> it's all the factors the circumstances which are surrounding the construction the development <pause dur="0.2"/> the design <pause dur="0.3"/> the use the occupation <pause dur="0.2"/> the management of those buildings <pause dur="1.3"/> so this is also a lecture where <pause dur="0.4"/> for example those of you who have had some of Ginny Gibson's material on <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> property use management maintenance and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>wi</trunc> can begin to <trunc>fi</trunc> fit into what we've been talking about here facilities management <pause dur="0.2"/> that's an aspect that comes into the equation <pause dur="1.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that's some of the # the ground i want to cover <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> i also want you to <kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="13"/> have in mind <pause dur="0.5"/> as we go through today's session <pause dur="0.7"/> this diagram you have in your handout <pause dur="1.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> these different sorts of # <pause dur="0.3"/>

office buildings <pause dur="2.1"/> i'll start by talking it's on the back of your handout <pause dur="0.6"/> i'll be starting by talking about this traditional British speculative office building very much a product if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> of the nineteen-fifties the sixties into the nineteen-seventies <pause dur="0.4"/> a sort of slab it might be a a straight slab it might be <pause dur="0.3"/> an L-shaped it might be T-shaped <pause dur="0.2"/> but it has particular characteristics and i'll be talking about that <pause dur="1.0"/> as we move into the nineteen-seventies and so on we get this <pause dur="0.4"/> this type of office the open plan office <pause dur="0.6"/> # called bürolandschaft in its in its particular form from Germany <pause dur="0.3"/> # but deep floor space and i'll be talking about some of <pause dur="0.3"/> its influences and characteristics <pause dur="1.0"/> we have other types of offices the the the the deeper plan floor plates that you find in places like Broadgate and Stockley Park i'll be illustrating that <pause dur="1.0"/> we might be talking a little bit about the North American but we'll also particularly be talking about what on this diagram is called the <pause dur="0.5"/> # new

north European tradition <pause dur="0.7"/> examples of office buildings which <pause dur="0.5"/> are <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> designed <pause dur="0.2"/> with let's say <pause dur="0.2"/> this is being a bit simplistic <pause dur="0.3"/> with the user <pause dur="0.6"/> rather than the developer <pause dur="0.2"/> in mind <pause dur="0.3"/> and i'll explain what i mean by that later on <pause dur="0.3"/> an emphasis on <pause dur="0.3"/> usability <pause dur="0.4"/> adaptability from the point of view of who's occupying it a specific occupier <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than the idea that you design an office building that <pause dur="0.4"/> any number of organizations can # <pause dur="0.2"/> occupy <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> again as we go through the lecture apart from having in mind those different <pause dur="0.2"/> areas of change if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> just keep <pause dur="0.3"/> your bearings on the fact that we're talking in essence about <pause dur="0.5"/> different configurations of buildings different shapes different plan forms and so on <pause dur="5.2"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="9"/> okay just <pause dur="0.2"/> # back to that <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> what we're seeing then is a situation in which # <pause dur="0.5"/> you know we have we start <pause dur="0.2"/> the period that we're looking at with a kind of fairly standard office building it'll be the slab and i'll explain that in a minute <pause dur="1.0"/> and if we move through the different decades <pause dur="0.5"/> different <pause dur="0.4"/>

innovation <pause dur="0.2"/> innovation takes it has an effect it <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>ha</trunc> it impacts if you like on the design of office buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> but not in a very <pause dur="0.4"/> clear focused way <pause dur="0.4"/> # just to give you an illustration of that <pause dur="0.2"/> i will <pause dur="0.2"/> in the course of the lecture <pause dur="0.8"/> when we're talking about the nineteen-eighties refer you to a building designed by a man called Niels Torp <pause dur="0.6"/> who was a Scandinavian architect who built the headquarters <pause dur="0.3"/> for the # Scandinavian Airlines

interesting building fascinating building <pause dur="1.6"/> when you get to the nineteen-nineties late nineteen-nineties you'll discover that <pause dur="0.7"/> B-A <pause dur="0.4"/> British Airports some of you might have seen it have been have had the new headquarters built <pause dur="0.6"/> by the same architect <pause dur="0.6"/> ten years later therefore we have the Scandinavian ideas <pause dur="0.2"/> impacting on British office design <pause dur="1.2"/> another illustration of that might be # <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll discover it in the course of the lecture that some of the factors which are driving <pause dur="0.4"/> the unusual sometimes configuration of <pause dur="0.5"/> office buildings on the continent

not always but sometimes <pause dur="0.6"/> are to do with employment legislation <pause dur="0.4"/> workers' councils employers' rights employees' rights <pause dur="1.0"/> any consequence to us <pause dur="0.6"/> well not much at the moment <pause dur="0.6"/> but we're part of the European Union <pause dur="0.6"/> we could be there in five or six years time some of the factors which have driven <pause dur="0.4"/> the design of # European offices <pause dur="0.3"/> might have an effect on us <pause dur="0.4"/> so we've got this kind of diffusion of innovation of regulation of pressures and so on <pause dur="1.7"/> i've already mentioned this question of custom and speculative office buildings that's another strand that's going to run through the lecture <pause dur="1.0"/> it's said and it's a character a sort of a <pause dur="0.3"/> i suppose a maybe it's a myth i don't know i think it's more than that <pause dur="0.7"/> but in this country we own our houses and we rent our offices <pause dur="1.0"/> the converse is very often said about Europe <pause dur="0.7"/> they rent their houses and they own their office buildings <pause dur="0.8"/> now there's a <trunc>n</trunc> there's a significant there's a consequence to that <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not always true of course but it is a kind of trend <pause dur="0.4"/> a generality <pause dur="0.4"/>

which influences if you like the way they approach # buildings <pause dur="2.6"/> office development cycles another factor which you need just to have in the back of your mind <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> i've shown you a diagram along the way of <pause dur="0.2"/> the development process <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="6"/> you'll remember this horrible diagram <pause dur="0.6"/> you've got it in your handouts <pause dur="0.7"/> remember it <pause dur="0.4"/> groan groan <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the point of that though is that <pause dur="0.8"/> you know you're <pause dur="0.5"/> if we're talking about offices that are being built over the decades they're going to be influenced by where they sit in the development cycle <pause dur="1.7"/> in the nineteen-<pause dur="0.2"/>eighties <pause dur="0.8"/> a lot of office development was driven by <pause dur="0.5"/> people <pause dur="0.2"/> wanting to invest in offices <pause dur="0.4"/> it was investment led <pause dur="0.9"/> and therefore the financial institutions as i mentioned last week <pause dur="0.6"/> had certain criteria that they applied to buildings that they bought as investments <pause dur="0.6"/> and those criteria then impacted on the design of those buildings <pause dur="1.4"/> you move to the nineteen-nineties and we move to <pause dur="0.4"/> what's said to be the customer is king a seller's market if you

like <pause dur="0.4"/> position where the tenant prospective tenant is very # <pause dur="0.2"/> # dominant <pause dur="1.2"/> we begin to find that those <pause dur="0.2"/> criteria which the institutions applied <pause dur="0.3"/> are taking a back seat <pause dur="0.4"/> # and they're not playing such an important role <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> the cycle's moved on <pause dur="0.3"/> different factors are affecting <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <pause dur="0.7"/> situation <pause dur="1.1"/> but again set as i said <pause dur="0.4"/> changing market conditions <pause dur="0.2"/> but we've got a <pause dur="0.2"/> essentially a fixed stock <pause dur="1.1"/> of course we're building new offices all the time <pause dur="0.6"/> but institutions are left holding offices <pause dur="0.5"/> that they bought they invested in <pause dur="0.3"/> from the nineties from the eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> from the seventies sometimes from the sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> what do they do with those buildings how adaptable are they <pause dur="0.5"/> how easily can you change them to meet the new requirements <pause dur="0.7"/> so that's the kind of context i think i want you to have # in the back of your mind <pause dur="0.5"/> # as we go through # the lecture today <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="10"/> and as i say we're going to be <pause dur="1.0"/> spending a lot of time with the lights down low <pause dur="0.6"/> and # <pause dur="1.2"/> slides # showing <pause dur="2.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> nineteen-sixties and as it says on the handout <pause dur="0.3"/>

in brackets <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> also the nineteen-<pause dur="2.4"/>eighties let's just <pause dur="0.5"/> let's try that <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="2.5"/> before we get there <pause dur="2.0"/> remember that slide <pause dur="1.2"/> right at the end of the lecture <pause dur="0.5"/> we'll come back to that slide but there'll be an addition <pause dur="1.3"/> and remember that first quote office buildings are one of the great icons of the twentieth century <pause dur="0.6"/> this is downtown <pause dur="0.3"/> Dallas <pause dur="3.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> downtown Toronto <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah just think about the the dominance that office buildings play on the townscape <pause dur="1.1"/> and also instead of just thinking about those as forms <pause dur="0.6"/> think about <pause dur="0.4"/> what's going on in those buildings what's giving rise to that form <pause dur="0.3"/> why are many of them downtown Toronto downtown Dallas so tall <pause dur="0.4"/> # think about the configuration the basic configuration of the buildings <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # they they fatten out well that's a product of light and planning requirements and so on but essentially they're # they're tall thin buildings <pause dur="2.1"/> that is downtown City of London <pause dur="0.8"/> # doesn't have quite the same # <pause dur="0.7"/> visual image Saint Paul's is just off to the right and it's a <trunc>sho</trunc> a

shot that you can see if you take a telescope from Parliament Hill Fields but it's one of the classic shots nevertheless of London <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> make no mistake about it office buildings have a huge impact socially <pause dur="0.3"/> visually physically <pause dur="0.3"/> economically <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>o</trunc> on # the form and our working of our cities <pause dur="2.4"/> we're talking about office buildings from a historical perspective of course <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> we wouldn't just suddenly start inventing offices in the # nineteen-#-seventies <pause dur="0.7"/> # this is one of the first if not the first office building <pause dur="0.4"/> # in # London <pause dur="0.7"/> and it's at the top end of Lower Regent Street it was a fire insurance office <pause dur="0.4"/> # constructed in the # <trunc>n</trunc> late # nineteenth sorry late eighteenth early nineteenth century <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # here's # a famous <pause dur="2.6"/> # see if we can focus that a little bit better <pause dur="1.0"/> a famous building no longer there <pause dur="0.2"/> these are offices from the Victorian period this is the last remaining was the last remaining mercantile building <pause dur="0.4"/> office building in the City of London <pause dur="0.5"/> Mansion House

demolished rebuilt # by # Palumbo <pause dur="0.5"/> and colleagues # in the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="1.2"/> but again Victorian offices <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Lutyens this building has now been refurbished interesting question <pause dur="0.4"/> turn of the century building now occupied as B-P headquarters <pause dur="0.5"/> # in Finsbury Square <pause dur="0.5"/> # built as i say round about nineteen-hundred <pause dur="0.8"/> a monumental building <pause dur="0.2"/> it says something about the importance and prestige which was attached to <pause dur="0.6"/> office headquarters at that <trunc>sta</trunc> early part of the century <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Shell Shell <sic corr="headquarters">headsquarters</sic> building <pause dur="0.3"/> on the South Bank <pause dur="0.3"/> next to the royal # <trunc>f</trunc> Royal Festival Hall <pause dur="0.8"/> # London Eye is just about here <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> office buildings of the nineteen-fifties again corporate buildings # purpose-designed to <trunc>occup</trunc> for Shell to occupy as their headquarters <pause dur="1.1"/> we keep on moving you know <trunc>w</trunc> we get into the nineteen-sixties <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> characteristic building here <pause dur="0.2"/> this is New Zealand House <pause dur="0.3"/> # just off <trunc>les</trunc> # Trafalgar Square and # Haymarket <pause dur="0.4"/> and we have <pause dur="0.2"/> the podium <pause dur="0.7"/> the the low broad floor <trunc>f</trunc>

