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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Sustainable development at the local level</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="01:18:02" n="10590">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nm1148" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm1148, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<person id="sf1149" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf1149, participant, student, female</p></person>

<person id="sm1150" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm1150, participant, student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="s"><p>ss, audience, small group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="s"><p>sl, all, small group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="5"><p>number of speakers: 5</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Land Management</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ss</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG3/PG</item>

<item n="module">Environment and sustainability</item>





<u who="nm1148"> # <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.2"/> can we start # <pause dur="1.4"/> first of all # there's <pause dur="0.3"/> the number of people here today <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> is not as as high as it probably should be because i think # on the programme <trunc>i</trunc> it was actually recorded as no lecture today <pause dur="0.6"/> but i've asked i asked # the faculty office to inform students that there was actually a lecture today but obviously <pause dur="0.7"/> # that <trunc>ha</trunc> message hasn't got through luckily some people just came along anyway <pause dur="0.4"/> so that's good news for me <pause dur="0.6"/> # i also <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> might like to apologize 'cause of my voice i've just i'm just recovering from a cold <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's gone down to my chest and affected my voice so i'm a bit squeaky <pause dur="0.3"/> ironic because i'm being taped today <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> by the university <pause dur="0.2"/> so they can advertise these lectures <pause dur="0.4"/> well no illustrate the lecturing <pause dur="0.6"/> # lectures to foreign students before they come here so as get an idea of the kind of <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> language and # <pause dur="0.3"/> lectures they'll be getting <pause dur="1.5"/> # i'm taking over from <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> and <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> who's who have covered the lectures up until now <pause dur="0.7"/> in environment and

sustainability <pause dur="0.5"/> they've been looking at the strategic <pause dur="0.2"/> level <pause dur="0.6"/> looking at strategic aspects <pause dur="0.4"/> around <pause dur="0.6"/> land <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> housing development transport <pause dur="1.0"/> now we we call it strategic but in fact there's as you probably gather by some of the stuff that <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> and <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> have been talking about <pause dur="0.4"/> there's quite a lot of local things <pause dur="0.3"/> in their lectures as well about local green transport plans and the like <pause dur="1.3"/> and i think that's a a sort of thing that i would <pause dur="0.3"/> emphasize vis-à-vis the exam when it comes <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> is that there is quite a bit of overlap between strategic aspects and the local aspects although there is a a formal division in the lecture programme <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a fair amount of crossover <pause dur="0.3"/> and in that sense <pause dur="0.4"/> when it comes to exams <trunc>d</trunc> doing questions you can use material <pause dur="0.6"/> from one <pause dur="0.3"/> block <pause dur="0.6"/> alongside <pause dur="0.2"/> the other block so there's no necessary divide <pause dur="0.3"/> which again <pause dur="0.3"/> reflects sustainable development sustainable development <pause dur="0.5"/> which is <pause dur="0.3"/> attempts to be holistic <pause dur="0.5"/> to integrate and deal with all these things together as much as

possible <pause dur="0.2"/> it fits <pause dur="0.4"/> the kind of concepts of sustainability <pause dur="1.4"/> however <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> the next few weeks will be taken up with <pause dur="0.2"/> what we call local aspects local dimensions of sustainable development <pause dur="0.2"/> looking at U-K <pause dur="0.2"/> experience <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i will be covering <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> material <pause dur="1.4"/> related to <pause dur="0.6"/> local authority <pause dur="0.4"/> what local authorities are doing in relationship to <pause dur="0.6"/> sustainable development <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> i will be <pause dur="0.2"/> looking at <pause dur="0.5"/> the local economy looking at local economic development <pause dur="0.2"/> and sustainable development what is a green economy <pause dur="0.3"/> if you like <pause dur="1.1"/> # <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> will be covering aspects of urban design looking at <trunc>sustain</trunc> sustainable urban design <pause dur="0.7"/> and finally the last <trunc>sess</trunc> session we'll do at the end of term <pause dur="0.6"/> will be me talking about the concept <pause dur="0.2"/> of the ecological city <pause dur="0.9"/> an ecological city is really <pause dur="0.3"/> an attempt to put together <pause dur="0.6"/> all the different aspects that you've been covering in this course <pause dur="0.7"/> as they apply to <pause dur="0.3"/> cities in general <pause dur="0.5"/> so in that sense it kind of goes back strategic again <pause dur="0.6"/> it starts strategic goes local and then comes

back out <pause dur="1.6"/> so today's session <pause dur="0.5"/> # and what i'll do is i'll probably speak for about forty minutes <pause dur="0.2"/> take a break <pause dur="0.3"/> and then finish off <pause dur="0.3"/> after a coffee <pause dur="0.8"/> is i'm going to talk about <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>l</trunc> the local <pause dur="0.5"/> # environment <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> role of local government <pause dur="1.2"/> and also look at the interaction <pause dur="0.5"/> with the community <pause dur="0.5"/> particularly through <pause dur="0.7"/> the idea and processes of Local Agenda <pause dur="0.2"/> Twenty-one <pause dur="0.6"/> which is the <pause dur="0.6"/> mechanism <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> i guess <pause dur="0.6"/> where local authorities are trying to engage <pause dur="0.3"/> with local communities <pause dur="3.0"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.7"/> i've given out a handout which kind of <pause dur="0.9"/> gives the main <pause dur="0.3"/> points or the main headings that i will <trunc>re</trunc> be referring to you can annotate my <pause dur="0.3"/> note <pause dur="1.5"/> or write your own notes to add to them <pause dur="0.9"/> there's a fair amount of <pause dur="0.3"/> literature in the reading list that you can use <pause dur="0.4"/> and i've asterisked the stuff that i think is most relevant <pause dur="1.4"/> there is i think <trunc>t</trunc> <trunc>ab</trunc> again # but i'll mention this now and i'll mention again <trunc>le</trunc> next week there's one <pause dur="0.7"/> # journal which i find <pause dur="0.8"/> very relevant to the stuff that i cover <pause dur="0.8"/> it's called # <pause dur="1.3"/> and i think it's on the reading

list actually on one of the the it's called <trunc>env</trunc> # Local Environment News <pause dur="1.3"/> which is in the # <pause dur="0.2"/> Land Management Resource Centre there's copies of Local Environment News <pause dur="0.5"/> in the Resource Centre <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> i've mentioned a few articles in the reading list from it but again it's worth having a flick through that journal <pause dur="0.5"/> because it's it's published every month <pause dur="0.6"/> it <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> reports <pause dur="1.1"/> on various initiatives that are going on <pause dur="0.5"/> today <pause dur="1.8"/> going on at this moment in local authorities in local communities in local economies <pause dur="0.7"/> so you <trunc>c</trunc> if you skim through that journal you can pick up <pause dur="0.3"/> other <trunc>th</trunc> other things apart from i'm being talking about <pause dur="0.4"/> so again as a revision aid <pause dur="0.4"/> it's probably worth having a look at that journal <pause dur="0.5"/> # nearer the time when you get to the exam <pause dur="4.0"/> we're all aware <pause dur="0.5"/> as you've already <pause dur="0.9"/> mentioned or <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> has already mentioned with the <pause dur="0.6"/> the rise of the environmental agenda <pause dur="1.2"/> various environmental problems <pause dur="1.3"/> have arisen and been acknowledged <pause dur="1.0"/> in the media by academics <pause dur="0.3"/> by environmental pressure

groups and now increasingly <pause dur="0.5"/> by the world's governments <pause dur="2.3"/> those issues <pause dur="1.1"/> like <pause dur="0.5"/> the pollution arising from economic processes <pause dur="0.5"/> the depletion of the ozone layer <pause dur="1.2"/> overexploitation <pause dur="0.2"/> of natural resources <pause dur="1.3"/> the loss and damage to habitats and wildlife <pause dur="1.8"/> population growth <pause dur="0.6"/> poverty and famine <pause dur="0.3"/> in certain parts of the world <pause dur="0.5"/> all those issues have sort of come together <pause dur="0.6"/> and being acknowledged <pause dur="0.7"/> they've led <pause dur="1.5"/> over the last thirty years or so to a number of <pause dur="1.7"/> major <pause dur="0.6"/> international agreements conferences <pause dur="1.2"/> # to legislation <pause dur="0.2"/> at different levels European <pause dur="0.2"/> directives <pause dur="0.8"/> U-K national <pause dur="0.8"/> acts of Parliament <pause dur="0.9"/> and again as part of the handout <kinesic desc="holds up handout" iterated="n"/> and again just as an aide-memoire <pause dur="1.6"/> i've got a i've i've sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>d</trunc> constructed a broad picture <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.9"/> of some of those <pause dur="0.4"/> what i call pathways of environmental law <pause dur="1.8"/> the way that those issues have been picked up at different levels <pause dur="0.4"/> at the U-K level the European level and international level <pause dur="0.9"/> leading to <pause dur="0.4"/> conferences <pause dur="1.1"/> action plans <pause dur="0.8"/> strategies and acts <pause dur="0.4"/> and directives <pause dur="1.2"/> so again that's really sort of

summarizing very briefly <pause dur="1.0"/> the major pieces <pause dur="0.5"/> of environmental law that have arisen <pause dur="1.0"/> particularly over the last <pause dur="0.2"/> thirty or so years <pause dur="9.0"/> this is <pause dur="0.9"/> a lot of these environmental issues have been identified at the global level <pause dur="0.2"/> have been seen to be global problems <pause dur="2.7"/> but there has been a push <pause dur="1.4"/> by <pause dur="0.2"/> national international organizations <pause dur="0.7"/> to act locally <pause dur="1.5"/> and there is a <pause dur="0.5"/> a rationale <pause dur="1.2"/> for local action <pause dur="1.4"/> particularly <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> the emphasis on local action very much came out <pause dur="0.9"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the Rio conference <pause dur="1.5"/> on Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.6"/> in nineteen-ninety-two <pause dur="1.6"/> that conference that international conference produced <pause dur="3.4"/> an action programme for sustainable development into the twenty-first century <pause dur="1.5"/> and the whole emphasis of the Rio <pause dur="0.3"/> conference <pause dur="1.3"/> was <pause dur="0.8"/> on <pause dur="0.7"/> involving <pause dur="0.6"/> a range of stakeholders <pause dur="0.7"/> in sustainable development in the actions <pause dur="0.2"/> towards sustainable development <pause dur="2.6"/> it also emphasized widespread participation as widespread as possible <pause dur="0.3"/> to kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> expand the range of people <pause dur="0.9"/> that were working towards sustainable development <pause dur="4.7"/> also the other

thing about Rio <pause dur="0.7"/> which again <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> probably has picked up on <pause dur="1.2"/> is that it defined <pause dur="0.6"/> sustainable development <pause dur="0.3"/> in quite broad terms <pause dur="1.0"/> it defined it in socio-economic <pause dur="0.3"/> terms <pause dur="0.2"/> not just environmental <pause dur="0.6"/> so the environmental problems <pause dur="1.5"/> that had risen <pause dur="1.1"/> to prominence <pause dur="0.9"/> were increasingly being redefined because <pause dur="0.8"/> it was <pause dur="0.7"/> humans <pause dur="0.2"/> it was us <pause dur="1.1"/> human beings social social animals <pause dur="0.4"/> who were causing <pause dur="0.5"/> and influencing environmental problems <pause dur="1.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> words coming from Rio <pause dur="0.9"/> for sustainable development <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>improving the quality of human life <pause dur="2.0"/> whilst living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems</reading> <pause dur="0.9"/> that's the kind of message <pause dur="0.5"/> coming from Rio <reading>improving the quality of human life <pause dur="0.7"/> whilst living within the carrying capacity <pause dur="0.5"/> of supporting ecosystems</reading> <pause dur="2.5"/> so very it's very much again <trunc>de</trunc> defined in terms of <pause dur="0.5"/> human processes <pause dur="0.2"/> quality of life issues <pause dur="1.6"/> in relationship to environmental constraints <pause dur="4.7"/> one of the key outcomes of Rio <pause dur="0.2"/> of the Rio conference in ninety-two was <pause dur="0.5"/> Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.6"/> chapter eight of Agenda

