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<title>Decision making in the European Union</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Politics and International Studies</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ss</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>




<u who="nm1177"> okay everybody hello nice to see you hope you had a good reading week <pause dur="0.3"/> have your attention please <pause dur="1.7"/> at the back at the sides <pause dur="0.4"/> have you all got one of these <kinesic desc="holds up handout" iterated="n"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1178" trans="pause"> yep </u> <u who="sm1179" trans="latching"> yep </u> <u who="sm1180" trans="latching"> yep </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> all right <pause dur="0.3"/> you'll see on the front you've just got a very brief <pause dur="0.2"/> overview a couple of extra references <pause dur="0.7"/> # i'll talk about the conciliation procedure <trunc>la</trunc> later on and there's a web site which the # European Parliament has put up for its # <pause dur="0.2"/> conciliation committee <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's very good it's got loads of information probably too much but <pause dur="0.5"/> # it'll it's an up to date <pause dur="1.5"/> database which you can use <pause dur="0.2"/> at your leisure <pause dur="0.5"/> all right so that's at the # <pause dur="0.4"/> footnote three <pause dur="0.3"/> that's the web site reference there <pause dur="0.4"/> # on the back you've got <pause dur="0.2"/> your lovely pictures of codecision and <pause dur="0.5"/> # cooperation procedures <pause dur="0.5"/> we're being filmed today <pause dur="0.6"/> because i'm going to be a star <pause dur="0.3"/> <vocal desc="exclamation" iterated="n" n="sf1181"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> </u><u who="sm1182" trans="latching"> you are already </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.4"/> no i'm not actually <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="1"/> oh thank you that's lovely </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm1183" trans="pause">

worth ten per cent isn't it </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="1"/> yeah no it's just for a # it's for a C-D-ROM is that right </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="om1184" trans="pause"> that's right yeah we're # <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> well i'm involved in a project where i'm filming lectures from <trunc>e</trunc> every <pause dur="0.2"/> different department and # we're making a C-D-ROM for foreign students <pause dur="0.7"/> to help improve their comprehension of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> academic lectures <pause dur="0.9"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="0.2"/> that's about it </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="om1184" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> very kindly agreed to be filmed </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> it's vanity you know <pause dur="0.7"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # so i can give one to my mother for Christmas which is great <pause dur="0.5"/> all right so that's the basic background that's why we've got cameras and stuff here <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah so no rude comments please <pause dur="1.1"/> # okay decision making procedures <pause dur="1.4"/> now then have you all got hold of the reading okay <pause dur="1.8"/> no same sort of result <pause dur="0.5"/> # well i've got some extra ones there there's the Corbett one which is very good on <pause dur="0.6"/> in in the J-C-M-S on # <pause dur="0.4"/> the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.6"/> and there's another Earnshaw and Judge one <pause dur="0.2"/> Early Days which is on <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> on the

codecision and that's in JEPP <pause dur="0.5"/> ninety-five <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> there's other references as well <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="2.4"/> but i'll give those <pause dur="0.3"/> to you <pause dur="0.2"/> in the seminars and i'll give them to Pete directly <pause dur="2.1"/> okay so decision making why is it so important who cares about this tedious <pause dur="0.5"/> # part of the # European Union <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> as you'll see throughout the lecture here and as you've probably identified through your reading <pause dur="0.3"/> they don't get easier they get more and more complicated these decision making procedures <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> # # <pause dur="0.3"/> part of the reason for # <pause dur="0.2"/> going through them <pause dur="0.3"/> in this lecture is to explain why that's happened <pause dur="0.5"/> and to # try and identify what the consequences are <pause dur="0.3"/> for the European Union Union as a system <pause dur="2.1"/> well what do procedures do well first of all they set up a certain set of rules and norms <pause dur="0.3"/> # which <pause dur="0.5"/> # dictate how people <pause dur="0.2"/> interact <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is important at the European level remember because <pause dur="0.3"/> we've talked about these theories of international <trunc>inte</trunc> of European integration from the international <pause dur="0.3"/> relations perspective <pause dur="0.5"/> and