floor plates on the lower floors and then a tower rising up above that <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> these are just <pause dur="0.3"/> illustrations if you like of office buildings in this country <pause dur="1.4"/> anybody recognize that <pause dur="0.8"/> Natwest Tower <pause dur="0.2"/> headquarters of National Westminster Bank <pause dur="1.0"/> but that's interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> that building was damaged by the I-R-A bomb <pause dur="0.7"/> Natwest no longer occupy it <pause dur="0.2"/> very recently very recently it's been refurbished it's now called i believe Tower Forty-Two <pause dur="0.7"/> # and isn't just offices but includes social facilities <trunc>c</trunc> cafes restaurants and so on for the sort of offices i believe it may be being let out as <pause dur="0.4"/> managed office suites <pause dur="0.4"/> and right at the end of the lecture i'll be coming on to that and talking about outfits like Regus which i guess some of you have heard <pause dur="0.3"/> who specialize <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> taking office buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> and using them and # letting them out <pause dur="0.3"/> in in small areas <pause dur="0.4"/> providing # # common facilities <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> very characteristic of attitudes towards office buildings in the nineteen-#-<pause dur="0.6"/>seventies <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Lloyds of London <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> another <pause dur="0.4"/> image <pause dur="0.6"/> #

which i'm going to refer to and come back to <pause dur="0.6"/> what's interesting about this building is <pause dur="0.9"/> all the services on the outside <pause dur="0.9"/> you see this building <pause dur="0.4"/> perhaps just as an office building <pause dur="1.2"/> but what are the implications if you pull out all the circulation which you normally find in a building <pause dur="0.2"/> and put it on the edge <pause dur="0.5"/> what does that do for <pause dur="0.2"/> the building its use its efficiency its net to gross and so on <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> i've got to start making you look at the buildings in a rather different way i guess and think about them in a different way <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Broadgate <pause dur="0.3"/> what does that have to tell us a lot of lessons but amongst the lessons you might learn from Broadgate sorry not Broadgate # <pause dur="0.9"/> Isle of # Docklands Canary Wharf <pause dur="0.6"/> is how these buildings were constructed <pause dur="1.6"/> and the fact that those facades can be taken off <pause dur="0.5"/> and the buildings can be refronted with relative ease <pause dur="0.7"/> we'll talk about that during the course of the lecture <pause dur="1.4"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> moving away from the urban offices which are my essential focus <pause dur="0.3"/> we come to office

developments like <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # Stockley Park <pause dur="1.0"/> # which <pause dur="0.3"/> there obviously is a connection i want to explain what that connection is in terms of their layout and organization <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and buildings like this which are # designed the headquarters of what was then the C-E-G-B <pause dur="0.2"/> # in Bristol <pause dur="0.7"/> # designed by Ove Arup and Partners who i mentioned last week to you <pause dur="0.5"/> # but <pause dur="0.3"/> some very significant lessons in the design of this essentially suburban office building <pause dur="0.3"/> feeding back through to the design of <pause dur="0.4"/> # # urban offices <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> in the back of your mind i want you to <trunc>ha</trunc> realize that offices are not just offices <pause dur="0.3"/> there are all sorts of different office buildings different ages <pause dur="0.5"/> different factors have influenced their design they have different characteristics <pause dur="0.3"/> they are more or less adaptable to change <pause dur="0.5"/> they reflect the kind of organization <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.5"/> was <pause dur="0.4"/> prevalent <pause dur="0.2"/> when those office buildings were conceived <pause dur="0.6"/> and if we change the patterns of work <pause dur="0.5"/> work is changing how we work how many people work and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> in a building <pause dur="0.4"/> then

those buildings themselves have to adapt <pause dur="0.2"/> change <pause dur="0.4"/> or they become redundant <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> okay so let's # talk about our nineteen-sixties' <pause dur="1.3"/> i refer the to this as what i call the bargain basement approach to office design <pause dur="1.2"/> you'll remember that last week i talked about the good enough approach the idea that why build anything to a higher standard when you have a market <pause dur="0.4"/> that will take the building at <pause dur="0.3"/> the lower standard which perhaps takes less <trunc>e</trunc> less effort <pause dur="0.4"/> # and so on <pause dur="0.8"/> well that's kind of characteristic of the nineteen-sixties' and nineteen-seventies' design of office building <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> it was a building boom period of building boom <pause dur="0.8"/>

the office buildings we had of this period were essentially cellular office buildings <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> single rooms <pause dur="0.2"/> easily provided providing for corridors <pause dur="0.4"/> # along <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> along their floor plate i don't know whether you can see this terribly clearly but here we have an L-shaped building <pause dur="1.0"/> you can see that we've got glazing on both sides we have a corridor running down the middle <pause dur="0.4"/> # as it happens where the two buildings connect we've got service courts lift courts and so on <pause dur="0.6"/> here's a straight building <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> essentially a <trunc>s</trunc> a slab in which the <pause dur="0.3"/> # let me just find my <pause dur="0.7"/> pen <pause dur="2.7"/> the # the core of the building is at one end and the escape staircase is at the other <pause dur="0.9"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> if you were to study this building in some detail you would discover for example that characteristically <pause dur="0.5"/> it is about <pause dur="0.3"/> # thirteen metres side to side <pause dur="1.3"/> course we didn't talk about metres then we talked in imperial terms it was about forty to forty-five feet either side <pause dur="0.8"/> # there was a

set sort of column spacing <pause dur="0.3"/> the windows were very commonly round about four feet the mullions <pause dur="0.4"/> one to another <pause dur="0.9"/> four four to five feet something like that <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> net to gross of a building like this in other words the amount of floor space that was available to let <pause dur="0.7"/> as against the amount the gross floor area of the building <pause dur="0.3"/> was often round about seventy per cent <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> you had a building like this and seventy perhaps a little bit more per cent of the floor space was available to let <pause dur="0.4"/> and therefore you could attach the rental value to that and capitalize it and you would come up with the <pause dur="0.4"/> value of the building <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that illustrates the layout very well again <pause dur="0.5"/> idea of a central corridor escape staircase <pause dur="0.4"/> # core at this end <pause dur="0.4"/> and we've got a building which can be let into these sort of cellular offices <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> that # what does that do it means you've got privacy privacy to work <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> it's a kind of time-honoured way of <pause dur="0.2"/> controlling how you <pause dur="0.3"/> ventilate these sorts of buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> and how you light these

buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> because <pause dur="0.2"/> what was driving the width of the building from that side to that side was essentially <pause dur="0.8"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> depth natural light would penetrate <pause dur="0.2"/> the offices <pause dur="0.4"/> at the sort of latitude we're at <pause dur="0.9"/> and also the amount of ventilation that you could get through just <pause dur="0.3"/> # opening a window <pause dur="0.2"/> these are not <pause dur="0.5"/> air-conditioned buildings <pause dur="0.7"/> these are essentially natural <trunc>bu</trunc> naturally lit buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> and they are essentially <pause dur="0.3"/> # sorry naturally ventilated buildings and they are essentially naturally lit buildings <pause dur="0.3"/> of course there was lighting but you just switch the lights on when the light <pause dur="0.6"/> went down you know <trunc>w</trunc> when it was getting dark <pause dur="1.3"/> # conventional floor plans wasteful if sublet <pause dur="0.9"/> why was it wasteful if sublet because you had to create more corridor space and the net to gross began to go down <pause dur="0.6"/> and you can see it's very basic we've got a floor slab we've got columns we've got a ceiling <pause dur="0.4"/> we've got lights hanging from the ceiling <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of reminds you of FURS doesn't it <pause dur="0.9"/> that's the FURS building <pause dur="0.4"/> the

essence of it <pause dur="0.8"/> no suspended # floor no <trunc>s</trunc> no raised floor no suspended ceiling <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> plugs and sockets well there might be a few dotted around the edge <pause dur="0.3"/> # but <pause dur="0.2"/> no more than that <pause dur="3.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and those were the sorts of # devices that you got up to to sort of try and and <trunc>seg</trunc> segment the office to break it up you can see that the partitions which aren't full height or they might be glazed at the extra height <pause dur="0.5"/> running into the mullions <pause dur="0.5"/> people working in rather cramped conditions <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that sort of was the characteristic if you like of nineteen-sixties' # offices <pause dur="1.0"/> now just think about it though <pause dur="0.6"/> does everybody need a cellular office <pause dur="0.9"/> if they don't need a cellular office <pause dur="0.5"/> isn't this really very difficult doesn't it look very cramped <pause dur="0.6"/> giving those people in any more than one <trunc>o</trunc> one person per office you know if you imagine you went into <pause dur="0.3"/> my room in FURS <pause dur="0.4"/> and you found two or three people in there <pause dur="0.3"/> it would seem very claustrophobic and and crowded <pause dur="0.8"/> so it <pause dur="0.2"/> it was wasteful of space <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the

partitions would be expensive to move if you wanted to restructure the building all sorts of issues like that <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but essentially the design of the building was being <pause dur="0.4"/> fixed by <pause dur="0.5"/> a question of cost and economy <pause dur="0.3"/> it was an easy building to construct to design <pause dur="0.3"/> and hopefully to let and that was good for the developer <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> finally just to # put it <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> make a point which we're going to be coming back to later on <pause dur="0.3"/> just think about things like solar gain <pause dur="0.8"/> you know again think about FURS <pause dur="0.2"/> you know you hear the <pause dur="0.6"/> the rain on the roof <pause dur="0.5"/> # when the sun comes in <pause dur="0.3"/> most of the heat gets transferred into the buildings the rooms heat up <pause dur="0.3"/> there's no ventilation it gets pretty unpleasant <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you know quite a lot quite a lot of problems with this kind of # building <pause dur="3.4"/> nevertheless there are some fine examples of buildings like that <pause dur="1.4"/> buildings which had in their own way a huge influence on the kinds of buildings that we were producing <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this is # the building known as the Seagram S-E-A-G-R-A-M building <pause dur="0.3"/> in New