Twenty-one <pause dur="2.5"/> called on the world's governments and local communities <pause dur="0.9"/> to prepare <pause dur="0.7"/> Local Agenda Twenty-ones <pause dur="1.5"/> for their countries and for local areas within them <pause dur="4.4"/> the need <pause dur="0.5"/> to operate at the local level <pause dur="0.8"/> the community level to produce these Local Agenda Twenty-ones <pause dur="2.1"/> was based on a <trunc>ver</trunc> # on a number of premises <pause dur="1.7"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.8"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> firstly <pause dur="0.6"/> the need to tackle environmental problems at all relevant levels <pause dur="1.1"/> in other words <pause dur="1.9"/> environmental problems were being caused by actions <pause dur="0.6"/> not just by <pause dur="0.4"/> international governmental policy <pause dur="0.4"/> but also by <pause dur="1.1"/> businesses <pause dur="0.4"/> organizations and individuals living their lives carrying out their businesses carrying out their functions <pause dur="1.1"/> so in order to tackle environmental problems you need to address them and act at all levels wherever wherever <pause dur="0.4"/> the decision making <pause dur="0.8"/> processes <pause dur="0.7"/> are taking place are causing <pause dur="0.2"/> or influencing the quality of the environment <pause dur="3.9"/> secondly <pause dur="0.6"/> another rationale for <trunc>ou</trunc> operating locally <pause dur="0.4"/> is to build <pause dur="0.4"/> consensus between all key interests <pause dur="2.8"/> in other words to incorporate <pause dur="1.2"/> all

the major stakeholders all the groups as far as possible <pause dur="0.9"/> in this process of sustainable development <pause dur="2.9"/> and there was also an emphasis at Rio <pause dur="0.5"/> to include to be socially inclusive and include those groups that are normally marginalized <pause dur="1.2"/> so there's an emphasis <pause dur="1.3"/> on involving <pause dur="1.6"/> the poor <pause dur="0.2"/> the unemployed <pause dur="0.4"/> children <pause dur="2.7"/> ethnic groups <pause dur="3.5"/> male and females <pause dur="2.0"/> within <pause dur="0.3"/> the process <pause dur="3.9"/> in order to do that again you need to operate where people <pause dur="0.4"/> are <pause dur="0.2"/> operating themselves <pause dur="0.8"/> and communities are seen as one of the key areas where <pause dur="0.8"/> people see are identify with local areas and therefore those are the areas <pause dur="0.5"/> that are most meaningful <pause dur="0.7"/> for these people <pause dur="0.2"/> to be involved in decision making <pause dur="3.3"/> also <pause dur="0.5"/> apart from trying to involve people <pause dur="0.8"/> there was a need <pause dur="0.3"/> seen at the national international level to spread ownership to spread a sense of ownership <pause dur="0.5"/> of sustainable development <pause dur="0.7"/> down <pause dur="0.3"/> into local communities <pause dur="1.5"/> so the <trunc>s</trunc> the <trunc>n</trunc> the nations of the world at Rio were signing up <pause dur="0.5"/> some <pause dur="0.2"/> reluctantly <pause dur="0.7"/> others more enthusiastically <pause dur="0.5"/> but there was a feeling that <pause dur="0.6"/> this <pause dur="0.5"/>

agreement at international level needed to <pause dur="0.4"/> permeate down <pause dur="0.2"/> through <pause dur="0.5"/> the different layers <pause dur="0.2"/> of government the different layers of society and economy <pause dur="2.0"/> and finally another rationale for local <pause dur="0.2"/> action <pause dur="0.5"/> in sustainable development <pause dur="1.0"/> is that it allows local solutions <pause dur="1.8"/> local decision making <pause dur="0.6"/> local knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> to be used <pause dur="2.9"/> the <trunc>u</trunc> European Union <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> used the word <pause dur="0.4"/> subsidiarity <pause dur="1.7"/> to describe this <pause dur="0.2"/> that you should <pause dur="0.2"/> devolve <pause dur="0.2"/> power and decision making <pause dur="0.4"/> down as far as <pause dur="0.4"/> as is possible <pause dur="0.4"/> as far as is appropriate <pause dur="2.6"/> okay there will be some decisions there'll be some actions that needed to be taken internationally <pause dur="0.9"/> there'll be some that need to be taken at national level <pause dur="1.2"/> there's some that <trunc>n</trunc> need to be taken at regional level <pause dur="1.1"/> but there are others that need to be taken at the local level so again it's that idea of trying to <pause dur="0.8"/> devolve influence and power and decision making as much as possible <pause dur="1.9"/> so that's the kind of <pause dur="0.5"/> rationale <pause dur="0.5"/> arguments why <pause dur="0.5"/> you should have local <pause dur="0.8"/> action on sustainable development <pause dur="3.1"/> in terms of the U-K <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.4"/> there

have been a number of <pause dur="0.2"/> phases since <pause dur="0.7"/> the late eighties i guess when <pause dur="0.5"/> after the <trunc>brundtla</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Brundtland Report in eighty-seven <pause dur="0.4"/> local authorities and governments in the U-K started becoming aware and committed in various ways <pause dur="0.6"/> to sustainable development as a concept <pause dur="2.6"/> and in local authorities <pause dur="1.2"/> there was <pause dur="0.6"/> a significant <pause dur="0.4"/> # commitment <pause dur="0.7"/> produced <pause dur="1.2"/> during the late eighties and early nineties <pause dur="2.3"/> Jeremy <trunc>raemaek</trunc> Raemaekers' article which is on the reading list <pause dur="0.6"/> reviews <pause dur="0.8"/> action that was being taken in the <pause dur="1.4"/> late eighties and early nineties <pause dur="0.4"/> and in some respects his phases he's he's divided up into different phases <pause dur="1.2"/> his phases of action <pause dur="0.3"/> # # by local authorities <pause dur="1.8"/> are very much the ones that have continued so the work that was done in the early nineties has really continued through <pause dur="0.7"/> into the new century <pause dur="0.8"/> so it's worth just reviewing them <pause dur="2.0"/> the first phase <pause dur="0.9"/> of local authority action was was geared around <pause dur="1.1"/> producing environmental charters and action plans <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.4"/>

now what happened was <pause dur="0.2"/> after Brundtland <pause dur="1.3"/> <trunc>a</trunc> an organization that is very astute an <trunc>e</trunc> environmental organization which is very astute Friends of the Earth <pause dur="2.8"/> said we want local government we want government in the U-K to take up <pause dur="0.2"/> take on board sustainable development <pause dur="0.5"/> so they what the <trunc>s</trunc> Friends of the Earth did is they produced a model charter <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="1.0"/> for sustainable development <pause dur="1.0"/> it's really a kind of a a policy <pause dur="0.2"/> statement or commitment <pause dur="0.3"/> by an organization to the principles of sustainable development <pause dur="0.8"/> and Friends of the Earth produced this charter <pause dur="0.3"/> and sent it to all the chief execs the chief executives of all local authorities in the U-K <pause dur="0.4"/> and said <pause dur="0.5"/> you should be signing up to this Brundtland there's been a Brundtland Report United Nations is pushing this <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>uni</trunc> the European Union is pushing this <pause dur="0.3"/> you need to take action at the local level <pause dur="1.3"/> and so they produced this <pause dur="0.6"/> model charter and said you could do this <pause dur="1.0"/> and of course local local authority chief execs said <pause dur="0.3"/> oh look they've already got they've

already done one for us <pause dur="1.3"/> so we can use this one <pause dur="0.3"/> so you know the <trunc>ch</trunc> Friends of Earth are very astute they say well if you give them <pause dur="0.2"/> what they need <pause dur="0.5"/> without them having to do much work for it they'll use it and that and that's what basically happened local authorities started signing up <pause dur="0.6"/> producing these environmental charters <pause dur="0.6"/> which is really <pause dur="0.9"/> just a commitment <pause dur="0.2"/> it was a broad statement of commitment <pause dur="1.2"/> to the principles of sustainable development <pause dur="3.1"/> and also <pause dur="0.3"/> at about the same time <pause dur="1.1"/> so that kind of put it on the agenda that put it on the local agenda <pause dur="1.6"/> at the same time local authorities started saying well what do we do <pause dur="0.7"/> environmentally <pause dur="1.1"/> you know let's <pause dur="0.2"/> let's <pause dur="0.3"/> have a look <pause dur="0.3"/> at our environmental practices <pause dur="0.5"/> 'cause 'cause local authorities <pause dur="0.8"/> who have been involved in environmental health waste disposal <pause dur="0.4"/> planning and development <pause dur="0.7"/> were involved in environmental <pause dur="0.2"/> policy anyway <pause dur="1.5"/> so they they started producing <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of quick and dirty and i think that is the key words quick and dirty <unclear>and then</unclear> dirty

quick and dirty <pause dur="0.4"/> action plans <pause dur="0.7"/> so they kind of they asked all the departments of the local authority <pause dur="2.1"/> what are we doing what are you doing <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.9"/> is supporting sustainable development <pause dur="0.6"/> so all the departments wrote back with what <pause dur="0.2"/> what actions they are doing <pause dur="0.5"/> to support <pause dur="1.5"/> # environmental protection and sustainable development <pause dur="0.6"/> and local authorities <pause dur="0.2"/> often quickly produced these and said right this is our <trunc>environment</trunc> this is our statement of environmental action <pause dur="1.1"/> this is what we are doing <pause dur="0.2"/> and maybe even intending to do <pause dur="1.2"/> so that that first phase <pause dur="0.4"/> which was in about the late <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> from eighty-seven through to <pause dur="0.4"/> eighty-nine <pause dur="0.2"/> very quick stuff <pause dur="1.4"/> really put sustainable development on the local political agenda and also <pause dur="0.9"/> made initial commitment by local authorities and also outlined what they were doing <pause dur="0.6"/> in this area <pause dur="3.2"/> second phase <pause dur="1.1"/> was the production of State of the Environment Reports <pause dur="1.4"/> SOTERs <pause dur="0.2"/> for <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> short <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.9"/> State of the Environment Reports and Environmental Audits <pause dur="2.1"/> these were a <pause dur="0.2"/> a bit more thorough <pause dur="0.3"/>