these approaches both emphasize the importance of rules and norms <pause dur="0.6"/> so from the intergovernmentalist perspective you've got sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> a realist <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>r</trunc> or even a regime approach <pause dur="0.2"/> which talks about the establishment of <pause dur="0.3"/> rules <pause dur="0.2"/> and # and routines oh sorry rules and norms <pause dur="0.4"/> # so that member states can cooperate and achieve <pause dur="0.4"/> their national interests in a more effective fashion <pause dur="0.6"/> from neofunctionalists <pause dur="0.2"/> you have rules which then spill over <pause dur="0.2"/> into <pause dur="0.4"/> new <pause dur="0.2"/> # policy areas and which promote a a shared sense of identity <pause dur="1.0"/> and we'll see that <pause dur="0.3"/> through the development of these rules over the over the history <pause dur="0.4"/> # especially over the last twenty years <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the European Union <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> you can see a development of more shared beliefs and <pause dur="0.4"/> more <pause dur="0.3"/> # discussion between <pause dur="0.6"/> the <trunc>inst</trunc> the key institutions of the European Union <pause dur="0.2"/> to the extent that their boundaries have become blurred <pause dur="0.7"/> and that's a very important element in the post-<pause dur="0.4"/>Amsterdam <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> effect of the codecision procedure <pause dur="1.4"/> and for more

information on that i'll refer you to the # <pause dur="0.2"/> to these # <pause dur="0.3"/> to this <pause dur="0.3"/> web site reference where there's a lot more information about <pause dur="0.3"/> the conciliation procedure <pause dur="2.0"/> right we can see that <pause dur="0.3"/> decision making procedures have been very important in <pause dur="0.2"/> the history of European integration <pause dur="0.3"/> the Luxembourg compromise for example <pause dur="0.3"/> was a form of decision making procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> which radically affected <pause dur="0.3"/> the evolution of European integration <pause dur="0.2"/> in the nineteen-seventies <pause dur="0.4"/> you remember then that the # <pause dur="0.2"/> emphasis on reaching unanimity became an important <pause dur="0.3"/> rule <pause dur="1.1"/> in # <pause dur="0.2"/> in in <pause dur="0.2"/> council decision making <pause dur="1.3"/> well what we can see <pause dur="0.2"/> through the consultation cooperation codecision procedures <pause dur="0.3"/> is a movement towards <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> # a common <pause dur="0.3"/> focus on <pause dur="0.7"/> # promoting a shared <pause dur="0.6"/> # direction <pause dur="0.4"/> # a shared <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> pursuance of a European orientation a <trunc>com</trunc> a set of common interests <pause dur="0.4"/> # instead of <pause dur="0.2"/> the specific interest <pause dur="0.2"/> and this has partly been compensated <pause dur="1.2"/> by the # <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>in</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> increased role of the European Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but it's also <pause dur="0.4"/> been the

result of <pause dur="0.3"/> changing procedures <pause dur="0.3"/> in the Council of Ministers as well <pause dur="2.0"/> okay so there's four main decision making procedures in the E-U <pause dur="1.2"/> and i forgot one on your handout <pause dur="0.5"/> # which is the assent procedure <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> these are the consultation procedure the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.5"/> the codecision procedure and the assent procedure <pause dur="2.6"/> okay the first one <pause dur="1.1"/> is the consultation procedure <pause dur="3.5"/> and this one # encapsulate the # the the exam question which you often get <pause dur="0.4"/> or see we set a lot in past exam papers <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> of the commission proposes the council decides discuss <pause dur="0.7"/> and this very much used to typify <pause dur="0.3"/> the # the relationship <pause dur="0.4"/> of decision making between the council <pause dur="0.2"/> and the commission <pause dur="0.3"/> commission will come up with a proposal <pause dur="0.4"/> as its formal function requires <pause dur="0.2"/> and the council will make the decision <pause dur="0.2"/> the European Parliament only had <pause dur="0.2"/> a very limited impact <pause dur="0.2"/> on the decision making procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> the Economic and Social Committee had a very limited impact <pause dur="0.3"/> and they were effectively the main