York <pause dur="0.7"/> designed by # the modernist modern movement architect Mies van der Rohe <pause dur="0.5"/> # and is a sort of absolute classic of <trunc>i</trunc> of its time <pause dur="0.2"/> huge slab office building <pause dur="0.4"/> with a small # tail # running back <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and we have our own versions of that <pause dur="0.2"/> Centrepoint it has a curve <pause dur="0.4"/> but essentially <pause dur="0.3"/> it's <pause dur="0.3"/> it's it's a sort of # New York if you like high-rise applied to a U-K situtation <pause dur="1.8"/> but again just one more problem <pause dur="0.6"/> and this is a problem with Centrepoint <pause dur="0.5"/> the floor plates are very small <pause dur="1.5"/> lot of floor space <pause dur="0.4"/> but each floor plate has relatively little area <pause dur="1.0"/> that actually turned to be a very major factor in the refurbishment of Natwest Tower <pause dur="0.7"/> # that its floor plates were very small for <pause dur="0.3"/> modern usage <pause dur="0.9"/> the kinds of space that occupiers will tend to want to occupy <pause dur="0.2"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> nevertheless i mean we had our buildings like that <trunc>ye</trunc> can i can show many other examples <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>i</trunc> in London and elsewhere <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s got them not as elegant as # <pause dur="0.4"/> Centrepoint which is now a listed building <pause dur="0.4"/> but a product of the

nineteen-sixties' approach to the design of offices <pause dur="2.3"/> well <pause dur="0.8"/> there was an alternative approach to what i would call the slab office building <pause dur="2.5"/> it became known <pause dur="0.2"/> in its developed form as <pause dur="0.6"/> bürolandschaft offices <pause dur="1.0"/> but essentially what it is it's the idea of a pool <pause dur="1.3"/> think about the the the the archetypal image of a typing pool <pause dur="1.2"/> in which there are lots and lots of people working in ordered desks arranged formally <pause dur="0.4"/> in a large open space <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this is the the Larkin building nineteen-twenty-four <pause dur="0.4"/> # which was # a mail order company in the United States <pause dur="0.4"/> i believe <pause dur="0.4"/> # and <pause dur="0.8"/> all the desks were laid out in this very formal way <pause dur="0.4"/> and if you really were to study this thing you'll find that you've got <trunc>a</trunc> all the typists running down the middle and they're servicing <pause dur="0.4"/> # a number of people on either side and there seems to be some supervisors <pause dur="0.5"/> watching what's happening <pause dur="0.6"/> all all good sort of keep people in their place kind of situation <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and you can imagine that there are certain

advantages of this sort of office building <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> one of which is it's clearly very well suited <pause dur="0.2"/> to routine tasks <pause dur="0.9"/> you can supervise <pause dur="0.4"/> very easily <pause dur="0.2"/> you can keep an eye on what everybody's doing <pause dur="0.7"/> somebody goes along to is away from their desk too long for # a cup of tea <pause dur="0.6"/> # or to go to the toilet you can soon sort of record what's happening <pause dur="1.4"/> any of you worked in # <pause dur="0.6"/> telecentre sales <pause dur="0.2"/> place <pause dur="1.4"/> just think about the parallels you know when your calls are being monitored and if you're away for too long if you don't answer too many calls somebody starts ringing you up and saying <pause dur="0.4"/> hang on you haven't answered too many does that happen </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1143" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1143" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1141" trans="latching"> not going to not going to say but i mean <pause dur="0.6"/> you can begin to see the parallels here we here we have an organization that is doing repetitive tasks <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's got a hierarchical organization <pause dur="0.3"/> it wants to keep close control over <pause dur="0.2"/> what its people are doing <pause dur="0.5"/> # it's pretty easy to make change <pause dur="0.2"/> as it happens not in

# the Larkin building because all the desks were fitted down and so on but that's by the by <pause dur="0.2"/> the principle is there <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but the disadvantage is you can see it's the kind of classroom effect <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> easily to be distracted <pause dur="0.4"/> you know if somebody if something unusual happens perhaps when the tea trolley does come down here <pause dur="0.4"/> all eyes away from the desk to the tea trolley and you think whether you going to have a Mars bar or <trunc>w</trunc> what you're going to do is it going to be coffee today or is there some nice <trunc>s</trunc> soft drink <pause dur="0.6"/> # and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> there other issues like <pause dur="0.6"/> usually it's difficult to have any sort of outward expression of your status <pause dur="1.1"/> if you're in an organization that is hierarchical <pause dur="0.3"/> not that we are there much now but that certainly was the case <pause dur="0.4"/> how do you express the status of different people <pause dur="0.5"/> the joke used to be in the Civil Service you know that the <pause dur="0.3"/> the junior had one drawer <pause dur="0.2"/> next person up had two drawers the next person up had drawers on both sides the next person had a carpet on the floor <pause dur="0.5"/> and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> very difficult # to have that sort of expression of status if that's

what you're about <pause dur="1.0"/> and also there's a lack of control <pause dur="0.5"/> and i'll come back to this issue later on in the lectures you can't alter your environment readily <pause dur="1.4"/> # because you can't open the windows you know you can't sort of readily <pause dur="0.4"/> # stick up posters of your holiday <pause dur="0.5"/> # destinations and so on because it's you know very much # shared space <pause dur="0.7"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> in the nineteen-#-<pause dur="0.3"/>#-seventies and nineteen-sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> some # German space planners # set up this team and created what was <trunc>ca</trunc> became called as the bürolandschaft offices you've had the background <pause dur="0.8"/> which was this idea of essentially much deeper floor plates <pause dur="0.8"/> forget about this <pause dur="0.5"/> # thirteen metres fourteen metres side to side <pause dur="0.3"/> here we're talking about perhaps thirty metres perhaps forty metres <pause dur="0.4"/> from building to building <pause dur="1.2"/> now how could they do it <pause dur="0.9"/> well because of course technology had moved on the kinds of things that you couldn't do in the nineteen-sixties <pause dur="0.5"/> permanent <pause dur="0.2"/> artificial lighting <pause dur="0.6"/> air conditioning <pause dur="0.2"/> the technology <pause dur="0.2"/> wasn't there i'm sorry

going further back than the sixties <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> of course became more commonplace in the in the sixties and into the seventies <pause dur="0.4"/> so you could solve the problems of handling ventilating lighting these deep floor plates <pause dur="0.4"/> and then you could start packing people in <pause dur="0.8"/> and you could <pause dur="0.4"/> in the conventional way you'd have packed them in in a formal sense <pause dur="0.5"/> but the key to bürolandschaft was <pause dur="0.3"/> that you created the landscaped office which is what bürolandschaft means <pause dur="0.3"/> the landscaped office <pause dur="0.4"/> in which you can <pause dur="0.2"/> lay out the desks in a more informal irregular way <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> create some kind of landscaping # between them you can create sort of zones and areas of activity and specializations you could perhaps have some cellular offices <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps around the perimeter which would allow for those staff that felt their <pause dur="0.8"/> # status depended on it <pause dur="0.5"/> and you could create some kind of privacy you could have areas for <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know # staff assessment <pause dur="0.2"/> which weren't going to be out in the open <pause dur="0.7"/> and it was a sort of

compromise <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and this is # an illustration of that sort of thing laid out in the <trunc>ful</trunc> Ford building in Cologne <pause dur="1.0"/> what of course you also got in this time was <pause dur="0.6"/> furniture manufacturers providers of office furniture beginning to respond to <pause dur="0.4"/> the possibilities and creating <pause dur="0.6"/> interlocking <pause dur="0.2"/> modular furniture <pause dur="0.3"/> which you could sort of create and # different organizational areas and so on <pause dur="2.9"/> you'll notice here <pause dur="0.2"/> and i'll come back to that <pause dur="0.6"/> there are not too many cables are there <pause dur="1.4"/> we're still in an era when the typewriter ruled okay <pause dur="0.3"/> you had a desk you didn't have a computer you had a typewriter you didn't have a printer <pause dur="0.6"/> the telephone was a very basic telephone system <pause dur="0.6"/> so the problems which we come on with later on hadn't really begun to hit <pause dur="0.2"/> this sort of office <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that is # the <pause dur="0.3"/> headquarters of # <pause dur="0.9"/> a district council in the north-east which for the moment i've forgotten <pause dur="0.5"/> it'll come back to me <pause dur="0.5"/> # this this was their open-plan office <pause dur="0.4"/> # and you can see the kind of pattern that i've been talking about again not many sign of cables you won't find many computers if any computers <pause dur="0.5"/> on here <pause dur="0.4"/> # fairly generous space provision <pause dur="0.7"/> typical if you like open-plan bürolandschaft office of this period <pause dur="1.8"/>

but there are problems <pause dur="1.3"/> individual control problems of noise lack of privacy and so on <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="0.9"/> one of the <pause dur="0.6"/> seminal office schemes <pause dur="0.2"/> # of this period <pause dur="1.2"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> this development which i've referred you to on the handout <pause dur="0.5"/> as being by a man called Herman Hertzberger <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> known as the Centraal Beheer <pause dur="0.8"/> # outside # <pause dur="0.2"/> Amsterdam as i recall <pause dur="1.6"/> and this was <pause dur="0.4"/> what we've done now is to move from <pause dur="0.5"/> that North American <pause dur="0.7"/> Anglo-Saxon tradition of very efficient office space <pause dur="0.6"/> office space that's designed to maximize the net to gross and the net to gross of open-plan offices <pause dur="0.4"/> moves up from let's say <pause dur="0.5"/> seventy per cent to perhaps eighty per cent <pause dur="0.6"/> and suddenly of course <pause dur="0.2"/> eyes light up eighty per cent more rent capitalize that and more value for the same cost of construction good move <pause dur="0.3"/> move for develop that sort of thing <pause dur="0.8"/> but just

move across to <pause dur="0.3"/> north Europe <pause dur="1.1"/> # mainland Europe <pause dur="0.6"/> with a different culture <pause dur="0.5"/> which is picking up on this idea of a bürolandschaft but then also thinking about some of the problems associated with it like privacy like <pause dur="0.4"/> # lack of sort of autonomy <pause dur="0.4"/> # homogeneous # grouping of people and so on <pause dur="1.3"/> and what you had here with Centraal Beheer in # Apeldoorn <pause dur="0.4"/> # was <pause dur="0.6"/> if you like the high point <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> what was in fact <pause dur="0.6"/> open-plan bü<trunc>rofl</trunc> bürolandschaft offices <pause dur="0.7"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> adapted to a very much a sort of # a more # employee focused approach <pause dur="1.0"/> this outfit was a cooperative insurance company <pause dur="1.1"/> and they wanted to create a headquarters for their staff <pause dur="0.5"/> they wanted it to be a sort of an egalitarian kind of place where people <trunc>we</trunc> felt they were valued <pause dur="0.6"/> and they <trunc>crea</trunc> and and their architect # Herman Hertzberger created this scheme <pause dur="0.6"/> and you can just see the <pause dur="0.2"/> complexity if if you like of the floor plan <pause dur="0.7"/> you've got lots and lots of <pause dur="0.2"/> you've got quite a deep floor plan <pause dur="0.8"/> and lots and lots of cells <pause dur="1.2"/>

created by linked by corridors and space <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's not just a two-dimensional <pause dur="0.5"/> fragmentation if you like of work areas <pause dur="1.6"/> it's also a vertical fragmentation of work areas with views out into this sort of central lit <pause dur="0.5"/> area atrium if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> you can see a cafe a <trunc>s</trunc> or sitting areas here <pause dur="0.3"/> that's people having coffee communal meeting areas and so on <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's <pause dur="0.3"/> if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> the the north European spin being put on <pause dur="0.3"/> to this idea of open-plan <trunc>o</trunc> office floor space <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="1.0"/> in the reading you <trunc>ha</trunc> i hope you'll do you'll come across this scheme without any doubt at all it had a huge <pause dur="0.6"/> # if you like impact on architects and designers <pause dur="0.7"/> but none i have to say on property developers there never was a scheme <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>i</trunc> in the U-K and so far as i know in the U-S which kind of picked up on these things <pause dur="0.3"/> but some of the ideas you see here <pause dur="0.7"/> we'll revisit <pause dur="0.5"/> those of you who've ever seen the Ark <pause dur="0.8"/> that building as you approach London on the M-four <pause dur="0.6"/> # designed by the English architect Ralph Erskine but for a