so you've got the quick and dirty stage one <pause dur="0.9"/> once that the dust had settled on them they said right <pause dur="1.0"/> # we need to <pause dur="0.2"/> map out the state of our local environment <pause dur="3.5"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> and it usually was planning departments who had access to <trunc>m</trunc> a lot of this information <pause dur="0.8"/> produced documents which ranged in thickness from <pause dur="0.3"/> so thick to so thick <pause dur="0.4"/> or in volumes <pause dur="0.5"/> which kind of mapped out the state of the local authority's environment <pause dur="0.7"/> so they looked at their environmental assets their environmental problems <pause dur="0.9"/> they mapped <pause dur="0.4"/> so G-I-S started becoming used <pause dur="0.2"/> G-I-S was used to map out <pause dur="0.8"/> the various <pause dur="1.9"/> environmental resources <pause dur="0.2"/> operating locally the <trunc>pr</trunc> you know the <trunc>s</trunc> the sites of <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>scienti</trunc> special scientific interest <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> areas of outstanding natural beauty <pause dur="0.3"/> nature reserves <pause dur="0.9"/> that kind of thing <pause dur="0.2"/> it was very much a mapping <pause dur="0.6"/> exercise of the state of the local environment <pause dur="1.3"/> at about the same time circa nineteen-ninety <pause dur="1.3"/> they also started to be a bit more thorough <pause dur="0.3"/> about the local authority's <pause dur="0.3"/> actions <pause dur="1.0"/>

they started undertaking environmental audits <pause dur="0.4"/> of local authority policies <pause dur="1.1"/> and practices <pause dur="4.1"/> this is where i bring in my one of my overheads # <pause dur="1.2"/> yes <pause dur="0.4"/> i've got a overhead which kind of <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> shows the # <pause dur="1.4"/> what we're talking about here <pause dur="1.7"/> this is a this is this is the sophisticated version <pause dur="0.8"/> of what a # <pause dur="1.0"/> environmental audit should be doing <pause dur="4.4"/> this is # <pause dur="1.1"/> like i say something that's been developed over time <pause dur="1.1"/> the idea behind eco-audit is to appraise your policies and actions as an organization it can be a private organization like a developer <pause dur="0.2"/> and developers have done these things as well <pause dur="1.0"/> or a business like B-T or Shell <pause dur="0.6"/> or a local authority <pause dur="0.2"/> in this case <pause dur="1.8"/> you need as part of the a start in the process you need to get that <trunc>co</trunc> corporate commitment <pause dur="0.7"/> which is what these charters really did they sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> put the thing on the agenda <pause dur="1.6"/> you need to <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> review initial review of your environmental impacts of you policies and your practices <pause dur="1.1"/> so the policies you have <pause dur="1.1"/> the money you spend where you spend it <pause dur="0.7"/>

what impact does it have on the environment <pause dur="2.8"/> you should and this again is a case of <trunc>sh</trunc> lots of shoulds in here <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> you should produce an environmental policy <pause dur="2.0"/> which kinds of maps out what you intend to do <pause dur="0.7"/> what the objectives are of the council the local authority <pause dur="2.4"/> you should specify that in terms of actions and targets <pause dur="2.1"/> and then you kind of enter <pause dur="0.2"/> you enter this circle this <pause dur="3.8"/> benevolent circle of environmental care i guess you might call it <pause dur="1.7"/> <trunc>s</trunc> having specified actions and targets that you are going to undertake as an organization <pause dur="0.7"/> you gain corporate <pause dur="0.9"/> management commitment through a a management programme to implement the policy <pause dur="0.2"/> so you basically spread these targets these commitments these policies <pause dur="0.4"/> throughout the organization you get them to sign up <pause dur="0.6"/> to do things <pause dur="1.4"/> like <pause dur="0.9"/> increase recycling <pause dur="0.3"/> locally or <pause dur="0.6"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> # protect <pause dur="0.9"/> all your nature reserves or to manage then improve those areas <pause dur="0.6"/> so those are the kind of things you might include in there <pause dur="2.1"/> you <pause dur="0.2"/> undertake internal audits to

check whether things are happening so you check that people are doing these things and that the the the the the targets are being met <pause dur="1.0"/> you produce an environmental report <pause dur="1.3"/> you <pause dur="0.3"/> you can and you should <pause dur="0.6"/> to be <pause dur="0.3"/> # authorized <trunc>un</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> through this get verification from an independent <pause dur="0.6"/> auditor <pause dur="0.4"/> there's environmental auditors who can check <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.5"/> what you've done is correct <pause dur="0.9"/> and you can register for <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="2.5"/> under the <trunc>nati</trunc> as a national standard that you have got the system in place and you're implementing it <pause dur="0.5"/> and then you basically keep going around in circles <pause dur="0.9"/> refining improving <pause dur="0.5"/> developing new targets developing new policies to improve your environmental performance <pause dur="1.3"/> that is the ideal <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of auditing system we're talking about <pause dur="1.1"/> in the early days <pause dur="0.6"/> local authorities <pause dur="1.3"/> were not shall we say as <pause dur="0.2"/> sophisticated in in this and they were basically just doing initial assessments <pause dur="0.4"/> targeting and <pause dur="0.9"/> implementation processes <pause dur="6.0"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> phase two <pause dur="0.8"/> in the early nineties moved to phase three <pause dur="0.9"/> phase three was <pause dur="0.3"/>

very much more using this <pause dur="2.6"/> to produce an environmental management system <pause dur="1.6"/> to try and <pause dur="0.6"/> make this <pause dur="0.2"/> a self-sustaining process <pause dur="1.9"/> so they moved from <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like <pause dur="0.2"/> a partial auditing <pause dur="0.2"/> process to a full <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> auditing process <pause dur="1.0"/> and for instance <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> and i often use <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> 'cause <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.6"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> Borough as an example <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> Borough implemented this kind of system <pause dur="0.9"/> an environmental management system <pause dur="1.4"/> for its # leisure services department <pause dur="0.8"/> it's interesting that they haven't got much further than that <pause dur="0.7"/> because it takes a lot of effort <pause dur="0.5"/> to get these things up and running a lot of <pause dur="0.6"/> political commitment and a lot of officer commitment <pause dur="0.3"/> to actually run with these kind of things <pause dur="0.6"/> to create a kind of <trunc>e</trunc> environmental audit <pause dur="0.4"/> a management system <pause dur="0.7"/> which is <pause dur="0.2"/> self-sustaining <pause dur="4.2"/> so stage three was if you like a more sophisticated version of the earlier <pause dur="0.4"/> auditing process moving into <pause dur="0.5"/> a management system which runs constantly <pause dur="0.7"/> through the organization <pause dur="2.8"/> at about the same time <pause dur="1.5"/> this is sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> ninety-two three

four five onwards <pause dur="2.2"/> in response to Rio <pause dur="1.4"/> in ninety-two <pause dur="0.9"/> local authorities many local authorities started developing their own Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="3.0"/> and you can see these two things in parallel <pause dur="1.1"/> this kind of environmental audit and management system is very much looking at the local authority <pause dur="0.7"/> internally it's an internal <pause dur="0.3"/> organizational <pause dur="0.2"/> tool <pause dur="0.7"/> for improving environmental <pause dur="0.2"/> performance <pause dur="1.6"/> Local Agenda Twenty-one is a more external <pause dur="0.4"/> process <pause dur="0.5"/> it is outside the local authority <pause dur="5.7"/> it involves <pause dur="2.3"/> engaging in <pause dur="0.5"/> dialogue <pause dur="1.6"/> developing <pause dur="1.5"/> action <pause dur="1.2"/> programmes <pause dur="0.6"/> with partners with the stakeholders <pause dur="1.4"/> with community groups with businesses <pause dur="0.2"/> with schools <pause dur="0.5"/> with <pause dur="0.6"/> other organizations <pause dur="0.4"/> that are working living and operating locally <pause dur="3.6"/> so you can see these two as linked <pause dur="0.5"/> the environmental management systems <pause dur="0.2"/> internal <pause dur="0.7"/> to the organization <pause dur="0.4"/> Local Agenda Twenty-one much more <pause dur="0.2"/> external <pause dur="1.1"/> but basically <pause dur="0.3"/> developing the same idea of trying to

build action <pause dur="0.8"/> programmes <pause dur="0.7"/> policies and actions <pause dur="0.3"/> to support sustainable development at the local level <pause dur="2.4"/> there is i guess possibly a <trunc>s</trunc> a phase five <pause dur="1.1"/> in the <trunc>la</trunc> latter part of the # <pause dur="1.4"/> nineteen-nineties <pause dur="2.7"/> some new tools started being used more often <pause dur="3.2"/> as part of this broad programme <pause dur="1.1"/> things like sustainability appraisals were <trunc>d</trunc> being done <pause dur="3.0"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> policies and <trunc>pla</trunc> plans and programmes <pause dur="1.0"/> the local authority have like their <pause dur="0.2"/> development plan <pause dur="1.8"/> or their economic development strategy or their tourism strategy <pause dur="0.7"/> or their housing strategy <pause dur="3.9"/> were appraised <pause dur="0.3"/> they were looked at <pause dur="0.4"/> and checked <pause dur="0.3"/> against sustainability criteria <pause dur="1.8"/> at the same time <pause dur="0.9"/> local authorities <pause dur="0.6"/> started <pause dur="0.2"/> as did the government started developing indicators in other words ways to measure <pause dur="0.2"/> sustainable development <pause dur="2.3"/> sometimes these were kind of technical <pause dur="0.4"/> you know energy efficiency <pause dur="0.5"/> per <pause dur="0.9"/> per housing <pause dur="0.2"/> you you know <pause dur="0.2"/> in in relationship to housing units <pause dur="0.7"/> or it could be <trunc>mu</trunc> much more # broad like <pause dur="0.4"/> having fish <pause dur="0.5"/> certain types of fish <pause dur="0.4"/> in the river <pause dur="0.7"/> but that was a kind of indicator that things were getting better <pause dur="0.6"/> that there were improvements in the environment <pause dur="1.3"/>

and also at the same time targets were being developed <pause dur="0.4"/> so again <pause dur="0.3"/> they were getting much stronger on developing targets <pause dur="0.9"/> what are we trying to improve how much by how much <pause dur="2.0"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> you could say that <pause dur="0.2"/> the mid-<pause dur="0.2"/>nineties with <pause dur="0.5"/> environmental management systems and local agenda <pause dur="0.8"/> rolled forward <pause dur="0.2"/> into the current <pause dur="0.2"/> century <pause dur="1.0"/> developing some new tools <pause dur="1.2"/> sustainability appraisals indicators and targets <pause dur="0.3"/> to try and develop <pause dur="0.2"/> this theme <pause dur="3.8"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.7"/> what i'll do is i'll just cover <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> in <trunc>bi</trunc> little bit more detail <pause dur="0.3"/> some points about state of the environment reporting <pause dur="0.3"/> and then we'll have a break <pause dur="0.6"/> and come back and talk about Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="8.5"/> the rationale for state of the environment reporting <pause dur="1.1"/> before developing an action programme <pause dur="1.6"/> local authorities <pause dur="0.3"/> need to identify it and quantify the nature <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> the environment or the environmental assets <pause dur="1.2"/> and problems in an area <pause dur="0.3"/> so in order to actually <trunc>sta</trunc>