institutions that had <pause dur="0.3"/> # some input onto the <trunc>deci</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> onto the decision making process <pause dur="1.8"/> so the commission proposes the council decides <pause dur="0.4"/> is very much <pause dur="0.2"/> the # the descriptive of <pause dur="0.2"/> the consultation procedure <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you have the commission <trunc>ini</trunc> initiates a proposal <pause dur="0.3"/> the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> gives an opinion in other words it opines <pause dur="1.0"/> and then the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.5"/> takes the decision either by a qualified majority <pause dur="0.4"/> or by unanimity <pause dur="4.5"/> and that was the key decision making procedure <pause dur="1.3"/> in # <pause dur="1.7"/> for much of the period of <pause dur="0.2"/> European integration <pause dur="0.4"/> up until <pause dur="1.1"/> # the Single European Act <pause dur="3.8"/> an important <pause dur="0.3"/> event though in the consultation procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> was the <pause dur="0.3"/> European Court of Justice's nineteen-seventy-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> isoglucose ruling <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="2.6"/> <u who="sm1185" trans="pause"> nineteen-seventy-nine </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> hey <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah nineteen-seventy-nine <pause dur="1.3"/> isoglucose is the sort of stuff John Barnes drinks you know <pause dur="0.8"/> gives you energy fast that sort of stuff <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> now <trunc>isoglu</trunc> the isoglucose <pause dur="0.2"/> ruling was important <pause dur="1.2"/> # because <pause dur="1.6"/> it <pause dur="0.3"/> forced the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/>

wait for the European Parliament to give its opinion <pause dur="2.3"/> now previously this was something which <pause dur="0.4"/> # the Council of Ministers was went <pause dur="0.2"/> was meant to do <pause dur="0.2"/> but didn't necessarily have to <pause dur="1.3"/> and nineteen-seventy-nine was important because <pause dur="1.1"/> this was the year in which the European Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> # was first <pause dur="0.5"/> elected <pause dur="0.2"/> through some form of direct election <pause dur="0.4"/> and so the European Court of Justice was recognizing this <pause dur="0.3"/> and requiring that the Council of Ministers took this on board <pause dur="0.3"/> and incorporated the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> formally into its decisions <pause dur="1.8"/> or at least considered <pause dur="0.2"/> the opinion of the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> in its decisions <pause dur="3.4"/> but it didn't really mean an awful lot i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> just 'cause the European <pause dur="0.6"/> Parliament's views were being considered <pause dur="0.3"/> didn't mean that the Council of Ministers was actually going to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to follow them at all <pause dur="4.5"/> and this is still the sort of relationship <pause dur="0.3"/> which you have in <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> in the second and third pillars of # <pause dur="0.6"/> the Maastricht Treaty such as common foreign and security policy <pause dur="3.4"/>

and that means that the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> has the right effectively to be involved in the in the # <pause dur="0.5"/> in # <pause dur="0.4"/> # discussions <pause dur="0.5"/> # that come up <pause dur="0.4"/> that that that <trunc>r</trunc> that result in particular decisions <pause dur="0.2"/> in these two pillars <pause dur="0.2"/> but it doesn't give it a formal <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a formal role <pause dur="4.2"/> okay the second procedure <pause dur="1.9"/> is the cooperation procedure <pause dur="8.2"/> all right now if you flip over your page you'll see the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> in its full glory <pause dur="3.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> briefly the cooperation procedure came about for two main reasons <pause dur="0.4"/> first of all the Single European Market programme if you remember had <pause dur="0.3"/> a list of three-hundred-odd <pause dur="0.3"/> proposals which they had to get through very quickly <pause dur="0.7"/> and this required the extension of qualified majority voting in the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> in order to ensure that they'd <pause dur="0.3"/> get all these # all all these decisions made <pause dur="0.3"/> in time <pause dur="1.6"/> in time to meet the ninety-two deadline <pause dur="0.8"/> and the greater involvement of the European Parliament which comes through <pause dur="0.2"/> the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> compensated for the

resulting loss in democratic accountability <pause dur="0.5"/> all right so you have a movement from <pause dur="0.5"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> accountability of <pause dur="0.3"/> the member states in the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.5"/> to the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> through the cooperation procedure <pause dur="3.3"/> # the second reason <pause dur="1.3"/> for the cooperation procedure was because M-E-Ps were <pause dur="0.4"/> unrepresented <pause dur="0.7"/> under-represented rather in the decision making process despite their direct elections <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's a lot of action <pause dur="0.2"/> around the time of nineteen-eighty-four <pause dur="0.3"/> when the European Parliament came up with a draft treaty on European Union <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> which argued for a greater role of the European Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> in decision making <pause dur="0.8"/> and the cooperation procedure was if you like the first <pause dur="0.5"/> significant institutional development <pause dur="0.3"/> that reflected <pause dur="0.6"/> # a recognition <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.9"/> the # of of the role of the European Parliament <pause dur="5.0"/> the key difference is that the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> introduces two readings <pause dur="3.5"/> in the Council of Ministers to the consultation procedure's single readings <pause dur="0.5"/> all right