Scandinavian property developer <pause dur="0.5"/> you'll find some of this imagery sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> imagery appearing back in that nineteen-eighties' office building <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and that's just another shot as you look down and through # the the building <pause dur="0.5"/> so you can imagine that you know you've got <pause dur="0.6"/> working groups <pause dur="0.7"/> in what is essentially a deep plan office space <pause dur="0.3"/> but none of that <pause dur="0.3"/> blandness none of that sterility none of that <pause dur="0.4"/> # lack of personality or personal space which you get with the standard open-plan office <pause dur="3.9"/> that was a later scheme done by Herman Hertzberger the Ministry of # Social and <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="1.2"/> Social Services <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> in # in The Hague <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in which some of those ideas were being carried through <pause dur="0.4"/> # but not with the # the sort of success and the intimacy and the attractiveness that you saw with the Centraal Beheer scheme <pause dur="3.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's The Hague as well <pause dur="0.4"/> right <pause dur="1.1"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> there were some advantages of this sort of office development it # <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the things that i want to think about as we go through this # talk is not

just to think about the office building <pause dur="1.0"/> but also think about its impact on <pause dur="0.2"/> the form and shape of cities <pause dur="1.3"/> when i showed you those slides of <pause dur="0.2"/> New York <pause dur="0.9"/> of Toronto <pause dur="0.3"/> and many other cities you saw lots of skyscrapers <pause dur="0.7"/> didn't you <pause dur="1.2"/> and that <pause dur="0.3"/> why did they have to go high well there are various reasons some of them to do with planning <pause dur="0.6"/> but one of the main ones was that if your building can only be <pause dur="0.4"/> let's say thirteen fourteen maybe at extreme twenty metres deep <pause dur="0.8"/> and you've got a lot of floor space you've got to go up <pause dur="1.3"/> if on the other hand you can spread your floor space <pause dur="0.9"/> suddenly the drive to go high isn't there any more <pause dur="0.8"/> you can you can have a lot of floor space and you can spread it over a site <pause dur="0.5"/> and you don't have to have the same number of lifts things can get a little bit easier <pause dur="1.2"/> and therefore as you go into the nineteen-seventies you begin to see even in this country <pause dur="0.5"/> architects and developers exploiting the posibility to have high volumes of floor space but with deeper floor

plans <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this scheme <pause dur="0.5"/> # is was # developed by the church commissioners <pause dur="0.2"/> it's in Victoria Street in central London <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and essentially the floor <trunc>spl</trunc> floor <trunc>pl</trunc> # space is spread down a long length of Victoria Street we're heading towards <pause dur="0.3"/> Parliament Square <pause dur="0.4"/> and down that way Victoria Station is behind us <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> just look at the floor plan <pause dur="0.7"/> this is the development <pause dur="1.8"/> and you can see this is a far cry from the slab <pause dur="0.6"/> office floor plan <pause dur="1.5"/> it has some light wells in the middle <pause dur="0.9"/> and it zigs in and out and gets really quite deep and then we get further light wells here and underneath this of course <pause dur="0.3"/> suddenly because we've got a deep floor plate we can put shopping <pause dur="0.5"/> so you've got # <pause dur="0.2"/> department stores <pause dur="0.3"/> and shops unit shops underneath this development <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and if you like the most memorable thing about this scheme <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> that's Westminster Cathedral <pause dur="0.5"/> which until this was developed in the nineteen-seventies had been hidden <pause dur="1.3"/> and then suddenly as a result of <pause dur="0.3"/> # planning and development and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> it

was possible to put the floor space <pause dur="0.2"/> build it up on either side and you suddenly get this <pause dur="0.2"/> dramatic image if you like of <pause dur="0.4"/> # the Westminster Cathedral and and this architecture <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> have in the back of your mind that that when you're <trunc>d</trunc> thinking about the design of offices <pause dur="0.2"/> how they're designed affects the kind of environment you can achieve <pause dur="0.5"/> that can be applied to Broadgate <pause dur="0.4"/> come on and talk about Broadgate Broadgate would not have been possible <pause dur="0.3"/> had you been designing with slab office buildings <pause dur="3.7"/> right <pause dur="2.7"/> what do we see as we go into the # nineteen-<pause dur="0.2"/>#-<pause dur="0.2"/>eighties <pause dur="3.3"/> i've called this <pause dur="1.8"/> the expansive decade <pause dur="4.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this was this was Thatcher the economy was booming <pause dur="0.8"/> all sorts of things # seemed possible <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> we had a P-C revolution <pause dur="1.4"/> that's the kind of situation <pause dur="0.2"/> which was beginning to occur <pause dur="0.5"/> once you introduce P-Cs and printers and so on then you have telephones and we had P-B-X telephone systems <pause dur="0.3"/> suddenly we've got a lot more cables for telephones <pause dur="0.6"/> and suddenly people wanted more desk space <pause dur="0.7"/> not

just better provision for cables actually needed more desk space how are we going to provide for that 'cause computers were not small <pause dur="0.5"/> beasts in those days <pause dur="1.3"/> computers <pause dur="0.2"/> tended to get hot <pause dur="1.4"/> you know if we had a problem with natural ventilation natural light <pause dur="0.2"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> nineteen-sixties' office buildings seventies' office buildings you then add the heat that was coming off these early computers <pause dur="0.4"/> you know you began to need more air conditioning or or air conditioning full stop <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> so there were there were searches if you like to try and # find ways of accommodating these new # <pause dur="0.2"/> requirements <pause dur="2.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> seems funny seeing this the city office of today and the office of tomorrow and that was twenty years ago <pause dur="2.9"/> and the consequence of that is that <pause dur="0.2"/> suddenly from a from a an office building where if you think about the first example you had a slab you had the lighting hanging from the ceiling and then you had a floor <pause dur="0.8"/> we suddenly find we need much more space we've got to raise the floor <pause dur="1.0"/> we've got to raise the

floor perhaps partly for heating and ventilation <pause dur="0.6"/> but also for cabling <pause dur="1.5"/> we've got to drop the ceiling <pause dur="1.1"/> because the lighting has to be better than just a bit of bolt on ceiling <pause dur="0.3"/> think about this <pause dur="0.7"/> you know the lighting is going to be much more significant it's going to be much more effective we've got to cope with the heat it generates we've got some air conditioning coming into this lecture theatre not that we felt it last week <pause dur="0.4"/> so we opened the fire doors <pause dur="1.1"/> what's the implications of that <pause dur="0.2"/> coping with this new technology for office buildings <pause dur="1.4"/> could the nineteen-sixties' building have coped with it <pause dur="1.6"/> if not why not <pause dur="4.7"/> what was a typical floor to floor height of a nineteen-sixties' building <pause dur="2.0"/> floor to floor here <pause dur="0.3"/> might be something like three-point-six three-point-seven metres <pause dur="1.0"/> floor to floor in a nineteen-sixties' building <pause dur="0.7"/> maybe # two-point-nine <pause dur="0.6"/> maybe three <pause dur="0.4"/> often not <pause dur="0.8"/> in order to accommodate all that space you needed <pause dur="0.7"/> a # a higher <pause dur="0.2"/> building higher floor to floor <pause dur="0.5"/> and many nineteen-sixties' and

seventies' buildings simply couldn't accommodate this # these sorts of requirements <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> so we've got new technology coming in <pause dur="0.4"/> and you see that illustrated here here here is a here is a building that could be converted <pause dur="0.5"/> the building prior to modernization <pause dur="0.8"/> windows <pause dur="0.4"/> upstand <pause dur="0.2"/> slab floor <pause dur="0.4"/> ceiling suspended lighting <pause dur="0.7"/> but after modernization <pause dur="0.3"/> you can put in the suspended ceiling you can raise the floor <pause dur="0.3"/> if you've got the headroom if you in the first instance many cases the buildings didn't have that sort of space <pause dur="2.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now i don't know whether you can see this # slide too well <pause dur="0.7"/> but we'll try and i'll try and explain it <pause dur="3.4"/> essentially what we're looking at is the relationship <pause dur="0.7"/> between <pause dur="0.7"/> the costs of constructing the building <pause dur="1.3"/> and its rent value at the beginning <pause dur="1.0"/> showing in green <pause dur="1.1"/> and then periodically the cost of improving it this says nineteen-sixties here <pause dur="0.5"/> in this example the building was refurbished in the nineteen-seventies <pause dur="1.0"/> its basic costs has been indexed up <pause dur="1.3"/> then you've added the costs of refurbishment <pause dur="1.9"/>

and then you've got some additional costs <pause dur="1.2"/> and what you've got then is the rental curve had the building not been refurbished <pause dur="2.1"/> indexed <pause dur="0.5"/> and then the value <pause dur="0.3"/> if you carry out a refurbishment there are obviously cycles in this is the nineteen-seventies' crash <pause dur="0.5"/> rental values increasing <pause dur="0.7"/> and what you can see here is the incentive if you like shown and again <pause dur="0.4"/> # nineteen-eighties refurbishment further refurbishment is that right nineteen-seventy-nine <pause dur="2.7"/> just got to get my mind round that hold on <pause dur="0.7"/> nineteen-seventy-nine <pause dur="2.0"/>

refurbishment <pause dur="0.3"/> for rent <pause dur="0.6"/> this is where the costs are going that's right that's the that's the original cost indexed out <pause dur="0.4"/> added up <pause dur="0.8"/> sorry i've i've got it that's nineteen-seventy <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-sixty nineteen-seventy nineteen-eighty <pause dur="0.3"/> so you've got different stages of refurbishment <pause dur="0.4"/> indexing the cost of construction up <pause dur="0.4"/> but then adding costs of refurbishment and as you can go through you can see the drive the incentive is if you can to refurbish the building <pause dur="0.4"/> because it's <trunc>re</trunc> increasing the rental value above <pause dur="0.3"/> the increase that you get due to the costs of <pause dur="0.4"/> # refurbishment <pause dur="1.2"/> so the the drive is through this period of the nineteen-#-eighties is to refurbish office buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> if you can <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> anybody recognize that building <pause dur="2.1"/> that's the road down to Cemetery Junction that's the road up to Eldon Square this used to be the headquarters in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> of Scottish

Life <pause dur="0.5"/> it was the subject of major refurbishment including new fenestration <pause dur="0.4"/> in about nineteen-eighty <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> you might <pause dur="0.3"/> some of you recognize this building <pause dur="1.0"/> it's on the M-four <pause dur="0.4"/> as you approach London <pause dur="0.6"/> # after Heathrow <pause dur="1.1"/> you see this building i think it's called something like Access-Four now <pause dur="0.6"/> this was a typical <pause dur="0.5"/> office slab <pause dur="0.8"/> this was <pause dur="0.3"/> you used to see all the exposed # windows floor plates running all the way through this building <pause dur="0.7"/> and then in the nineteen mid-nineteen-eighties it was completely refurbished <pause dur="0.7"/> and refronted re-elevated to give a new image <pause dur="0.6"/> this was a building that could be adapted and converted in that way <pause dur="1.3"/> this is another building <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> which <pause dur="0.7"/> # was a slab office buildings of the nineteen-sixties type which had the right configuration floor to floor for a complete <pause dur="0.2"/> refurbishment <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> a new elevation inserted on it <pause dur="0.5"/> in a in the <pause dur="0.2"/> actually the late nineteen-eighties this is in Covent Garden <pause dur="0.3"/> in the centre of London <pause dur="3.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> what about that building <pause dur="0.8"/> any of you know that building <pause dur="3.1"/> King's