before you start taking action <pause dur="0.8"/> in this sphere <pause dur="1.0"/> you need to identify the state of the environment so that's the reason <pause dur="0.4"/> for undertaking a state of the environment report <pause dur="2.4"/> another <pause dur="0.8"/> reason <pause dur="0.2"/> why local authorities did state of the environment reports <pause dur="1.3"/> was they saw it as an opportunity to start bringing in <pause dur="0.6"/> outside partners <pause dur="1.3"/> because in order to get some of this information and data <pause dur="0.7"/> local authorities had to contact other organizations <pause dur="3.1"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> particularly some of the environmental <pause dur="0.2"/> groups <pause dur="0.8"/> Friends of the Earth <pause dur="1.6"/> Royal Society for the Protection of Birds <pause dur="1.2"/> Greenpeace <pause dur="0.9"/> local <trunc>environm</trunc> # <pause dur="0.2"/> wildlife trusts <pause dur="1.0"/> had information that that was was plugged into this state of the environment report <pause dur="0.9"/> so in that sense it also was part <pause dur="0.7"/> of the process of going outside of the local authority <trunc>invol</trunc> starting starting <pause dur="0.3"/> to involve people <pause dur="2.3"/> there are numerous examples of state of the environment reports <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> there is a <pause dur="0.5"/> a kind of U-K <pause dur="1.2"/> version <pause dur="0.8"/> of state of the environment <pause dur="1.2"/> it's <trunc>basic</trunc> the indicators <pause dur="0.6"/> report done in

nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.6"/> which kind of maps out the state of the U-K environment <pause dur="1.6"/> there's there's been state of the <trunc>re</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> environment reports done at city-wide level <pause dur="0.2"/> LPAC <pause dur="0.2"/> did one for London <pause dur="1.2"/> to look at the state of London's environment <pause dur="2.6"/> Hertfordshire <pause dur="0.2"/> have got two a two volume <pause dur="0.7"/> thick <pause dur="0.2"/> state of the environment report <pause dur="2.1"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> before it was abolished <pause dur="1.8"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="sf1149"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> just before it was abolished <pause dur="2.6"/> produced a state of the environment report which was very thin <pause dur="0.2"/> very short summary of it <pause dur="3.2"/> do you want a <pause dur="0.2"/> a handout to help you on your way <pause dur="2.9"/><event desc="passes student a handout" iterated="n"/> we're kind of # <pause dur="0.5"/> oh we're actually only on we're only on number two </u><u who="sf1149" trans="latching"> okay <unclear>thank you</unclear> </u><pause dur="3.1"/><u who="nm1148" trans="pause"> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="5.6"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> which which <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> Borough prides itself on its environmental performance and its <pause dur="0.2"/> commitment to sustainable sustainable development <pause dur="0.9"/> but they only produced a state of the environment report in nineteen-ninety-seven they were quite late <pause dur="0.4"/> compared to many local authorities <pause dur="2.2"/> but it's interesting the later state of the environment reports often include much more social <pause dur="1.1"/>

information <trunc>s</trunc> social data <pause dur="0.7"/> so for instance <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s <pause dur="0.2"/> has <pause dur="0.2"/> chapters and indicators on social on the social environment <pause dur="0.9"/> on economic development <pause dur="0.7"/> and on health <pause dur="2.1"/> so the later state of the environment reports started to spread out <pause dur="0.2"/> into this <pause dur="0.2"/> broader range of socio-economic <pause dur="0.5"/> information <pause dur="3.7"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> there are <pause dur="0.3"/> a number of issues and problems <pause dur="0.3"/> with regard to <pause dur="0.8"/> undertaking these state of the environment reports <pause dur="3.0"/> it takes time to produce them <pause dur="0.3"/> it takes a lot of energy to get <trunc>t</trunc> the data together <pause dur="4.5"/> and it takes resources <pause dur="0.8"/> so many local authorities <pause dur="1.0"/> haven't done a state of the environment report because of that problem <pause dur="1.5"/> or like <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.9"/> delayed it until <pause dur="0.2"/> late in the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="2.8"/> some local authorities actually use consultants <pause dur="0.6"/> to produce <pause dur="0.4"/> state of the environment reports so they actually use consultants to do this job for them <pause dur="8.8"/> so there are difficulties and issues around the time and resources required <pause dur="1.3"/> there's another problem which is a a <trunc>sen</trunc> or ownership sustainable development is

supposed to build a sense of ownership <pause dur="0.3"/> you remember <pause dur="2.2"/> and most of these state of the environment reports are prepared by the local authority by officers <pause dur="1.0"/> a kind of technical exercise of collecting information <pause dur="5.1"/> some like Humberside before it was abolished another county that was abolished <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Humberside County Council used consultants to do it <pause dur="1.0"/> but again there's a difficulty you're you're basically handing over the ownership of this process to outside <pause dur="0.3"/> parties <pause dur="2.3"/> in one at least one case # Gloucestershire <pause dur="0.7"/> Gloucestershire County <pause dur="0.2"/> got a <pause dur="0.5"/> a forum of stakeholder groups together <pause dur="1.6"/> an environmental forum and they <pause dur="1.1"/> were the organization that produced the state of the environment report <pause dur="0.3"/> this again was the <pause dur="0.3"/> probably the best example one of the best examples <pause dur="0.3"/> of trying to spread ownership and involvement <pause dur="0.5"/> in this stage <pause dur="0.7"/> by getting a range of stakeholder groups environmental groups businesses <pause dur="0.3"/> community groups <pause dur="0.4"/> to actually <pause dur="0.3"/> put together this report helped <pause dur="0.3"/> build <pause dur="0.5"/> this sense of

ownership <pause dur="1.2"/> but many like i say <pause dur="0.8"/> ended up <pause dur="0.3"/> being left on a shelf as a technical <pause dur="0.3"/> exercise <pause dur="3.3"/> another issue <pause dur="0.2"/> was the range of issues that it incorporated <pause dur="1.5"/> many of the early ones and <pause dur="0.2"/> many of them generally concentrate on the physical environment <pause dur="4.0"/> more recently as i mentioned <pause dur="0.2"/> in the case of <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.1"/> they've <pause dur="0.5"/> expanded <pause dur="0.5"/> the kind of issues to look at what you might call the social <pause dur="0.9"/> environment as well as the physical <pause dur="0.3"/> natural <trunc>envi</trunc> environment <pause dur="2.5"/> so <trunc>so</trunc> some <pause dur="0.6"/> tackle <pause dur="0.6"/> the environment in <pause dur="0.7"/> in one way and some in <trunc>oth</trunc> in another <pause dur="2.1"/> finally <pause dur="0.6"/> questions can be raised about state of the environment reports <pause dur="0.4"/> i should have brought a couple along to show you but <pause dur="1.3"/> they end up often being a collection of facts <pause dur="0.7"/> with little direction <pause dur="0.7"/> they're really just a <pause dur="0.2"/> a research <pause dur="0.3"/> information collection exercise <pause dur="0.8"/> and once you've produced it you say so what almost <pause dur="0.2"/> there is a danger of saying so what <pause dur="4.0"/> certainly the best <pause dur="2.0"/> local state of the environment reports were then used were then taken forward <pause dur="0.9"/> as part of the

environmental action programme <pause dur="0.3"/> so they actually were <pause dur="1.4"/> linked <pause dur="0.3"/> to subsequent policies <pause dur="0.6"/> and strategies that were being developed <pause dur="1.8"/> Lancashire's # <pause dur="1.1"/> environmental forum was a very good example of this <pause dur="0.2"/> there's an environmental forum in Lancashire <pause dur="0.5"/> and they produced a state of the environment report which was then quickly turned <pause dur="0.4"/> into an action plan <pause dur="7.8"/> in response to some of these issues <pause dur="0.5"/> some local authorities are developing <pause dur="0.2"/> more holistic <pause dur="0.9"/> and more focused sustainability reports <pause dur="2.1"/> i mentioned Lancashire <pause dur="1.7"/> they produced this initial <trunc>acti</trunc> # <pause dur="0.3"/> state of the environment report which then influenced the policy making <pause dur="0.3"/> then they did a second one they did a second green audit <pause dur="1.4"/> which was a lot more focused around the policies that they were developing at the time <pause dur="1.5"/> and also a lot more holistic it covered health <pause dur="0.5"/> poverty <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> economic development et cetera <pause dur="6.6"/> they also have been used again where they've been useful they've been used <pause dur="0.9"/> often as a basis for then deciding on indicators <pause dur="0.9"/> in

other words <pause dur="0.6"/> what what are the <pause dur="0.2"/> having looked at the state of the environment locally what are the key things <pause dur="0.6"/> in terms of what's going bad so they start <trunc>l</trunc> if you look over time some things <pause dur="0.7"/> are water quality could be <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>in</trunc> # be be decreasing <pause dur="1.0"/> so they say right well that should be our <trunc>k</trunc> a key indicator <pause dur="0.3"/> of environmental quality locally <pause dur="0.4"/> so if they're used <pause dur="0.2"/> in that way they can <pause dur="0.2"/> lead on <pause dur="0.3"/> to defining <pause dur="1.0"/> a kind of indicators that <pause dur="0.2"/> people <trunc>w</trunc> will then use to judge <pause dur="1.1"/> improvements in the environment <pause dur="4.0"/> so that is the state of the environment reporting i say a <pause dur="0.2"/> a big surge of effort went in in the early nineties <pause dur="0.6"/> but the time and effort required to do it <pause dur="0.5"/> led <pause dur="0.2"/> to delays and in some cases led to <pause dur="0.3"/> local authorities not bothering in to do one at all <pause dur="2.3"/> they some of them did lead on to <trunc>i</trunc> actions and some of them did lead in <pause dur="0.2"/> to Local Agenda Twenty-one processes and we'll have a look at that we'll just have a break <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and then we'll have a look <pause dur="0.5"/> at Local Agenda Twenty-one and the experience of local authorities in that area <pause dur="0.4"/> so we'll have a break now for <pause dur="1.7"/> five ten <pause dur="1.4"/> ten <pause dur="1.4"/> offers of ten <pause dur="0.2"/> ten minutes <pause dur="0.3"/> come back on the hour <pause dur="0.8"/> probably take about half an hour through to finish up on Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.8"/> okay </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm1148" trans="pause">