so the Council of Ministers has to think about it twice <pause dur="2.1"/> and the second reading forces the council <pause dur="0.3"/> to take into account the European Parliament's <pause dur="0.3"/> reaction <pause dur="0.3"/> to the council's common <pause dur="0.2"/> position <pause dur="10.3"/> okay have you got it in front of you <pause dur="1.1"/> your cooperation procedures <pause dur="1.2"/> # you want one there you go <pause dur="2.4"/> <event desc="passes out handout" iterated="n"/> there you go that's that's the one we're doing now <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> okay so the commission initiates its proposal the European Parliament gives an opinion <pause dur="0.3"/> commission takes a view on the European Parliament's opinion so <pause dur="0.3"/> there has to be some sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> understanding mutual understanding there between the commission <pause dur="0.3"/> and the European Parliament <pause dur="1.1"/> and the Council of Ministers adopts <pause dur="0.2"/> a common position by qualified majority voting <pause dur="1.8"/> all right so that's the first reading <pause dur="1.4"/> by the Council of Ministers <pause dur="2.0"/> now the European Parliament then has a fixed amount of time three months <pause dur="0.3"/> to consider <pause dur="0.4"/> the # Council of Ministers' <pause dur="0.2"/> common position <pause dur="1.9"/> can either # approve <pause dur="0.3"/> the council position or take

no view shoots through into <pause dur="0.3"/> an act so that becomes legislation <pause dur="2.3"/> or it can reject by an absolute majority <pause dur="2.3"/> and this means that the council can only accept <pause dur="0.6"/> # sorry can only # <pause dur="0.8"/> # push the act through <pause dur="0.3"/> by unanimity <pause dur="2.6"/> so they're the two extremes <pause dur="1.2"/> in the middle however <pause dur="0.3"/> the European Parliament can amend the council position by an absolute majority <pause dur="2.6"/> and then <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>europ</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.2"/> the the commission reconsiders it <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> and the council then has a number of different options <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> which basically <pause dur="0.2"/> vary in their difficulty <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's this sort of variation in in <pause dur="0.3"/> in difficulty of achieving <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> a decision in the council <pause dur="0.2"/> that is the key impact here of <pause dur="0.2"/> of a cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.5"/> because <pause dur="1.3"/> if the # <pause dur="0.2"/> if if it's a highly <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>con</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> contested issue <pause dur="1.5"/> which is reflected in the amendments <pause dur="0.3"/> of the European Parliament <pause dur="2.6"/> # then the chances are that this contestability will be reflected in some way or form in the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> i mean it says here that <pause dur="0.2"/> # <reading>within three months the council can amend the

commission's <pause dur="0.3"/> proposals <pause dur="0.3"/> by unanimity</reading> <pause dur="1.6"/> now that means that # <pause dur="0.3"/> everybody has to agree <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="1.5"/> if these amendments are in any way contestable <pause dur="0.3"/> it's unlikely that they're going to push through <pause dur="0.3"/> and the key thing about the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> was not just its sort of recognition <pause dur="0.3"/> of # of the European Parliament's importance <pause dur="0.5"/> but also because it <pause dur="0.2"/> it forced the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> consult and to work with <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>coun</trunc> with the # with the European Parliament <pause dur="0.6"/> and # and to take its views on board <pause dur="9.4"/> and that's sort of affected the balance between <pause dur="0.3"/> the # the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament <pause dur="1.9"/> right now the extent of this legislation was really only about the <trunc>ninety-t</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> reaching the nineteen-ninety-two deadline <pause dur="0.3"/> # to achieve the Single European Market <pause dur="0.8"/> and the Maastricht Treaty extended these procedures to new areas <pause dur="0.5"/> that had <pause dur="0.2"/> # become the control of the reserve of the member states <pause dur="0.9"/> # alone <pause dur="0.3"/> so that was essentially in in <pause dur="0.4"/> pillar one of the Maastricht