Point <pause dur="0.8"/> at the end of King's Road in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> used to be where the County Planning office had its headquarters when i first came here <pause dur="0.9"/> it's a building which has been refurbished <pause dur="0.5"/> but never successfully <pause dur="0.4"/> it's never properly let they tried to create a new entrance on to the side road which fronts on to what's now Sapphire Plaza <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's never successfully # let its floor plates are too small they could never put in air conditioning <pause dur="0.5"/> it's always been a compromise <pause dur="0.4"/> this is a building which at some stage <pause dur="0.4"/> will be redeveloped why don't you think that building though <pause dur="0.2"/> has been redeveloped <pause dur="1.9"/> everything should tell you that building ought to be redeveloped </u><pause dur="1.5"/> <u who="sm1144" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause"> <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> no but i i do make a joke about that sometimes in another context no <pause dur="0.6"/> what's underneath that building </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sm1145" trans="pause"> a shop <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause"> Kwik Fit <pause dur="0.8"/> Kwik Fit Auto <pause dur="0.2"/> have a long lease <pause dur="1.0"/> and they're driving what happens on that site <pause dur="0.5"/> they you can't there's not enough value in it <pause dur="0.3"/> to buy out Kwik Fit

and their lease <pause dur="0.6"/> to redevelop that building <pause dur="0.4"/> but everything else about that office building <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it has car parking and there but beneath that you've got a very large podium which has Kwik Fit <pause dur="0.4"/> and some car parking <pause dur="0.4"/> everything else about that building should have led to it being redeveloped <pause dur="2.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> we've got a situation if you like in which <pause dur="0.3"/> # the nineteen-eighties is leading to <pause dur="0.8"/> # new requirements higher <trunc>f</trunc> higher <pause dur="0.4"/> floor to floor heights new technology more air conditioning <pause dur="0.3"/> better ventilation and so on <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> you either built new <pause dur="0.4"/> or you tried to refurbish <pause dur="0.3"/> or if you couldn't refurbish # you redeveloped <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> i make it just seven minutes to # twelve <pause dur="0.6"/> i think the tape wants a break <pause dur="0.5"/> # you want a break <pause dur="0.6"/> so can i suggest please that we come back here promptly i mean promptly we're a bit slow last week <pause dur="0.3"/> at ten past twelve got a quarter of an hour break </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause">

<event desc="noise from audience" iterated="y" dur="14"/> let's # let's make a start <pause dur="8.8"/> can we # <pause dur="0.2"/> can we have shh <pause dur="0.5"/> right <pause dur="1.0"/> okay we we're still in the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> # and we've got this new technology coming in we've got more air conditioning <pause dur="0.3"/> # you know <pause dur="0.2"/> deeper some some extent deeper floor plates of offices what we've also got <pause dur="0.5"/> is # organizations thinking and reflecting # more about <pause dur="0.4"/> # the design of # their office buildings i just want to <pause dur="0.5"/> quickly <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="10"/> kind of give you a reminder <pause dur="2.8"/> that we've # <pause dur="4.9"/> you know we've been <trunc>talk</trunc> we've talked about that traditional British speculative office we've talked about bürolandschaft <pause dur="0.4"/> we've looked at # Herman Hertzberger's derivative of that building <pause dur="0.5"/> which was very deep floor plate but we're trying to bring in individuality into it <pause dur="0.5"/> what want to begin to move into is this sort of area it's called here the new Broadgate type of office <pause dur="0.3"/> which i'll explain # shortly <pause dur="0.5"/> but it's <pause dur="0.3"/> essentially trying to find a compromise if you like between the deep floor plates of the bürolandschaft <pause dur="0.4"/> and the advantages if you like of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # the shallower floor

plates <pause dur="0.4"/> at the same time marrying that with the technological possibilities of air conditioning of of permanent # lighting and so on <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> what you also see at this period is the realization and i touched on this last week <pause dur="0.6"/> do you remember that i said you know the the architects that were employed <pause dur="0.4"/> to do # developments in the nineteen-sixties were those that really weren't necessarily the best architects <pause dur="0.3"/> but the ones who could get their way through the planning system and could get the best plot ratios and floor space and so on <pause dur="0.7"/> what you see coming into the # nineteen-<pause dur="0.5"/>#-eighties i'm going to have just <pause dur="0.3"/> backtrack 'cause i think i've missed a slide here <pause dur="0.8"/> yeah <pause dur="1.2"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> a a a much <pause dur="0.6"/> a greater emphasis on beginning to reflect if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> on the kinds of organizations that were going to occupy buildings we've we've we've got this <pause dur="0.3"/> realization that <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> that it's not just office space it's not just a standard <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of occupier <pause dur="0.4"/> we need to be more <pause dur="0.2"/> # circumspect you've got this

diagram in your handout <pause dur="1.2"/> and so you find <trunc>f</trunc> that # <pause dur="0.9"/> a a number of # leading edge developers and occupiers began to commission research <pause dur="0.3"/> looking into things like <pause dur="0.2"/> the nature of work the nature of change <pause dur="0.6"/> and there were two studies done one in nineteen-eighty and one in eighty-four known as the Orbit studies <pause dur="0.6"/> # which were <trunc>re</trunc> # produced i believe # by D-E-G-W i won't give you Duffy Eley <trunc>Worthing</trunc> <sic corr="Giffone">Gifford</sic> and Worthington forget about that they're known as D-E-G-W <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a firm of <pause dur="0.3"/> architects who specialized in space planning <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>sp</trunc> space <pause dur="0.6"/> I-E laying out buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> with a particular emphasis on offices <pause dur="0.7"/> and you will come across these names the D is Duffy Frank Duffy <pause dur="0.4"/> and a number of the references you've got are by Duffy <pause dur="0.8"/> and the W is Worthington John Worthington <pause dur="0.6"/> it's an outfit and those individuals have done more <pause dur="0.3"/> reflecting if you like on <pause dur="0.3"/> organizational change and patterns of work change than any other <pause dur="1.4"/> this is comes from the second Orbit report in nineteen-#-eighty-four <pause dur="0.5"/> and

you can see them beginning to reflect on the kinds of organizations <pause dur="0.4"/> and and perhaps their requirements <pause dur="0.4"/> they were saying work could be broken into a continuum between <pause dur="0.3"/> non-routine and routine <pause dur="1.0"/> # and the kind of organization the kind of change that it was undergoing could be <pause dur="0.2"/> ranked on a continuum between low change and high change <pause dur="0.8"/> so you get <pause dur="0.3"/> something like a a corporate back office let's say of a bank <pause dur="0.2"/> routine work <pause dur="0.2"/> low change <pause dur="0.8"/> # academic offices <pause dur="0.3"/> # non-routine <pause dur="0.5"/> low change i'm not sure that i'd agree about that come year two-thousand but nineteen-#-eighties that would be true <pause dur="0.6"/> you've got high tech firms <pause dur="0.3"/> # the new <pause dur="0.5"/> some rise industries let's say in the Thames valley <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>n</trunc> non-routine work very innovative work but coping with a high degree of change <pause dur="0.5"/> # we've got <pause dur="0.3"/> # engineering driven production firms <pause dur="0.4"/> # high change but routine <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>th</trunc> <trunc>d</trunc> <trunc>b</trunc> they're beginning to look at work and organizations <pause dur="0.3"/> and they're beginning to say <pause dur="0.9"/> companies differ <pause dur="0.5"/> the implication is

that their requirements that they have for office space differs if you're a high tech company <pause dur="0.3"/> you have different requirements to if you're back office requirements <pause dur="0.3"/> if you're a back office type outfit <pause dur="0.5"/> or if you're # a # let's say an accountant or a lawyer or an academic again you've maybe got different space requirements <pause dur="1.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-eighties you had this the beginnings of research into # organizations <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and you also have <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.8"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> the bringing into if you like the business of designing i hope we can focus that i've lost it <pause dur="0.9"/> come in a minute <pause dur="0.7"/> get it in a minute <pause dur="0.8"/> quite hopeless it's a difficult slide to see anyway <pause dur="1.5"/> not doing very well <pause dur="1.0"/> the bringing into if you like # office building of some of these leading name architects <pause dur="0.8"/> this was this this pair of buildings <pause dur="0.4"/> was designed by Ove Arup <pause dur="1.1"/> # partnership <pause dur="0.9"/> Ove Arup Associates to be precise <pause dur="0.5"/> they're the headquarters two headquarters buildings designed for the paper <pause dur="0.2"/> # producer manufacturer Wiggins Teape <pause dur="0.3"/> in Basingstoke <pause dur="0.9"/> this was

known as Gateway One you'll see them down there if you go down Gateway One Gateway Two they built this <pause dur="0.9"/> it's a deep plan office <pause dur="0.2"/> it's bürolandschaft <pause dur="1.5"/> it has <pause dur="0.3"/> terraces of garden space on top of some of that deep <trunc>s</trunc> plan you've got # <pause dur="0.5"/> balconies covered with grass and so on <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that was a sort of nineteen-#-seventies office building in the nineteen-eighties they commissioned and moved into this building <pause dur="0.7"/> # which was the second Wiggins Teape building <pause dur="2.0"/> that's it there <pause dur="2.0"/> let me just go back to this <pause dur="1.1"/> and essentially <pause dur="2.0"/> it's like this <pause dur="0.7"/> it's that <pause dur="1.7"/> it's a slab on either side with a core and an atrium <pause dur="2.6"/> but the significant thing about this building <pause dur="1.4"/> is you go into it <pause dur="1.5"/> there's the atrium <pause dur="2.0"/> this is <pause dur="0.5"/> naturally lit <pause dur="0.9"/> this building is actually naturally ventilated <pause dur="0.5"/> there is no air conditioning in this development <pause dur="0.8"/> what you begin what you see now is you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> # internal facades which can be treated very differently a light # more tactile more # <pause dur="1.5"/> <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> more domestic # treatment if you like <pause dur="0.2"/> # because it's

internal space <pause dur="0.5"/> so we've got innovation coming in we've got buildings which are designed <pause dur="0.2"/> purpose designed with an occupier in mind <pause dur="0.6"/> but have this new flexibility of combining if you like the advantages of deep space with # <pause dur="0.5"/> natural lighting in this case natural ventilation <pause dur="0.4"/> this is a very innovative building <pause dur="1.2"/> and remember that Arup Associates were the architects who then moved on to design Broadgate <pause dur="0.3"/> so this was a pioneering building that influenced what was going to happen in Broadgate in London <pause dur="2.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and what you're beginning to see in this period then is new attitudes towards the laying out of floor space <pause dur="0.4"/> these drawings which i haven't given you <pause dur="0.4"/> all come from a a # a useful but as i say on the handout deadly boring book <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> by <pause dur="0.4"/> i'll find it in a minute <pause dur="0.2"/> Bailey <pause dur="0.5"/> Offices <pause dur="0.6"/> Briefing and Design Guide it's in the resource centres a useful technical companion but very dull reading <pause dur="0.5"/> useful for those of you doing that undergraduate site planning project <pause dur="0.6"/> if you want to refer

to it <pause dur="0.9"/> and you can begin to see new ideas about the laying out of office floor plates <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the way we might get a central core <pause dur="0.6"/> # and we've got floor plates here <pause dur="0.5"/> that are <pause dur="0.2"/> ranging from twenty-six to <trunc>twen</trunc> forty-two metres <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>f</trunc> a floor plate here <pause dur="0.2"/> again <pause dur="0.4"/> # twenty metres <pause dur="0.4"/> with the cores on the <trunc>ex</trunc> on the outside of the building <pause dur="0.3"/> remember Lloyds <pause dur="1.1"/> again a similar kind of treatment here <pause dur="0.5"/> so what we're finding is <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> different ideas about <pause dur="0.2"/> the kinds of floor plates # that would be possible different configurations <pause dur="1.1"/> now who was going to occupy buildings like this <pause dur="2.4"/> because this is where we begin to make the connection with big bang <pause dur="0.7"/> the idea the demand particularly in the City of London <pause dur="0.4"/> for very large floor plates dealing floor floor plates in which you are going to get lots and lots of people <pause dur="0.3"/> trading stocks trading shares from computers <pause dur="0.5"/> i've put it in the handout <pause dur="0.4"/> i think it's something like # <pause dur="0.5"/> the # <pause dur="1.0"/> terminology i've used <pause dur="0.7"/> trading floors the office's theatre or madhouse it's not my idea this