thank you <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> # what i'll do is i'll just finish off <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> this session <pause dur="0.2"/> which has been looking at <pause dur="0.4"/> local authorities <pause dur="0.2"/> and local action <pause dur="0.7"/> by <pause dur="0.8"/> concentrating a little bit <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> on Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.0"/> # because this <pause dur="0.2"/> is very much the <pause dur="0.4"/> arena <pause dur="0.8"/> where local authorities have put <pause dur="0.4"/> a fair amount of action <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the U-K <pause dur="0.2"/> much more than other places we are <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> in fact this is <pause dur="0.2"/> some of my students here <pause dur="0.5"/> # the post grads went to Baltimore <pause dur="0.4"/> at # <pause dur="0.2"/> Easter for a field trip it's a nice life doing a post grad isn't it <pause dur="0.7"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> we mentioned it we mentioned or sort of seemed to mention Local Agenda Twenty-one to a planner in Baltimore <pause dur="0.7"/> and they'd just never heard of it <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> in America Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.2"/> as a concept <pause dur="0.8"/> has has very little <pause dur="0.3"/> resonance <pause dur="0.4"/> even though what they were doing in Baltimore <pause dur="0.4"/> was very much what <pause dur="0.2"/> local authorities in this country would call <trunc>sus</trunc> # <trunc>age</trunc> Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's strange that these concepts <pause dur="0.6"/> can be picked up and run with and given great prominence in one country and have

very little <pause dur="0.6"/> meaning in another <pause dur="1.3"/> but <pause dur="0.9"/> it has <pause dur="0.3"/> # been a key issue in the U-K <pause dur="0.9"/> it i sort of mentioned it's based on <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> chapter twenty-eight of Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.2"/> produced at Rio <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>i</trunc> in that chapter it said <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> and i quote <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> pardon me <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> by <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> it said by nineteen-ninety-six it said <reading>by nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.3"/> most local authorities in each country <pause dur="0.5"/> should have undertaken <pause dur="0.4"/> a consultative process <pause dur="0.5"/> with their populations <pause dur="0.8"/> and achieved <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> a consensus <pause dur="0.4"/> a Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.5"/> for the community</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> so that was the that was the <pause dur="0.2"/> that was the charge that was the challenge <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="1.1"/> Agenda Twenty-one from the Rio <pause dur="1.6"/> conference <pause dur="1.7"/>

what's happened in the U-K <pause dur="1.0"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.8"/> well there's been a lot of activity <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> this diagram which is attached as a little article <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> which is an update on progress of Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.9"/> # this <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> diagram shows <pause dur="0.4"/> that of <pause dur="2.6"/> of last <trunc>y</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> from <trunc>la</trunc> about last year <pause dur="2.2"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> thirty-six per cent <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> of local authorities had produced <pause dur="0.8"/> a <pause dur="0.2"/> Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.2"/> an action <pause dur="0.2"/> plan for sustainable development in their area <pause dur="1.6"/> forty-five-point-two per cent <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.9"/> were on target i # the target moved as all targets <trunc>m</trunc> they produced this target in nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.8"/> and that went by <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and then they moved <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the goalposts and said right by two-thousand <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> all the local authorities should have produced a Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.2"/> in nineteen-ninety-nine just before the deadline <pause dur="1.1"/> forty-five-<pause dur="0.3"/>point-two per cent were working towards it <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> so you can see that <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> quite a large percentage of local authorities <pause dur="1.2"/> had produced or were <pause dur="0.2"/> hoping to produce by two-thousand <pause dur="1.2"/> a

Agenda Twenty-one statement <pause dur="3.5"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.3"/> there were a number though with no commitment <pause dur="0.5"/> no response <pause dur="1.5"/> or <pause dur="1.0"/> a <trunc>c</trunc> <trunc>d</trunc> definite commitment not to do one <pause dur="0.8"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.0"/> however that's <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>s</trunc> sizable minority majority i suppose sizable majority of <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> local authorities <pause dur="1.0"/> have been working on it <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="4.3"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> oh boy <pause dur="0.3"/> how local authorities have done this <pause dur="1.0"/> # Steven Young and this again that's # # on the reference list Steven Young has done some research survey work looking at local authorities researching them <pause dur="1.2"/> # done a <pause dur="0.2"/> a kind of comprehensive review as as far as possible <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> of the different approaches to Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.7"/> at the local level <pause dur="1.2"/> and he's identified <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.0"/> four basic approaches that local authorities have <pause dur="0.2"/> have used <pause dur="0.3"/> to produce <pause dur="0.9"/> these <pause dur="0.4"/> action plans these statements of sustainable development at the local level <pause dur="1.0"/> firstly # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> a top down strategy <pause dur="2.8"/> in which the local authority <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> is firmly in control of the process <pause dur="1.2"/> # maybe involves consultation <pause dur="0.2"/> with # <pause dur="0.5"/> inverted commas around consultation <pause dur="2.2"/> involves some consultation with local

community groups and local environmental groups but very much it's a local authority controlled <pause dur="0.5"/> process <pause dur="1.2"/> and as you can gather from what we said about <pause dur="0.2"/> Agenda Twenty-one and Rio <pause dur="0.7"/> that kind of process is really <pause dur="0.2"/> not in line with the philosophy <pause dur="0.7"/> of sustainable development as <pause dur="0.4"/> proposed <pause dur="0.2"/> at <pause dur="0.3"/> the Rio conference <pause dur="1.8"/> second approach <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> has been <pause dur="0.5"/> a limited dialogue strategy <pause dur="1.4"/> # heavily top down from the local authority but with some flexibility <pause dur="0.4"/> with some negotiation <pause dur="0.4"/> and compromise <pause dur="0.4"/> from the local authority <pause dur="0.8"/> on what's finally included or going to be included <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> these <pause dur="0.6"/> local <pause dur="0.6"/> sustainable development strategies <pause dur="2.9"/> thirdly <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> he identified a yes but strategy <pause dur="1.1"/> this applies a bottom up <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.3"/> and relatively open process of discussion with local <pause dur="0.2"/> community groups and others <pause dur="2.5"/> but there are certain key policies certain <pause dur="0.3"/> key proposals <pause dur="0.8"/> which remain non-negotiable <pause dur="1.1"/> so in other words the local authority go to the local community and say right we want to produce this we want you to be involved <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> and this is

the but <pause dur="0.2"/> there are certain <trunc>th</trunc> certain things we're committed to we're committed to <pause dur="0.3"/> building this road <pause dur="0.6"/> or we're committed to <pause dur="0.9"/> allocating this green field for housing development <pause dur="0.3"/> or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> so they kind of set out the rules <pause dur="0.4"/> before the start <pause dur="1.6"/> at its worst form <pause dur="0.5"/> it <trunc>em</trunc> it this this but <pause dur="0.4"/> emerges during the process in other words they say oh we want to get your views we want you to be involved <pause dur="0.6"/> and then people start get involved <pause dur="0.6"/> going along to meetings or <pause dur="0.8"/> making comments <pause dur="0.3"/> and then suddenly the local authority turns around and says ah <pause dur="0.2"/> no sorry but <pause dur="1.3"/> so the worst kind is when they tell you halfway through <pause dur="0.5"/> that this is # there is a but <pause dur="1.6"/> but in its best form <pause dur="0.2"/> and <trunc>r</trunc> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> reminds me of Islington when i used to work with Islington Council <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> they tell you beforehand they say <pause dur="0.5"/> we're going to enter into dialogue we're going to involve people but <pause dur="0.3"/> there are certain things we're not going to move on we are committed to equal opportunities <pause dur="0.2"/> was Islington's but <pause dur="0.6"/> # we are committed to <pause dur="0.3"/> social housing <pause dur="1.0"/> they

had sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> very good <pause dur="0.7"/> right on P-C objectives <pause dur="1.1"/> but that's <pause dur="0.2"/> so that's a kind of the best better form of it if they tell you before you start this process what the limits are what the goalposts are <pause dur="0.3"/> at least the <pause dur="0.2"/> people can say okay i accept that <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.8"/> or they won't join in <pause dur="2.1"/> finally <pause dur="0.4"/> # Steven Young <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> identified a bottom up strategy <pause dur="0.8"/> which is the ideal type <pause dur="0.8"/> in relationship to Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.3"/> it involves active engagement with a full range of interests <pause dur="0.6"/> so you you are really open the gates <pause dur="0.5"/> to bring in <pause dur="0.2"/> the range of interests in your local area <pause dur="3.2"/> you as an authority you listen <pause dur="1.5"/> it's a listening process <pause dur="4.8"/> you learn <pause dur="0.2"/> you listen and then you learn <pause dur="0.3"/> which is kind of the opposite <pause dur="0.2"/> <unclear>that what's</unclear> what you're trying to do now and which i never do <pause dur="0.4"/> being a lecturer an academic you never listen to people <pause dur="0.7"/> you've <trunc>d</trunc> you develop the skill of talking <pause dur="0.3"/> and telling people what to do <pause dur="0.6"/> and then marking their essays on that basis <pause dur="0.6"/> now i'm being cynical <pause dur="0.8"/> # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.4"/> it's <pause dur="0.5"/> not necessarily leading the process but sharing <pause dur="2.4"/> ownership with the partners in

the process <pause dur="1.9"/> so that's the ideal type that's <pause dur="0.2"/> if you were doing Local Agenda Twenty-one as it's supposed to be done that's the kind of process you would <pause dur="0.5"/> you would apply <pause dur="1.2"/> also the local authority <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> will be prepared to make radical changes to its policies and practices <pause dur="1.9"/> as part of that process <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> if local <trunc>p</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> stakeholders as part of this process of consensus building <pause dur="0.3"/> arrive at a view that you should <pause dur="1.0"/> you should build in the green belt <pause dur="1.4"/> or that you should invest as much money as you can <pause dur="0.7"/> in a <pause dur="0.6"/> public transport initiative <pause dur="0.5"/> then the council would say <pause dur="0.7"/> yep <pause dur="0.3"/> that's what we'll do <pause dur="1.0"/> it's listening and responding <pause dur="0.6"/> again i <trunc>g</trunc> i go back to Baltimore because it's interesting <pause dur="0.6"/> i'm the the post grads know about this but <pause dur="0.3"/> Baltimore have just <pause dur="0.5"/> produced a new plan for Baltimore Plan Baltimore which is a broad strategy <pause dur="0.5"/> but they're actually <trunc>ma</trunc> the major part of their plan in Baltimore is to go to local community groups <pause dur="0.6"/> so they've set up a whole series of community initiatives <pause dur="0.6"/> to get local

communities to come forward with ideas and proposals of what they want <pause dur="0.2"/> locally <pause dur="0.6"/> and the and the council have committed themselves <pause dur="1.4"/> wherever possible to fund <pause dur="0.8"/> those <pause dur="0.6"/> ideas and initiatives <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's the same thing <pause dur="0.3"/> but they've never heard of Local Agenda Twenty-one in Baltimore <pause dur="2.6"/> the thing in the U-K <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> or or or certainly Steven Young's view <pause dur="0.7"/> was that this had not been achieved in the U-K this ideal type <pause dur="1.2"/> was not in evidence in the <trunc>su</trunc> in the survey that he looked at <pause dur="1.2"/> but he did find evidence <pause dur="0.4"/> that it was being developed that this kind of approach this open listening <pause dur="0.5"/> responsive <pause dur="1.1"/> non-dictatorial approach was being developed <pause dur="0.5"/> so there was evidence <pause dur="0.2"/> that things were moving that way <pause dur="1.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.7"/> there are examples of this process <pause dur="0.4"/> in fact there are there are examples at different levels and i will mention some <pause dur="0.7"/> more strategic levels as well as the local level <pause dur="1.2"/> in the U-K <pause dur="0.6"/> this kind of <pause dur="1.8"/> stakeholdering involvement has occurred at the national <pause dur="1.1"/> the regional <pause dur="0.2"/> and the local level <pause dur="0.9"/> at the <trunc>r</trunc>