Treaty <pause dur="0.4"/> you have the extension of # the <trunc>cooperas</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>cop</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> cooperation procedure much more broadly <pause dur="2.1"/> okay are there any # <pause dur="0.5"/> specific questions concerning </u><pause dur="2.1"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> yeah i have </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> the cooperation procedure </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> i mean if if <pause dur="0.4"/> can <pause dur="0.2"/> Parliament <pause dur="0.2"/> keep on rejecting proposals <pause dur="0.2"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> ever and a day or is there a way round that i mean are you got these time limits </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> right </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> but i mean <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> exactly what power has the E-P got over the Council of Ministers in terms of that sense of proposals <pause dur="0.5"/> if they're adamant to say that we don't want this to go through </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> right </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> at the end of the day the Council of Ministers say <pause dur="0.2"/> up yours it's going through and that's it </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> yeah that's i mean effectively the Council of Ministers can do that <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean if you look on the right here of the diagram <reading>within three months the <pause dur="0.2"/> European Parliament can reject the council's <pause dur="0.3"/> position by absolute majority</reading> </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> right <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> now that's not that's not easy to get an absolute majority anywhere in the European

Parliament because <pause dur="0.3"/> and we talked when we talked about it it's got a <pause dur="0.2"/> whole range of different groupings and there's no real party whipping <pause dur="0.3"/> and basically it means that <pause dur="0.3"/> you'll have parties on the left and the right of the spectrum will have to get together <pause dur="0.3"/> to get an absolute majority </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> right <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but if they do achieve that <pause dur="0.2"/> the council can still <pause dur="0.3"/> # adopt it by unanimity if they all agree <pause dur="0.9"/> so effectively the cooperation procedure gives a bit more power to the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> but it doesn't have any real veto right <pause dur="0.5"/> # and it can't really # <pause dur="0.6"/> upset <pause dur="0.3"/> the Council of Ministers by <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> forcing it to take a decision it doesn't want to take </u><pause dur="2.6"/> <u who="sm1187" trans="pause"> what is the # <pause dur="0.5"/> qualified majority rule in the council </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> # <trunc>qualifi</trunc> we talked about this when we talked about the voting system <pause dur="0.7"/> all right so you have a different number of # votes which are # <trunc>a</trunc> attributed to the different member states <pause dur="0.3"/> with respect to their size <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and the qualified majority voting rule # <pause dur="0.4"/>

means that instead of just having an absolute majority <pause dur="0.5"/> in certain areas which are set out in in # in treaty <pause dur="0.4"/> procedures <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.4"/> # you can go for a qualified majority <pause dur="0.3"/> voting <pause dur="0.4"/> a qualified majority so it has to be <pause dur="0.3"/> for example more than an absolute majority </u><pause dur="1.5"/> <u who="sm1187" trans="pause"> <trunc>a</trunc> as in including what # majority of the population </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> no no in terms of the votes cast <pause dur="0.7"/> do you remember when we talked about the # the Council of Ministers we went through all the the distribution of votes <pause dur="0.3"/> basically it's organized so that the <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> so that the # larger member states together <pause dur="0.5"/> can't overrule the smaller member states <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> well that means that # <pause dur="1.2"/> you have a a sort of whole range of different voting combinations that you can have there <pause dur="0.4"/> and # the qualified majority voting <pause dur="0.3"/> means that <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.6"/> # there is <pause dur="0.3"/> for example a requirement for greater <pause dur="0.4"/> than an absolute majority <pause dur="0.2"/> in the # <pause dur="0.2"/> in the decision <pause dur="0.7"/> for the decision to pass is that all right so the numbers have to add up to more than just <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/>

more than fifty per cent <pause dur="0.3"/> so it might be sixty per cent or <pause dur="0.5"/> whatever <pause dur="0.5"/> and it just means it's a way of <pause dur="0.5"/> of making it harder to make the decision <pause dur="0.3"/> without it becoming <trunc>un</trunc> <trunc>un</trunc> unanimous <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah <pause dur="1.5"/> okay good <pause dur="0.7"/> right on to the # codecision procedure then <pause dur="5.0"/> right the codecision procedure was set up in the treaty on European Union <pause dur="0.7"/> and this this gave the greatest boost to the European Parliament's <pause dur="0.4"/> powers <pause dur="0.3"/> to date <pause dur="1.7"/> # we'll also talk about how it fitted in with the # <pause dur="0.5"/> with the # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> Amsterdam Treaty as well which also extended the codecision procedure <pause dur="2.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> all right it was # established under <pause dur="0.5"/> article one-eight-nine-B of the Treaty of Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> so it's very much pillar one business <pause dur="2.4"/> and it took the cooperation procedure a step further <pause dur="2.4"/> so this time rather than just placing the Council of Ministers under a lot of pressure <pause dur="0.3"/> after European Parliament amendments <pause dur="0.7"/> the # codecision procedure provided the E-P with the power <pause dur="0.3"/> to veto decisions <pause dur="2.2"/> so it could actually throw out <pause dur="0.5"/> the # the