comes from another source <pause dur="0.5"/> but the idea <pause dur="0.3"/> that they were <pause dur="0.2"/> they were requirements <pause dur="0.3"/> from certain occupiers for some very deep floor plates they weren't the generality they were particularly in the City of London <pause dur="0.4"/> but it opened up new possibilities for <pause dur="0.4"/> laying out office buildings <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and then these are examples of floor plates <pause dur="0.6"/> that were constructed in Broadgate and other places in London <pause dur="0.8"/> the Broadgate office building again its cores sometimes on the outside <pause dur="0.6"/> the deep floor plates Billingsgate other examples <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> we had a situation in which <pause dur="0.4"/> # a combination of new ideas about floor plate layout <pause dur="0.3"/> # new technology <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>d</trunc> demands from the occupiers were giving rise to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> new and big buildings <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now i showed you that building last week <pause dur="0.6"/> sitting on top of Charing Cross station <pause dur="0.5"/> that was only possible <pause dur="0.4"/> by moving away from those traditional ideas of office layout <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> necessary because of the need to span over the running tracks of # Charing Cross station <pause dur="0.5"/> but # marketable because there

was a demand from office suppliers office users for this very deep floor plates <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and in London <pause dur="0.5"/> that is <pause dur="0.3"/> # this is part of London Wall <pause dur="0.4"/> which is many of you know London part of the Barbican development # a redevelopment in the immediate post-war periods nineteen-fifties nineteen-sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> this was one of those slab office buildings <pause dur="0.7"/> and it was redeveloped in the nineteen-eighties into the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that's the building <pause dur="0.4"/> # Alban Gate <pause dur="0.5"/> again very deep relatively speaking floor plates <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and this is the kind of layout we get <pause dur="0.2"/> so we've got a a a building which <pause dur="0.5"/> there we've got twenty-six metres side to side <pause dur="0.2"/> clearly that's going to be even greater than that that's going to be something like thirty to forty metres <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and what i've got here is a few slides which just show is that back to back no it's okay <pause dur="0.6"/> a few <trunc>sli</trunc> slides which just illustrate this is the this is from the marketing brochures <pause dur="0.5"/> # how the # marketing agents thought this building might possibly be laid out <pause dur="1.4"/> and again

it's a reflection of the opportunity because you're the City of London to have some very deep floor plates <pause dur="0.5"/> very # <pause dur="0.3"/> high <pause dur="0.2"/> densities of occupation <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> another <pause dur="1.5"/> image here <pause dur="0.2"/> and now that's a dealing floor <pause dur="0.9"/> layout there <pause dur="2.2"/> if you were to study this in some detail actually there were problems with this <pause dur="1.3"/> and one of the reasons was <pause dur="0.2"/> all the toilets <pause dur="0.8"/> were here <pause dur="2.3"/> and the reality was that as the market crashed <pause dur="0.4"/> this building proved hard to let <pause dur="0.4"/> why <pause dur="0.6"/> because you could almost only let it floor by floor <pause dur="0.6"/> it couldn't readily <pause dur="0.3"/> be subdivided <pause dur="0.3"/> unless you started introducing additional corridors which meant the net to gross dropped <pause dur="0.8"/> so there's a there's trade-off if you like with these very deep buildings perhaps with all buildings on how you <pause dur="0.2"/> the ratio between <pause dur="0.5"/> where the service cores are where the public toilet facilities are <pause dur="0.4"/> # the escape staircase and the total floor area it has an impact on the building's letability <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Lloyds # i've mentioned <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> a building in which all those cores were taken to the outside

of the building <pause dur="1.2"/> which then enabled sorry about that <pause dur="0.4"/> # stand on your heads <pause dur="0.5"/> this very dramatic central atrium to be created <pause dur="0.3"/> because all the services had been pushed to the edge so you get a lot of free space <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>

and Broadgate <pause dur="0.5"/> that is correct <pause dur="0.5"/> again many of these buildings are are are building around that possibility of deep floor <sic corr="space">splace</sic> <pause dur="3.7"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Isle of Dogs Canary Wharf <pause dur="0.5"/> another example of these sorts of buildings what you also see here is some of the innovation that was occurring in the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.2"/> into construction techniques terms <pause dur="0.3"/> fast track building <pause dur="0.6"/> # buildings with frame buildings in which you added <pause dur="0.2"/> the panels <pause dur="0.4"/> # the panels which could then be taken off and you could re<pause dur="0.2"/>front the <trunc>elevat</trunc> you could re-elevate the building perhaps in twenty years time <pause dur="0.5"/> you've got that in # in # Canary Wharf you've got it in Broadgate <pause dur="0.5"/> and so on a lot of innovation coming in in the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> # new construction techniques new procurement techniques which # you'll be hearing about later on in this series of lectures <pause dur="0.5"/> # ways of getting the building <pause dur="0.3"/> why were they trying to procure buildings in a different way because if <pause dur="0.2"/> if you could construct a building faster <pause dur="0.2"/> you could let it faster <pause dur="0.5"/> and that meant therefore <trunc>y</trunc> your costs of borrowing were shortened reduced

because <pause dur="0.2"/> rental income was coming in that much sooner <pause dur="0.4"/> so even if some of these construction methods were more expensive <pause dur="0.5"/> there was considerable # value to be had by <pause dur="0.5"/> building more quickly <pause dur="2.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> let me # let me move into <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <pause dur="0.6"/> # nineteen-nineties <pause dur="2.9"/> nineteen-eighties then was an expansive period <pause dur="0.5"/> in which # <pause dur="1.1"/> lot of development was taking place <pause dur="0.5"/> # in which there was quite a lot of innovation particularly in offices in the City of London <pause dur="0.8"/> # and London more generally <pause dur="0.7"/> some of that innovation was diffusing if you like to other parts of the country but not <pause dur="0.3"/> on on a on a particularly great scale <pause dur="1.9"/> by the time you get into the nineteen-nineties of course we have the recession <pause dur="0.7"/> # and a lot of worry a lot of <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>th</trunc> a lot of oversupply of offices <pause dur="0.6"/> a lot of offices founding finding that they didn't have a market that perhaps they weren't suited to tenant requirements <pause dur="0.4"/> they were certainly overspecified <pause dur="0.4"/> that they had been constructed to a standard in terms of lifts of # floor loadings and so on <pause dur="0.5"/>

standards which had been set by <pause dur="0.2"/> the institutions the financial institutions because they were the ones that were funding the development <pause dur="0.6"/> but which <pause dur="0.3"/> # the occupiers no longer felt they needed <pause dur="1.0"/> # a quote that actually has come back to me <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>d</trunc> during the course of marking some essays or some exam questions <pause dur="0.5"/> quote that i gather Ginny Gibson was giving which was on on the effect that <pause dur="0.4"/> # sort of the opulence of the nineteen-eighties office building didn't sit well with companies that were in the <trunc>bus</trunc> business of making staff redundant <pause dur="0.6"/> so you actually had a situation in which the occupiers who were leading now <pause dur="0.2"/> it was a sellers market customer is king <pause dur="0.6"/> were saying we don't want the high standards and specifications and glitziness of these # nineteen-eighties office buildings we don't think it suits <pause dur="0.3"/> the corporate image we ought to be projecting <pause dur="0.7"/> in in the tight business environment of the early nineties <pause dur="1.4"/> we also have a continuation of this sort of research if you like into the

kinds of organizations <pause dur="0.8"/> and i've included although you're going to find it hard to read <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this diagram and # another one and i'll give you that # next week it's actually included i'm afraid in the wrong place in in conclusions <pause dur="0.8"/> but this is <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>continuati</trunc> continuing that process of looking at organizations <pause dur="0.5"/> and saying <pause dur="0.5"/> what kind of people are out there what kinds of requirements # do they have # for space <pause dur="1.8"/> # again this is done by # Duffy and # # John Worthington <pause dur="0.8"/> and they're looking this time at organizations in terms of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the amount of autonomy that people have <pause dur="0.7"/> as against the need for interaction communication <pause dur="1.7"/> individual processes the hive i'll give you some illustrations of that in a minute <pause dur="0.5"/> group processes what they call the den <pause dur="0.7"/> # concentrated study the cell <pause dur="0.5"/> transactional knowledge <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> # club <pause dur="3.6"/> the hive <pause dur="1.2"/> think about <pause dur="0.2"/> what kind of organization might be hive-like <pause dur="0.8"/> in contemporary terms <pause dur="1.6"/> perhaps that tele-call centre <pause dur="1.4"/> where you've got a lot of routine work lots and

lots of people doing much the same thing <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but not much autonomy <pause dur="2.1"/> certain kind of office might suit their requirements <pause dur="2.3"/> # the den <pause dur="1.9"/> is is where you've got group work <trunc>typi</trunc> typically highly interactive <pause dur="0.3"/> but not necessarily requiring a high degree of autonomy <pause dur="0.4"/> <unclear>fact</unclear> i think they give some <trunc>ex</trunc> settings here yes <pause dur="0.4"/> # insurance processing some media work radio television and advertising <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this i think is a slide of # # television headquarters up in Grays Inn Road and so on it's a newspaper headquarters in Grays Inn Road in in London i think that might be that building <pause dur="0.7"/> a different kind of # floor plate and layout <pause dur="0.4"/> proposed there <pause dur="1.8"/> # the club i think just going to move forward for a second <pause dur="0.8"/> # the cell the kind of individual <pause dur="0.4"/> where you've got to do a lot of concentrated thinking <pause dur="0.5"/> it might be the academic it might be the lawyer working over <pause dur="0.3"/> a complicated case <pause dur="0.4"/> it might be the accountant working through <pause dur="0.3"/> some accounts <pause dur="0.3"/> # on on their own thinking through very carefully what the issues are <pause dur="1.3"/> and then

finally going back <pause dur="0.6"/> # the club <pause dur="0.5"/> the idea where <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> people <pause dur="0.2"/> have a high degree of # innovation <pause dur="0.4"/> # but but they also need perhaps to work in groups it might be the management consultants brainstorming a problem <pause dur="0.5"/> # it might be some advertising groups trying to find out <pause dur="0.3"/> a new # solution if you like for a brief they've received from their client <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now what these <pause dur="0.6"/> ideas are beginning to say is look we've got different kinds of organizations <pause dur="0.4"/> and those different organizations have different sorts of requirements <pause dur="1.3"/> autonomy then in one direction <pause dur="0.4"/> the need for interaction in another <pause dur="0.4"/> # and here we've got examples of companies being <pause dur="0.4"/> # plotted if you like on this # matrix <pause dur="0.6"/> # I-B-M <pause dur="0.2"/> in the sort of club domain digital <pause dur="0.2"/> B-A <pause dur="0.5"/> # in the sort of club <pause dur="0.2"/> domain i'm going to come back to B-A in a minute <pause dur="0.6"/> # cells well we might put our academics we've got Channel Four not quite Channel Four somewhere in the middle <pause dur="0.6"/> and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> the thing is to think about the structure the nature of the organization and to

think how that might impact <pause dur="0.4"/> on the kind of # office space they would require <pause dur="3.3"/> that then raises another interesting # concept to have in the back of your mind <pause dur="4.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> when you think about office buildings <pause dur="1.0"/> i'm afraid you can't read that terribly clearly on your <pause dur="0.7"/> # handout <pause dur="2.4"/> D-E-G-W have come up with this idea of what they call the seven Ss in office design <pause dur="0.7"/> reflecting if you like <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> the duration if you like in which different elements of a building <pause dur="0.4"/> last adapt and change <pause dur="0.7"/> and it's based on a very interesting # book by a man called Stewart Brand who <pause dur="0.6"/> and # called How Buildings Learn <pause dur="0.8"/> but essentially <pause dur="0.2"/> in essence it's saying look the site <pause dur="0.3"/> is something that <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.9"/> endures forever <pause dur="1.0"/> the structure of the building <pause dur="0.6"/> is something which <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps in an ideal world will last sixty or seventy years <pause dur="0.2"/> seven seventy <pause dur="1.8"/> then you've got the skin of a building <pause dur="1.8"/> that's not going to # last # forever <pause dur="0.5"/> you might # <pause dur="0.5"/> it in in D-E-G-W's terms you might renew the skin you might reclad the office building in Broadgate <pause dur="0.5"/> in