at at at the national level there is a U-K round table <pause dur="0.2"/> on sustainable development <pause dur="2.8"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> this round table has produced advisory reports which is supposed to feed in <pause dur="0.2"/> to government policy so there has been an initiative at least at the national level <pause dur="2.1"/> they produce reports on transport <pause dur="0.5"/> housing capacity <pause dur="0.3"/> energy <pause dur="0.5"/> economic development <pause dur="0.5"/> a range of reports <pause dur="2.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> they are kind of monitoring government policy in that area to try and <pause dur="0.2"/> change it to make it more sustainable <pause dur="2.9"/> at the regional level <pause dur="0.3"/> i've been directly involved <pause dur="0.2"/> with an organization called SERPLAN which is the regional <pause dur="0.4"/> planning conference for the south-east of England <pause dur="1.4"/> and as part of their new regional planning strategy <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> they set up a sustainability panel <pause dur="1.4"/> of stakeholder groups <pause dur="2.5"/> including academics like me <pause dur="2.6"/> which worked through <pause dur="1.5"/> a series of initiatives <pause dur="0.6"/> to try and make their regional strategy sustainable <pause dur="1.0"/> and indeed eventually they called it a sustainable development strategy for the south-east <pause dur="0.4"/> of England <pause dur="2.4"/> ironically as you

may or may not know that strategy then had <pause dur="0.3"/> went through public consultation and # <pause dur="0.4"/> public examination <pause dur="0.5"/> where it got hammered <pause dur="0.5"/> by the panel chair <pause dur="0.7"/> who basically suggested that # SERPLAN's strategy was <pause dur="0.5"/> well economically unsustainable i guess <pause dur="0.7"/> # and criticized it quite heavily <pause dur="0.6"/> however <pause dur="0.3"/> the process <pause dur="0.4"/> occurred there was this <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>rou</trunc> # round table a forum <pause dur="0.5"/> where different interests were involved at the regional level <pause dur="2.2"/> it's also occurred at county level i've mentioned Gloucestershire <pause dur="0.2"/> with their regional their their county forum Lancashire had has got one <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Hertfordshire <pause dur="0.8"/> a number of other counties <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> the one we're in now had one <pause dur="0.7"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> got abolished <pause dur="0.3"/> a couple of years back as a county council but for a few years <pause dur="0.3"/> from ninety-four through to ninety-seven <pause dur="0.6"/> it also had an environmental forum <pause dur="0.9"/> where <pause dur="1.2"/> these initiatives to try and make <pause dur="0.2"/> the policies and practices of the council and the county <pause dur="0.6"/> more sustainable occurred <pause dur="2.0"/> there are there is an article which i think is on

the reading list which i wrote looking at these examples <pause dur="0.5"/> so you can look at more detail at what happened <pause dur="0.5"/> when they tried to do these things <pause dur="1.4"/> and finally <pause dur="0.8"/> local level <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is a good example <pause dur="2.2"/> it prides itself on its <pause dur="0.2"/> local sustainable development strategy <pause dur="1.7"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.1"/> it <pause dur="1.9"/> combines <pause dur="0.4"/> corporate environmental management <pause dur="0.2"/> doing those environment management systems with the council combines the internal stuff <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.4"/> an external programme <pause dur="0.7"/> they divided up <pause dur="0.2"/> their <pause dur="0.3"/> Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.5"/> into three ways firstly they had a local <trunc>age</trunc> local authority Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.8"/> so in other words <pause dur="0.2"/> that was screening the local authority so they had <pause dur="0.8"/> environmental management systems <pause dur="0.8"/> they had sustainability <pause dur="1.0"/> reports and implications <pause dur="1.0"/> they had various other initiatives <pause dur="1.0"/> so that was the internal local authority <pause dur="0.2"/> Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.6"/> they had a business Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.6"/> they still have <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact <pause dur="1.0"/> i gave a talk to their business Agenda Twenty-one meeting <pause dur="0.4"/> # couple of months back at Green Park <pause dur="1.4"/> which

is engaging with business and trying to make <pause dur="0.2"/> businesses in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.0"/> more sustainable <pause dur="0.6"/> things like green transport plans <pause dur="0.2"/> which this university <pause dur="0.6"/> is now implementing <pause dur="1.4"/> kicking kicking and # screaming its way into <pause dur="0.2"/> parking charges going up <pause dur="0.4"/> which we all know about <pause dur="0.3"/> and love <pause dur="1.7"/> so there's a a business Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.2"/> and thirdly <pause dur="0.6"/> there was a # neighbourhood <pause dur="0.5"/> Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.7"/> which they called GLOBE <pause dur="0.2"/> if you've ever seen GLOBE <pause dur="1.1"/> Go Local on a Better Environment <pause dur="0.9"/> is it what it stands for go <trunc>bet</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Go Local on a Better Environment GLOBE <pause dur="0.5"/> so they have about nine <pause dur="0.5"/> GLOBE groups in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.9"/> which are neighbourhood level <pause dur="1.0"/> and in fact you are sitting in one of our <pause dur="0.3"/> in one of the neighbourhoods 'cause the university has its own <pause dur="0.4"/> GLOBE group <pause dur="0.8"/> which i am a member <pause dur="0.3"/> not a very active member of it these days <pause dur="1.6"/> which i bet you don't know about do you <pause dur="0.9"/> not many people know about this as they say but there is a university GLOBE group <pause dur="0.2"/> which has made <pause dur="0.7"/> undertaken some survey work on cycling and <pause dur="0.4"/> made inputs on waste

management and on transport <pause dur="0.6"/> policy for the university <pause dur="2.7"/> there's nine of those for different parts of <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.8"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> they have tried <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.3"/> the council have tried to facilitate <pause dur="0.5"/> local <pause dur="0.2"/> action so they've not <pause dur="1.5"/> sort of <pause dur="1.0"/> that's why it took so long to get the university <trunc>g</trunc> up and going because they didn't push it <pause dur="0.4"/> but they kind of facilitated it <pause dur="0.3"/> they often in particularly in the early stages of GLOBE groups they they obviously try and get <pause dur="0.9"/> existing people who are active involved <pause dur="0.9"/> and then they invite people to come along <pause dur="0.8"/> but they often use consultants in the early parts <pause dur="1.8"/> professional facilitators <pause dur="0.9"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> to listen and develop <pause dur="1.1"/> # a an action plan for the local community <pause dur="2.0"/>

# <pause dur="0.3"/> two of the <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>m</trunc> two of the two or three of the <trunc>m</trunc> the early groups the early groups are the most active <pause dur="0.2"/> well the most active <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>n</trunc> # Newtown <pause dur="0.4"/> have been very active <pause dur="1.0"/> # Battle in off the Oxford Road <pause dur="1.0"/> have been active <pause dur="0.9"/> Katesgrove <pause dur="0.5"/> and Southcote <pause dur="1.1"/> have been very active groups and Caversham as well <pause dur="3.3"/> so there actually are these local neighbourhood groups and there's a there's a <trunc>neighbourh</trunc> there's a forum <pause dur="0.2"/> the council <pause dur="0.8"/> has a <trunc>c</trunc> has a forum <pause dur="0.8"/> and that forum is is made up of all these <pause dur="0.6"/> neighbourhood groups but they also have <pause dur="0.2"/> councillors members the <pause dur="0.2"/> the senior <pause dur="0.3"/> members of the council <pause dur="0.2"/> involved <pause dur="0.3"/> senior officers from the departments of the council come along <pause dur="0.5"/> and answer questions and feed information and receive <pause dur="0.5"/> information <pause dur="0.3"/> from the GLOBE groups <pause dur="0.2"/> so they've they've been

given quite a bit of prominence <pause dur="1.0"/> in <pause dur="0.9"/> in influencing the council <pause dur="1.6"/> and they've fed in a number of initiatives <pause dur="0.6"/> that the council have worked with <pause dur="3.2"/> so you can see that <pause dur="0.4"/> there are examples then of <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> these kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> fora and stakeholder groups operating at different levels <pause dur="1.8"/> in terms of the issues arising from them <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="3.4"/> we've we mentioned # there's been quite a bit of <pause dur="0.3"/> of activity <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> not a hundred per cent <pause dur="0.3"/> but i think something like <pause dur="0.4"/> seventy or eighty per cent of local authorities <pause dur="0.4"/> have been involved <pause dur="0.4"/> have developed these <pause dur="1.7"/> the reality is that it's variable in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> bottom up <pause dur="0.2"/> approaches <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> again i say is probably one of the better ones <pause dur="2.6"/> but there are other good examples <pause dur="2.4"/> they've used <pause dur="0.7"/> quite a lot of innovation <pause dur="1.8"/> they've used fora getting <pause dur="0.4"/> workshops together they've built they've used consensus building <pause dur="1.0"/> consensus building <trunc>b</trunc> <trunc>b</trunc> is based on the principle of win-win trying to negotiate win-win situations <pause dur="0.7"/> so they're trying to build <pause dur="0.4"/> an agreement and a commitment <pause dur="0.7"/> to

environmental policy and action which everyone can sign up to which benefits everyone <pause dur="0.6"/> to try and resolve conflicts of interest <pause dur="1.6"/> it was interesting # <pause dur="0.3"/> in Lancashire for instance Lancashire <pause dur="0.7"/> they spent a long time negotiating with major stakeholder groups <pause dur="1.1"/> business and others <pause dur="0.9"/> and they got to a stage where they could agree to about something like ninety-six per cent of the proposed actions in their plan <pause dur="1.1"/> but there was there was still <pause dur="0.2"/> # four per cent or so <pause dur="0.2"/> of things that they couldn't get agreement on so they left it they kind of put it on the back burner and said right we're <pause dur="0.3"/> we're not going to <pause dur="0.7"/> # derail the process just because there's four per cent of issues here that people can't agree on <pause dur="0.3"/> so they kind of put it on the back burner and they come back to it and they've come back to it <pause dur="0.4"/> those issues to try and address them again <pause dur="0.6"/> so there are ways of managing <pause dur="0.2"/> this process of of conflict mediation <pause dur="1.9"/> they've used visioning visioning has become a big thing in Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.8"/> so you i

don't know <pause dur="0.4"/> there's lots of little stories of you know <pause dur="0.2"/> people getting together in village halls in in villages <pause dur="0.5"/> and they <trunc>pi</trunc> they they they sort of almost wipe wipe your brain clean they say right clear your brain of everything <pause dur="0.7"/> and let's <pause dur="0.6"/> and create a vision <pause dur="0.5"/> what do you want <pause dur="0.2"/> your village or neighbourhood to be like <pause dur="0.2"/> in twenty years' time <pause dur="0.7"/> so you kind of just clear it and say what way if you <trunc>wa</trunc> if you wanted an ideal vision of the future <pause dur="0.4"/> what would it be <pause dur="0.6"/> and they use that visioning as part of <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>ob</trunc> then the objectives well how do we get there <pause dur="0.4"/> so they start working back and saying right what do we need to put into place to move towards that vision <pause dur="4.2"/> they've done <trunc>apprais</trunc> village appraisals <pause dur="0.3"/> they've done planning for real exercises planning for real is kind of # <pause dur="0.2"/> getting community groups <pause dur="0.6"/> into a room usually with the developers <pause dur="0.4"/> and the planners <pause dur="0.6"/> to negotiate and discuss <pause dur="0.4"/> development proposals on particular schemes <pause dur="0.5"/> so they run <pause dur="0.3"/> again Islington have run planning for real <pause dur="0.7"/>