Canary Wharf <pause dur="0.3"/> some of those other nineteen-sixties buildings we were looking at to give it a new image you reclad it <pause dur="0.4"/> perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> # after twenty-five years <pause dur="1.1"/> so the skin after # twenty-five years <pause dur="0.3"/> then you've got the services <pause dur="1.4"/> the air conditioning the ventilation the heating and so on how long are they going to last <pause dur="0.5"/> according to D-E-G-W perhaps you'll renew those every fifteen years they become obsolete you need to refurbish them <pause dur="1.0"/> # then you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> what in in # <pause dur="1.0"/> then you've got the basic plan of the building how you're going to lay out <pause dur="0.2"/> the building use it <pause dur="0.3"/> organize it <pause dur="0.5"/> # in D-E-G-W's terms <pause dur="0.4"/> they've called that # the scenery if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> # every # seven years <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> # Brand <trunc>disc</trunc> then within that then <pause dur="0.2"/> what he calls stuff <pause dur="0.2"/> the sort of the the the ephemera if you like of an office <pause dur="1.1"/> doesn't really matter which categorization you use as i say in my handout i first had difficulties with <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea that <pause dur="0.3"/> # settings if you like might change on a day to day basis <pause dur="0.6"/> that's what D-E-G-W was suggesting <pause dur="0.7"/> but when you start thinking about hotelling and hot-desking <pause dur="0.7"/> when you don't have a

permanent location <pause dur="0.5"/> where you book up to have space <pause dur="0.2"/> and we'll come to that in a minute with B-A <pause dur="0.5"/> then that notion that in fact <pause dur="0.4"/> your your detail setting is going to change all the time becomes becomes a possibility <pause dur="0.6"/> so that's beginning to realize that you you you've got your investment <pause dur="0.4"/> is the structure <pause dur="0.7"/> maybe your investment and the site and your investment is the services <pause dur="0.6"/> but they have different time scales of durability and you've got to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> how adaptable how <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>po</trunc> how possible is it to change the building # through time <pause dur="10.8"/> right <pause dur="1.2"/> so that's the context if you like that # that we're in <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> but we also have <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> innovations as we had in the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> coming in to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> respond if you like to these # new pressures <pause dur="0.9"/> these new opportunities these new requirements <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> there are a couple of schemes i want you to # reflect on which are <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>c</trunc> they come out in some of the references that i've asterisked <pause dur="0.8"/> # this first one is what was # <pause dur="0.4"/> the # <pause dur="0.3"/> N-B-M headquarters now the I-G-N headquarters a bank in Amsterdam <pause dur="0.6"/>

this was # <pause dur="0.3"/> a bank a NatWest if you like <pause dur="0.6"/> that had need of a headquarters of something like <pause dur="0.3"/> # fifty-three fifty-four-thousand square metres <pause dur="0.5"/> keep that figure fifty-four-thousand square metres in your mind <pause dur="0.6"/> # roughly speaking it's two-and-a-half times Apex Plaza <pause dur="0.8"/> okay so it's it's Apex Plaza on top of <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> station <pause dur="0.3"/> two-and-a-half times <pause dur="1.0"/> they were a bank <pause dur="0.3"/> and they wanted a new headquarters building <pause dur="1.2"/> the kinds of activities were going to be mixed # but # you know it would be some of what we might call <pause dur="0.3"/> # the # <pause dur="0.9"/> the hive sort of activities some of it might be more the den type of activities <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but it's being built in the context in which this is north Europe with all the labour rights the workers' rights the attitudes to employment <pause dur="0.4"/> that goes with # Scandinavia and and those north European countries <pause dur="0.9"/> and so the way that # the architect here <pause dur="0.4"/> whose name was might get myself a <unclear>mind here</unclear> Ton Alberts <pause dur="0.3"/> # approached it <pause dur="0.6"/> was essentially to conceive

of <pause dur="0.5"/> a street <pause dur="1.5"/> running through this extraordinarily <pause dur="0.7"/> configurated tortuous building <pause dur="1.1"/> # and on each <pause dur="0.6"/> node if you like there was a vertical <pause dur="0.2"/> service core <pause dur="1.4"/> and then you have a little <pause dur="0.7"/> # tower of offices <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's not a single building it's a collection of <trunc>o</trunc> office buildings <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="11"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> linked together <pause dur="0.3"/> # to create <pause dur="0.3"/> as a scheme as we as we see it on the ground now i just to try and find <pause dur="6.9"/> there we are <pause dur="0.8"/> it's that <pause dur="1.5"/> our depth has suddenly shot down to ten metres <pause dur="0.5"/> from the windows <pause dur="0.7"/> implications of that is lot of user control <pause dur="0.6"/> a lot of privacy a lot of of personal space <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>o</trunc> occupier control over heating and ventilation and so on <pause dur="0.6"/> but there are also implications on <pause dur="0.4"/> the efficiency the net to gross <pause dur="0.6"/> it's dropped down according to this to seventy per cent i've seen other figures which suggest that <pause dur="0.4"/> # the figure is lower than that it's perhaps sixty per cent <pause dur="0.8"/> on the other hand the <trunc>capa</trunc> the capacity to make it into individual units this ability to cellularize it horrible word <pause dur="0.5"/> # is something like

eighty per cent <pause dur="0.4"/> as against with bürolandschaft twenty per cent <pause dur="1.0"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> think about that diagram you've got and reflect on <pause dur="0.4"/> its implications <pause dur="0.3"/><event desc="takes off transparency" iterated="n"/> # for the layout <pause dur="10.0"/> so that's the floor plan of the building <pause dur="1.7"/> two-and-a-half times that volume of # Apex Plaza <pause dur="0.6"/> laid out as a kind of street <pause dur="0.4"/> and those are the individual <pause dur="0.2"/> work units work place layouts <pause dur="0.5"/> different degrees of cellularization but a a very high capacity to break it down into <pause dur="0.5"/> individual <pause dur="0.2"/> elements <pause dur="1.7"/> so that's one <trunc>e</trunc> example of a of an office building # you're building on those sorts of principles <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> another example influenced by Scandinavian attitudes to floor plates is the Ark <pause dur="1.4"/> you'll know it's now occupied <pause dur="0.3"/> this was a building that was supposed had a had a <trunc>n</trunc> a nominated tenant and i can't remember who it was it might have been <pause dur="1.4"/> Pepsi <pause dur="0.4"/> North American company </u><u who="sm1145" trans="overlap"><gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nm1141" trans="overlap"> sorry </u><u who="sm1145" trans="overlap"> Coca-cola </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause"> Coca-cola it was <trunc>r</trunc> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> and they withdrew after the building had been built it's now let to Seagram <pause dur="0.4"/> which is a games

North American games <pause dur="0.6"/> people <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that's the floor plate <pause dur="1.9"/> with the bit you never see <pause dur="0.4"/> this is based on what's <trunc>call</trunc> it's combined cellular and <pause dur="0.2"/> what's called open-plan they call the combi layout it's a Scandinavian system <pause dur="0.5"/> and you can see that you've got a floor plate that is roughly speaking as i as i remember it about twenty metres side to side <pause dur="0.6"/> but a lot of common space an atrium here <pause dur="0.7"/> # with an extraordinary <pause dur="0.3"/> internal <pause dur="1.9"/> openness about it <pause dur="1.4"/> so these are some of the if you like the innovative design ideas <pause dur="0.3"/> impact on this the building though proved very hard to let <pause dur="0.4"/> once the nominated tenant # pulled out it was it was vacant for something like <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> five six years <pause dur="0.2"/> and i believe had to have quite a lot of alterations <pause dur="0.6"/> done to it does anybody know <pause dur="0.3"/> i've i haven't this is as it was before it was let </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm1146" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="nm1141" trans="pause"> <vocal desc="laughter" n="sf1147" iterated="y" dur="1"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> well <pause dur="0.3"/> never mind <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> also very influential <pause dur="0.2"/> # is this building <pause dur="0.2"/> the headquarters of S-A-S <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> designed # by Niels Torp <pause dur="0.8"/> # and <pause dur="0.6"/> again think about <pause dur="0.4"/> this question

of how people are working the different organizational layouts the structures of organizations <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this is essentially laid out as a street <pause dur="1.3"/> again i believe this building has i don't know if i have the figures here <pause dur="0.6"/> about fifty-thousand square metres <pause dur="1.1"/> and there's a street running through it <pause dur="0.8"/> and then the offices are laid out on either side if we begin to home in on that <pause dur="0.5"/> thirteen # <pause dur="0.5"/> i can safely do this can't i <pause dur="1.5"/> see if i can focus it for you a bit better <pause dur="1.4"/> thirteen is an auditorium <pause dur="0.6"/> fourteen is a library <pause dur="1.0"/> fifteen if we can find it is a servery <pause dur="0.2"/> servery <pause dur="1.5"/> # what's sixteen <pause dur="0.8"/> sixteen is staff dining <pause dur="0.4"/> seventeen that's there <pause dur="1.1"/> # seventeen is guest dining <pause dur="1.2"/> eighteen <pause dur="0.7"/> # directors' dining so we've still got a bit of hierarchy creeping into here <pause dur="0.6"/> number ten here we've got a club room <pause dur="0.4"/> we've got a pool <pause dur="0.5"/> we've got a gymnasium <pause dur="0.3"/> we've got a sports hall <pause dur="0.5"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> we've got health and fitness you # fancy working in this building <pause dur="0.7"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> all of this is laid out on the ground floor of this

building and then above it <pause dur="0.4"/> you have the offices <pause dur="2.4"/> so that's the image you get of this building is constructed there's the <pause dur="0.5"/> # the the public space or if you like the <pause dur="0.5"/> the # the the the the private # semi-public domain of of all members of staff and then the offices on either side <pause dur="1.0"/> now think about that in the context of changing patterns of work this is a building which in theory you know if you've got staff coming and going if you want to keep workers happy <pause dur="0.3"/> employees happy <pause dur="0.5"/> this is offers huge possibilities doesn't it <trunc>i</trunc> for <pause dur="0.5"/> # you know <pause dur="0.6"/> exchange of ideas for relaxing and so on <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and the significance of this is sorry we just go back to that <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this is the architect <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.5"/> or # <pause dur="0.3"/> Niels Torp is the architect who B-A commissioned to design their headquarters <pause dur="0.3"/> at Heathrow <pause dur="0.8"/> which although i haven't been in it <pause dur="0.5"/> i'm told is like this this is the configuration they've adopted <pause dur="1.5"/> and then just think again about something about Heathrow building <pause dur="0.4"/> fifty-three-thousand square <pause dur="0.2"/> metres <pause dur="1.4"/> which was to #

accommodate <pause dur="1.1"/> two-thousand members of staff <pause dur="1.4"/> some of you are doing a site planning project might like to reflect on this that essentially means <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what nineteen square nineteen twenty square metres <pause dur="0.2"/> per member of staff <pause dur="1.1"/> within two years <pause dur="0.9"/> B-A now intend that building being occupied by five-thousand people <pause dur="1.3"/> which implies <pause dur="0.5"/> ten square metres eleven square metres <pause dur="0.2"/> per person <pause dur="0.9"/> a huge increase in efficiency within this building <trunc>w</trunc> how are they doing it they're doing it because of course not everybody is permanently there <pause dur="0.7"/> we have hot-desking <pause dur="0.4"/> we have sharing <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> hotelling if you like booking in space <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's the trend we're seeing and buildings like this <pause dur="0.3"/> begin to offer the opportunities for that sort of approach to working <pause dur="0.3"/> to work very effectively because you've got shared space meeting space so on and so forth <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> what's also # impacting on us # into # the nineteen-nineties is the whole issue about the concern for <pause dur="0.4"/> # green buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> # you know <pause dur="0.4"/> energy

conservation <pause dur="0.6"/> you haven't got this but <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> this is a building designed # again i believe by <pause dur="0.4"/> one of the ex-partners of Arup Associates <pause dur="0.5"/> it's on Stockley Park <pause dur="1.1"/> what you see here is <pause dur="0.6"/> the building is in the middle <pause dur="0.2"/> there is no atrium <pause dur="0.5"/> but the the whole building is encased in glass <pause dur="0.8"/> and the atria are kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> internal external atria <pause dur="0.4"/> they're there and there <pause dur="0.7"/> so the building is cooling <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's using this external space to act as a sort of a a buffer between solar gain <pause dur="0.3"/> natural ventilation and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot of emphasis beginning to show in the nineteen-#-nineties <pause dur="0.4"/> for green # energy conscious buildings but i'm going to be a little bit <pause dur="0.3"/> circumspect about that # in a minute <pause dur="2.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> i'm not going to say # <pause dur="0.2"/> anything i think about offices in the city but i think you can reflect <pause dur="0.2"/> the kinds of things i've been saying are going to <trunc>c</trunc> clearly going to have an impact on the kind of environment that # <pause dur="0.5"/> we create within <pause dur="0.4"/> our urban areas <pause dur="3.3"/> let's then move towards # some # conclusions <pause dur="4.2"/> i've included this <pause dur="0.9"/>

office quality circle <pause dur="1.4"/> in your handout <pause dur="1.8"/> i want you to reflect <pause dur="0.3"/> on it <pause dur="1.6"/> and reflect on it in the context of <pause dur="0.5"/> time as well <pause dur="9.8"/> what this is saying is that office quality <pause dur="0.3"/> this was came from a journal article in the nineteen-eighties but it's come and to be more and more true <pause dur="0.6"/> isn't just a product of a dialogue if you like between the developer and the architect <pause dur="1.4"/> but there are different players <pause dur="0.8"/> in this process the developer the designer <pause dur="0.3"/> the individual user <pause dur="1.0"/> increasingly becoming concerned that individuals <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> if <pause dur="0.2"/> if <pause dur="0.5"/> if an enterprise its value is derived from its members of staff if the staff are its asset <pause dur="0.4"/> then organizations are going to be very concerned to satisfy <pause dur="0.5"/> meet the expectations of those highly qualified staff <pause dur="0.6"/> so you've got individual users <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got the user organization maybe the facilities manager the the person or the groups responsible for <pause dur="0.3"/> how well the organization as a whole is using and utilizing and operating from a building <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got the property owner you've got

the investor you've got the owner <pause dur="0.6"/> all of those <pause dur="0.4"/> are different players if you like <pause dur="0.6"/> in the business of producing # office buildings owning managing occupying office buildings <pause dur="0.9"/> and also we've got <pause dur="0.3"/> a whole range of considerations to take into account the running costs <pause dur="1.1"/> # the nature of the lease <pause dur="0.8"/> the move if you like from the twenty-five institutional year lease institutional fully repairing and insuring <pause dur="0.6"/> let it off forget about it sort of attitude of the institutions to realizing that you maybe got to actively manage your building <pause dur="0.8"/> capital costs building appearance user comfort user control health and safety productivity we've been talking about different organizations and working <pause dur="0.5"/> office shape <pause dur="0.7"/> this diagram kinds of encapsulates if you like the <pause dur="0.3"/> the complexity of # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what you got to design for <pause dur="0.5"/> # in # <pause dur="0.3"/> in in developing offices <pause dur="8.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> we've got <pause dur="1.4"/> something which you need to hold in your mind changing market conditions <pause dur="0.3"/> your <trunc>pic</trunc> market conditions of the nineteen-sixties were different

to the seventies were different to the eighties were different to the nineties <pause dur="0.8"/> that's a dynamic if you like to this whole issue which we need to remember <pause dur="3.2"/> # <pause dur="2.0"/> what have we got beyond two-thousand here we are <pause dur="0.4"/> two-thousand what what's holds in store for us <pause dur="0.8"/> the likelihood is continue uncertainty continuing unpredictability <pause dur="0.6"/> if you remember that first diagram i showed you <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> i handed out <pause dur="1.6"/> just reflect on that <pause dur="0.4"/> the bottom line <pause dur="0.6"/> in each case <pause dur="2.2"/> mixed use buildings <pause dur="0.2"/> we'll talk about that later on <pause dur="0.5"/> downsizing organizations hotelling flexitime what does all this bring <pause dur="0.9"/> e-commerce <pause dur="0.5"/> you know what's the impact of that going to be on office demand <pause dur="0.9"/> systems <pause dur="0.3"/> what sort of systems do we have I-T convergence not quite sure i know what that with emphasis on natural more <trunc>entil</trunc> more emphasis on natural ventilation natural lighting <pause dur="0.8"/> # finance how are buildings financed some of you know a hell of a lot more about that or will do than i do <pause dur="0.8"/> culture office culture the idea of flexitime

flexiplace <pause dur="0.2"/> group working <pause dur="0.9"/> employer welfare i mention this the fact that these north European <pause dur="0.2"/> standards legislation might well come in and impact on us <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="15"/> networking how do people work and relate to each other <pause dur="7.1"/>

don't know whether i've got it here <pause dur="7.4"/> this <pause dur="0.2"/> overhead which copy of which you've got highlights some of the things we've been talking about <pause dur="1.8"/> an emphasis four types of European buildings maybe <pause dur="0.8"/> on one the emphasis on <pause dur="0.2"/> users <pause dur="0.5"/> maybe you see that with the Centraal Beheer maybe you see it with Niels Torp's building maybe you see it with <pause dur="0.4"/> Ton Alberts' building <pause dur="0.3"/> in # in in the Netherlands <pause dur="1.6"/> conversely we've got the emphasis on the exchange value <pause dur="0.5"/> designing office buildings because they're speculative <pause dur="0.5"/> it's how much can we get for them that's the driving force <pause dur="1.2"/> we've got some <pause dur="0.2"/> that reflects if you like the developers' outlook <pause dur="0.2"/> rather than the occupiers' outlook <pause dur="0.7"/> we've got some examples of buildings which are designed <pause dur="0.5"/> as as image statements <pause dur="0.8"/> i <trunc>tri</trunc> wanted to show you a

slide of # the B-M-W headquarters <pause dur="0.3"/> building in Munich <pause dur="0.2"/> but it's done at night-time and is a bit dark <pause dur="0.4"/> but it <pause dur="0.3"/> i talked about last week Natwest and it's logo <pause dur="0.5"/> B-M-W's logo <pause dur="0.2"/> is the floor plate of their building in Munich <pause dur="1.2"/> and maybe there's a synthesis coming maybe you see in buildings like # <pause dur="0.7"/> B-A <trunc>hes</trunc> headquarter building <pause dur="0.2"/> the synthesis if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> # of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # user value exchange value <pause dur="0.2"/> some notion of business value what kinds of <trunc>buils</trunc> buildings are really going to suit the <trunc>buil</trunc> the business itself to perform <pause dur="0.4"/> # to maximize its # potential <pause dur="1.9"/> so that's if you like some of the # some of the trends <pause dur="0.7"/> # i think i just want to show you <pause dur="0.2"/> # one more <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> # and coming in to all of this <pause dur="0.5"/> of course <pause dur="0.6"/> is new ways of <pause dur="0.2"/> providing and accommodating <pause dur="0.3"/> # themselves <pause dur="1.2"/> you know organizations saying <pause dur="0.2"/> well we don't actually want <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> to own a building <pause dur="0.4"/> we don't want to rent a building on a long lease <pause dur="0.3"/> we're attracted by the idea <pause dur="0.4"/> of perhaps getting somebody else <pause dur="0.2"/> to provide all we need the Regus kind of # operation <pause dur="0.6"/>

so all of these are changes that are <pause dur="0.5"/> underway when it comes to # offices <pause dur="0.4"/> which you need to be aware of <pause dur="0.4"/> just to <pause dur="0.4"/> close then with a a few more # three more i think slides <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # just to bring you right up to date here we have # Brindley Place development <pause dur="0.5"/> it illustrates a scheme which is mixed use <pause dur="0.5"/> # which # comprises offices and leisure uses and so on <pause dur="2.3"/> # sorry if i just go back a second <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> think got these out of order <pause dur="0.5"/> this building <pause dur="0.5"/> here <pause dur="1.3"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> the headquarters <pause dur="0.2"/> locally of B-T <pause dur="0.5"/> where they experimented with their B-T two-thousand office which some of you might have heard about which <pause dur="0.3"/> builds on these ideas of hotelling and hot-desking <pause dur="1.7"/> that's the interior <pause dur="0.4"/> atrium of that building <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> this building <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> is the that's the B-T this building is the one which has just won <pause dur="0.4"/> the # office British Council of Office's award for the best office building in the year two-thousand <pause dur="1.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and in the middle we have this cafe which kind of encapsulates this whole idea maybe that it's no longer <pause dur="0.4"/> just the <pause dur="0.5"/> workers going to the office

staying in their desks all day <pause dur="0.4"/> we've got <pause dur="0.2"/> a much more <pause dur="0.3"/> # diverse and richer kind of # working culture and environment <pause dur="0.8"/> # one of which there's the cafe <pause dur="1.5"/> # one of which is saying well really we can sort of # live out on the streets we can telework we can hook our computer we've got our <pause dur="0.5"/> our mobile phone which we can receive e-mails on <pause dur="0.2"/> you know we don't need the office in the same way # as we did # in the past <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> which brings us back to where we began <pause dur="0.5"/> our Dallas with all its offices <pause dur="1.3"/> and our guy working from a desk <pause dur="0.9"/> in some cafe <pause dur="0.4"/> it might be Greasy Joe's it's more likely to be some a pleasant wine bar <pause dur="0.6"/> # doing all he needs in some kind of relaxed informal way meeting his colleagues <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not to say that

we don't still need office space <pause dur="0.5"/> but the scale of the demand for office space the kind of offices we like <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps going to be very different <pause dur="0.7"/> and that has implications <pause dur="0.2"/> for that stock <pause dur="0.5"/> of office accommodation <pause dur="0.6"/> how usable is it how adaptable is it <pause dur="0.3"/> how far is it going to meet the needs of <pause dur="0.2"/> the next ten twenty <pause dur="0.3"/> thirty years because those buildings <pause dur="0.6"/> on those <pause dur="0.2"/> criteria of seven Ss <pause dur="0.2"/> those structures <pause dur="1.0"/> could be there <pause dur="0.2"/> in seventy years time <pause dur="1.2"/> what are we going to do with them <pause dur="0.2"/> that's another story <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> thank you for your patience <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> think you've got a lecture <pause dur="0.7"/> what's your next lecture it's not me next week

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