<trunc>s</trunc> # on on development sites on on major development areas <pause dur="0.5"/> saying you know getting people together stakeholders saying what do we want to see on this <pause dur="0.3"/> what's <pause dur="0.3"/> what's viable <pause dur="0.2"/> what's economic <pause dur="0.5"/> what can we get on this <pause dur="1.0"/> planning for real <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> citizens' juries <pause dur="0.3"/> and various other initiatives and if you look at <trunc>y</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # Steven Young's <pause dur="0.3"/> report and there's a copy in the Resource Centre in Land Management <pause dur="0.5"/> you'll see examples of these things <pause dur="1.4"/> there has been difficulties in you know <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole idea of Agenda Twenty-one is is to <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>di</trunc> have dialogue in fact <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> call their Agenda Twenty-one process <pause dur="0.3"/> a dialogue with <pause dur="0.2"/> the community with business <pause dur="1.1"/> but there are difficulties in communicating <pause dur="0.3"/> communicating having dialogue is not easy <pause dur="2.0"/> there <pause dur="0.2"/> there are problems because you tend to have the people that always join you have the green ghetto <pause dur="0.4"/> might call it <pause dur="0.2"/> people that are always involved in environmental issues <pause dur="0.2"/> and the people that get involved in Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="1.1"/> you want to try and <pause dur="1.4"/> open up the process to

those people who don't usually join in <pause dur="0.8"/> i i've talked to the Agenda Twenty-one guy at <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> and he says well there's about <pause dur="0.3"/> in each of each of these GLOBE groups there's probably about <pause dur="0.6"/> maybe tops five per cent <pause dur="0.4"/> maybe not <pause dur="0.5"/> of the local population that's in that are involved in some way <pause dur="1.1"/> but maybe about another <trunc>thir</trunc> about thirty per cent <pause dur="0.3"/> have heard about it <pause dur="0.9"/> obviously <pause dur="0.4"/> not the thirty per cent in in the university here <pause dur="0.6"/> but # <pause dur="0.5"/> we're still talking about seventy per cent who haven't even heard about <pause dur="0.4"/> what's happening in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> despite that it's very proactive and it advertises itself and it has <pause dur="0.4"/> puts it in the paper quite regularly <pause dur="0.6"/> people just don't pick it up <pause dur="3.4"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> there certainly is apathy <pause dur="0.4"/> people do not <pause dur="0.4"/> want to get involved <pause dur="0.7"/> don't want to be involved in this <pause dur="0.7"/> don't care <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact there was research done in Lancashire <pause dur="0.9"/> # part of the Lancashire programme they they they actually interviewed they kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> took <pause dur="0.2"/> at random <pause dur="0.3"/> people from the community <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> got them into little workshops and discussed

sustainable development <pause dur="1.0"/> and many of them were <pause dur="0.2"/> apathetic because they basically just didn't believe <pause dur="0.3"/> they didn't have any faith <pause dur="0.2"/> in local government <pause dur="0.3"/> or big business <pause dur="0.3"/> or the central government to do anything <pause dur="0.6"/> there was apathy because they basically felt <pause dur="0.5"/> they won't do anything <pause dur="0.5"/> or it won't matter <pause dur="0.5"/> 'cause it's all run from <pause dur="0.5"/> Washington <pause dur="0.8"/> or from global conglomerates who go on and <pause dur="0.6"/> pollute the <trunc>at</trunc> pollute the atmosphere and the seas or whatever <pause dur="0.5"/> so <trunc>the</trunc> there is apathy a large <trunc>ap</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> element of apathy <pause dur="0.2"/> in this <trunc>br</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> in the communities <pause dur="1.0"/> which which again is is just very difficult to break down <pause dur="2.1"/> there is social exclusion </u><pause dur="2.2"/> <u who="sm1150" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.4"/> is with with all of them is there a problem of being a sort of a lack of direction <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> as it gets <unclear>more</unclear> further and further away from <pause dur="0.8"/> i mean # i'm wondering about the expertise of <pause dur="0.5"/> # some of these GLOBE groups and now </u><u who="nm1148" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="sm1150" trans="overlap"> i just thought <pause dur="0.3"/> # if <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> only put itself together</u><u who="nm1148" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="sm1150" trans="latching"> # <pause dur="0.3"/> is there do they put someone in a position who knows actually what's <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> of the government's actually about or </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1148" trans="pause"> yeah well it well it well <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> you know using <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> as example as a good example <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> don't want to define things they they don't want to <pause dur="0.2"/> dictate <pause dur="0.6"/> so they've allowed the local groups to define their own terms what this means for them <pause dur="0.6"/> what it means for them <pause dur="0.2"/> actually is very simple things like dogs' mess <pause dur="0.8"/> you know that that <pause dur="0.2"/> was the key

issue <pause dur="0.4"/> in Southcote <pause dur="0.7"/> ward # <pause dur="0.2"/> neighbourhood <pause dur="0.6"/> was dogs' mess <pause dur="0.4"/> that is sustainable development <pause dur="0.8"/> you know and <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> so if you look at it you think well is that <pause dur="0.3"/> is that what sustainable development is about well <pause dur="0.3"/> to them <pause dur="0.3"/> it's important <pause dur="0.2"/> so you can <pause dur="0.2"/> they you have to work with their own definitions of what's important <pause dur="0.7"/> also about direction <pause dur="0.5"/> another problem and i don't know if i can't remember if it's on my list is is <pause dur="0.2"/> local groups tend to think locally <pause dur="0.4"/> they tend to see the world <pause dur="0.6"/> in the neighbourhood <pause dur="1.0"/> and so <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> have tried to introduce a transport <pause dur="0.3"/> group <pause dur="0.3"/> to think about strategic transport issues in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.0"/> and they've had a very bad <pause dur="0.6"/> response or a bad <unclear>i'm sorry</unclear> a very <pause dur="0.7"/> limited <pause dur="0.5"/> perspective from GLOBE groups <pause dur="0.5"/> they just <pause dur="0.3"/> don't see <pause dur="0.9"/> the strategic issues <pause dur="0.2"/> so you you you're right there are problems <pause dur="0.4"/> about <pause dur="0.5"/> well direction <pause dur="0.7"/> vision <pause dur="0.3"/> i suppose <pause dur="0.6"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> and and and whether it really is about sustainable development or about <pause dur="1.3"/> more mundane things i don't know it depends but you you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> from <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s point of view

they feel they got to respect <pause dur="0.8"/> giving these people <pause dur="0.8"/> # a their voice <pause dur="0.3"/> to listen to them <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="2.8"/> social exclusion <pause dur="0.7"/> many groups are again <pause dur="0.2"/> apathetic because they've been excluded from decision making for years <pause dur="1.1"/> and not listened to so they're not going to get involved <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>sh</trunc> i remember when i was in Sheffield <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> Sheffield did something like this they did a <pause dur="0.3"/> they did a city centre plan for Sheffield back in actually back in well early nineties <pause dur="1.0"/> and they wanted to <trunc>e</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> engage with local groups who are normally marginalized so they they they <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>sp</trunc> specified # Asian women <pause dur="1.1"/> young unemployed <pause dur="0.5"/> people <pause dur="0.8"/> and a <trunc>gr</trunc> and various other groups that they wanted to have dialogue with and they set up they set up workshops <pause dur="0.7"/> the young unemployed one <pause dur="1.2"/> these young kids who were basically pissed off <pause dur="0.4"/> about being on the dole <pause dur="0.4"/> and getting nothing out of society basically smashed the place up <pause dur="0.4"/> they just they smashed the they had they had # a <trunc>fo</trunc> a forum meeting or a workshop <pause dur="0.7"/> and after sort of growling a bit

because they didn't see what how this was relevant to their <pause dur="0.3"/> needs this <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>wh</trunc> why do why do you <trunc>wh</trunc> why do you want some input on a <pause dur="0.7"/> on a city centre plan when all's we need is a job <pause dur="0.6"/> you know and and you've got to then got to convince people that this might lead <pause dur="0.4"/> to a better economy and a better environment <pause dur="0.5"/> but they basically smashed the place up <pause dur="0.3"/> and it <pause dur="0.2"/> fell apart <pause dur="0.6"/> but that <pause dur="0.3"/> you know if you're dealing it goes back to Baltimore <pause dur="0.6"/> dealing with some of the areas that we were walking around in Baltimore must be very difficult to getting people engaged <pause dur="0.6"/> given the conditions and issues that they're facing <pause dur="1.8"/> so social exclusion <pause dur="0.2"/> involvement of people <pause dur="0.9"/> # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="4.3"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> solution was to concentrate on real issues in other words <pause dur="0.8"/> if dogs' <pause dur="0.4"/> muck is the issue that people are worried about then let's deal with it <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words let's build <pause dur="0.3"/> from the bottom <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>you know <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> let's build awareness and and and involvement <pause dur="0.5"/> if if <pause dur="0.2"/> dogs' <sic corr="muck">musk</sic> is the issue then they <pause dur="0.2"/> they they say right well let's concentrate on it <pause dur="0.6"/> so they

as i say a lot of the initiatives in Southcote are are going round flagging dogs' muck <pause dur="0.4"/> they have little flags they put <pause dur="0.3"/> on the grass <pause dur="0.2"/> identifying to show people how extensive this problem is <pause dur="0.2"/> awareness building <pause dur="0.6"/> so it's interesting you can start from very <pause dur="0.5"/> mundane <pause dur="0.2"/> but very important issues for people <pause dur="0.9"/> and the hope <pause dur="0.2"/> the hope again is that it then raises awareness <pause dur="0.4"/> raises people's <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> eyes above the local <pause dur="1.1"/> but it's been a problem <pause dur="1.8"/> range of interests involved again # <pause dur="0.2"/> well it goes back <pause dur="0.4"/> it's very you know if you're if you're if you're a <pause dur="0.2"/> officer <pause dur="0.2"/> working for the council <pause dur="0.5"/> and you want to facilitate a local <pause dur="0.2"/> agenda process <pause dur="1.1"/> you're you're likely to go to the people that are active <pause dur="0.3"/> you know those are the people that have <pause dur="0.4"/> shown interest in the past that are more prepared to get involved <pause dur="0.9"/> and so you end up with a kind of <pause dur="0.8"/> a list of acceptable <pause dur="0.7"/> people <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so there's a danger you you therefore don't include or don't seek out <pause dur="0.5"/> those groups that <pause dur="0.2"/> that might cause trouble like <trunc>unemploy</trunc> well

Sheffield were brave you know they kind of went right we're going to involve the <pause dur="0.2"/> young unemployed of Sheffield <pause dur="0.4"/> it failed <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but certainly not many other other authorities would say <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>ooh <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> no way <pause dur="0.6"/> you know we're not going to get into a dialogue <pause dur="0.6"/> with # <pause dur="0.4"/> people down this part of town or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> so it can be tricky <pause dur="1.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> conflicts of interest <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> we live in a <pause dur="0.4"/> society with <trunc>dif</trunc> people have different interests and you have conflicts of interest <pause dur="0.3"/> planning <pause dur="0.5"/> has historically been about <pause dur="0.7"/> mediating <pause dur="0.3"/> conflicts between developers and residents between <pause dur="0.2"/> environmental groups and companies <pause dur="0.8"/> between neighbourhoods and other neighbourhoods or whatever <pause dur="1.6"/> but there are some conflicts <pause dur="0.6"/> like the ones in Lancashire that could not be resolved they negotiated they <pause dur="0.4"/> built up consensus they had workshops <pause dur="0.3"/> but still there was a a a small minority of issues or <trunc>proble</trunc> or policy <pause dur="0.2"/> objectives <pause dur="0.4"/> which were not agreed upon <pause dur="3.1"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> in that sense there are some issues that <pause dur="0.6"/> maybe cannot be resolved

through consensus building <pause dur="0.4"/> or certainly <pause dur="0.3"/> take <pause dur="0.7"/> # make it very difficult <pause dur="1.5"/> coordination <pause dur="1.2"/> i've just mentioned you know the tendency for <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.9"/> for local people to think local <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> not think global <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.9"/> they they <trunc>g</trunc> they think and act local <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the thing about sustainable development <pause dur="0.2"/> as Rio said is you need to take action at all levels <pause dur="1.0"/> so if the people of <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> did have a problem with transport <pause dur="0.9"/> then they've got to think about how that problem which level <pause dur="0.4"/> they need to <trunc>a</trunc> tackle it you know who do they lobby <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> argue for <pause dur="0.3"/> if they want to push a transport issue they have to go to the regional level really nowadays <pause dur="0.8"/> # they could go through the local transport plan but they need to think <pause dur="0.7"/> you know strategically <pause dur="0.5"/> and that's often a problem <pause dur="0.7"/> also all these initiatives you know the local the county region and central they're not linked <pause dur="1.1"/> the only way they are linked <pause dur="0.7"/> is really <pause dur="0.2"/> by certain individuals <pause dur="0.8"/> who are who are members of each of these fora <pause dur="0.9"/> but often they don't know the others exist <pause dur="0.8"/> so

you have these kind of different layers of <pause dur="0.3"/> fora <pause dur="0.7"/> but there's no linkage <pause dur="0.2"/> SERPLAN when i was working with <trunc>ser</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> SERPLAN on their strategy <pause dur="0.8"/> we produced a participation strategy <pause dur="0.2"/> and one of the key things <trunc>wi</trunc> within it was to try <pause dur="0.4"/> and use <pause dur="0.4"/> the local groups the county <pause dur="0.2"/> particularly the county level <pause dur="0.3"/> fora <pause dur="0.7"/> to plug in as a kind of consultation mechanism <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> to get that feedback on the on the regional strategy <pause dur="0.6"/> but it never really happened it never really worked it was never developed <pause dur="0.4"/> so there's there is a fragmentation <pause dur="0.6"/> between these different levels of <pause dur="0.2"/> Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.3"/> stakeholder groups <pause dur="3.3"/> integration <pause dur="0.4"/> we've talked about coordination between the levels <pause dur="0.3"/> integration <pause dur="1.1"/> the danger is and it's always been a danger in organizations <pause dur="0.2"/> you give <pause dur="0.3"/> you give a guy some <pause dur="0.3"/> guy <pause dur="0.4"/> the job title you're Agenda Twenty-one officer <pause dur="0.3"/> there there there he is he sits there you we're doing the job we got a guy doing it <pause dur="0.4"/> or a team doing it <pause dur="0.5"/> but the thing about <pause dur="0.3"/> the thing about sustainable development and Agenda Twenty-one

is it it's got to permeate decision making <pause dur="0.6"/> it needs to be integrated across <pause dur="0.2"/> the organization <pause dur="2.9"/> and you have problems 'cause people <pause dur="0.6"/> doing their jobs <pause dur="0.4"/> as they've always done their jobs <pause dur="0.5"/> don't want to change the way they do their jobs they don't want to take on board these environmental <pause dur="0.5"/> funny things <pause dur="0.4"/> i remember i i did a project <pause dur="0.2"/> # for the government <pause dur="0.3"/> on defence estate looking at redundant defence estate <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> we had meetings with the <trunc>mi</trunc> Ministry of Defence who run <pause dur="0.3"/> the defence estate <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> i did this paper for them <pause dur="0.3"/> about environmental appraisal <pause dur="1.1"/> and i said <pause dur="0.3"/> you can look at the <trunc>im</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the defence estate in different ways and one way you can look at it <pause dur="0.4"/> is to # have a sustainability or environmental appraisal of the development process that occurs redevelopment <pause dur="0.7"/> and also you you have development appraisal financial <pause dur="0.2"/> you know like <pause dur="0.2"/> land mangers do <pause dur="0.8"/> it's what <trunc>la</trunc> it's what surveyors do they do development appraisals <pause dur="0.3"/> to to evaluate the market <pause dur="0.5"/> viability of a development scheme <pause dur="0.6"/> and this

guy from the M-O-D said <pause dur="0.4"/> i don't want to see environmental appraisal in the same paragraph as development appraisal that's a serious that's a serious appraisal that isn't that's Mickey Mouse appraisal <pause dur="0.3"/> so that's the kind of attitude you can get <pause dur="0.2"/> in an organization like the M-O-D <pause dur="0.4"/> the Ministry of Defence <pause dur="0.9"/> and in <trunc>f</trunc> in fact i was i was interviewing another guy <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in one of the regions <pause dur="1.1"/> in ninety-seven <pause dur="1.6"/> five years after a report came out <pause dur="0.2"/> in central government <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>encoura</trunc> well <pause dur="0.3"/> asking departments to do environmental appraisals <pause dur="0.2"/> of their policies and programmes <pause dur="1.0"/> and this guy said <pause dur="0.3"/> oh someone's just realized we've got to implement this environmental appraisal stuff <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is five years down the line they hadn't heard about it <pause dur="0.6"/> so it hadn't <trunc>intergra</trunc> it hadn't integrated gone down to the <trunc>bo</trunc> the grass roots <pause dur="0.5"/> so integration <pause dur="0.3"/> it's okay <pause dur="1.0"/> having this commitment and policies but it's got to it's actually got to mean something <pause dur="0.2"/> it's actually got to influence people's decision making <pause dur="0.8"/> and often <pause dur="0.4"/> people aren't prepared to move very easily </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm1148" trans="pause">

in Local <pause dur="0.3"/> Agenda Twenty-one initiatives <pause dur="2.4"/> or maybe <pause dur="0.2"/> they think the environmental agenda is a threat <pause dur="0.5"/> to their <pause dur="0.2"/> economic interests certainly there are tensions <pause dur="0.7"/> whether that it's a threat is another thing <pause dur="3.0"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>invo</trunc> the involvement of business has not been very high it's been a problem <pause dur="0.5"/> that's why <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> have their business agenda they said <pause dur="0.2"/> they almost set it aside as a separate agenda <pause dur="1.2"/> and it's only belatedly that <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> have really started trying to get to grips with business <pause dur="0.5"/> Agenda Twenty-one in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.7"/> finally sustain the initiative <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> back in Rio <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> they said by nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.9"/> we'll <pause dur="0.3"/> local government will have had a dialogue with their communities and produced a <trunc>s</trunc> # agenda <trunc>twent</trunc> a Local Agenda Twenty-one nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.5"/> so what do they do they have another conference in New York in ninety-six and say <pause dur="0.4"/> right we'll move the date two-thousand <pause dur="0.8"/> we you know 'cause nineteen-ninety-six has come and <pause dur="0.3"/> not many people have done this so we we got to keep it

going <pause dur="0.3"/> so two-thousand now is the <pause dur="0.2"/> is the new date you know we've just gone past that <pause dur="0.8"/> what's going to keep it going again <pause dur="0.3"/> you know there's a there's a danger here that <pause dur="0.9"/> that people have sort of <pause dur="0.9"/> done it <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's gone <pause dur="0.6"/> and the thing about sustainable development and about <pause dur="0.2"/> Agenda Twenty-one is it it's supposed to keep going it's supposed to keep going in circles <pause dur="0.9"/> the dialogue is supposed to keep going <pause dur="0.3"/> the actions are supposed to keep greening practices <pause dur="0.8"/> but it is difficult maintaining this <pause dur="0.9"/> particularly when you have government <pause dur="0.5"/> and local authority priorities go up and down you know the environment <pause dur="0.6"/> was big in the <trunc>ear</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> early nineties it sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> dropped <pause dur="0.7"/> during the mid-nineties it's not picked up as well as it did before <pause dur="0.4"/> you know you're fighting other priorities social <trunc>e</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> exclusion <pause dur="0.2"/> inclusion now <pause dur="0.4"/> big agendas education <pause dur="0.8"/> okay you can you can define education as sustainable

development <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> there are <pause dur="0.6"/> problems trying to keep <pause dur="0.5"/> Agenda Twenty-one Local Agenda Twenty-one <pause dur="0.3"/> in the environmental agenda keep going <pause dur="0.4"/> luckily <trunc>ev</trunc> every so often we have an environmental disaster somewhere <pause dur="0.2"/> even in Holland <pause dur="0.5"/> where firework factories blow up <pause dur="0.4"/> # and cause and people say well hey what's this going on <pause dur="0.6"/> even in Holland <pause dur="0.5"/> which is supposed to have a fantastic environmental <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # regulation system <pause dur="0.7"/> so you every so often you have a disaster which then puts it back on the agenda and they say oh yes we must you know we must tackle environmental problems <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's what we got <pause dur="0.2"/> we've got a <pause dur="0.4"/> a a <trunc>p</trunc> <pause dur="0.6"/> a substantial process <pause dur="0.7"/> variable <pause dur="1.5"/> quality <pause dur="0.7"/> variable impacts <pause dur="0.6"/> difficult to <trunc>ke</trunc> keep it going but it's still on the agenda <pause dur="1.0"/> next week i think we're looking at the local economy <pause dur="0.3"/> so very much looking at the business side of it <pause dur="0.7"/> and how you might <pause dur="0.2"/> have a green <pause dur="0.2"/> economy what it might look like what vision <pause dur="0.2"/> of a green economy <pause dur="1.0"/> thanks very much