decisions of # <pause dur="0.3"/> the Council of Ministers <pause dur="3.4"/> however <pause dur="0.2"/> and this is <pause dur="0.2"/> what makes it different to <pause dur="0.3"/> the the # <pause dur="0.4"/> the Amsterdam amendments <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the procedure doesn't encourage the E-P to to employ this veto <pause dur="1.5"/> and it really encourages the promotion of shared decision making <pause dur="0.6"/> all right again there's this <pause dur="0.5"/> attempt to try and set up procedures which <pause dur="0.5"/> get everybody to agree <pause dur="0.3"/> and to come to some sort of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # mutual agreement <pause dur="5.3"/> all right so if you have a look at your piccies again <pause dur="1.6"/> you can have a try at this one <pause dur="12.7"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.4"/> right so <pause dur="0.8"/> for the first reading <pause dur="0.5"/> for the European Parliament and the council is the same as in the cooperation procedure <pause dur="0.9"/> all right so you've got the commission proposal to the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.5"/> the E-P opines <pause dur="0.4"/> and then the council establishes <pause dur="0.3"/> a common position by qualified majority voting <pause dur="5.5"/> and again <pause dur="0.2"/> you've got the European <pause dur="0.2"/> Parliament <pause dur="0.2"/> examining the council position <pause dur="0.7"/> sorry the common position <pause dur="0.3"/> and it can accept by doing nothing <pause dur="0.9"/> and

then it just goes straight through that's easy <pause dur="1.5"/> rejection <pause dur="0.8"/> by the European Parliament is slightly different as well <pause dur="2.2"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> if the E-P decides to reject <pause dur="0.3"/> by an absolute majority the council can convene a conciliation committee <pause dur="0.8"/> now the conciliation committee is <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> well the idea is was established <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> through the budget which was another area where the European Parliament had <pause dur="0.3"/> large amounts of powers <pause dur="0.6"/> and the conciliation committee was attempted <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>w</trunc> was established to try and <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> ensure that they reached some sort of agreement <pause dur="1.3"/> and gave it greater <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> and gave problem areas greater decisions <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> greater consideration rather <pause dur="1.6"/> the make-up of the <trunc>com</trunc> conciliation committee <pause dur="0.3"/> is <trunc>as</trunc> is effectively <pause dur="0.5"/> fifty-fifty council <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="0.8"/> and # European Parliament <pause dur="0.9"/> representatives <pause dur="6.0"/> and what you see here is a formal blurring of the boundary between the European Parliament <pause dur="0.6"/> and the Council of Ministers <pause dur="1.0"/> so the idea is to take <pause dur="0.3"/> members of each <pause dur="0.6"/> put them together in a room <pause dur="0.3"/> and get them to

think about a solution <pause dur="1.4"/> and that's the idea is obviously here is to try and break down that <pause dur="0.3"/> antagonism between <pause dur="0.2"/> supranational and intergovernmental <pause dur="0.4"/> # sort of views of the world <pause dur="8.9"/> so after the council has convened a conciliation committee when after the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> has rejected the common position <pause dur="1.5"/> the E-P can then confirm its rejection <pause dur="0.5"/> by an absolute majority <pause dur="13.4"/> okay so this is after the council has explained its position in greater detail to the European Parliament <pause dur="3.5"/> now if the European Parliament proposes amendments which is the sort of the # the dog leg out to the right of the diagram <pause dur="3.2"/> # the council can accept the amendments by a qualified majority voting <pause dur="0.9"/> if the commission agrees to the <trunc>ame</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> of the amendments <pause dur="0.7"/> and by unanimity if the commission doesn't <pause dur="2.7"/> but if the council <pause dur="0.5"/> doesn't like these amendments at all and rejects them <pause dur="0.9"/> then again a conciliation committee can be established <pause dur="4.1"/> now at this stage the conciliation committee

acts as a last chance for the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> and the council to <trunc>d</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> to agree <pause dur="0.8"/> so if it approves a <trunc>joint</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> if it produces a jointly approved text after six weeks' deliberation <pause dur="0.4"/> the text <pause dur="0.3"/> must be approved by the council by Q-M-V <pause dur="0.5"/> and by the <pause dur="0.4"/> by the European Parliament by <pause dur="0.3"/> absolute majority <pause dur="3.5"/> but if the conciliation committee cannot agree on a joint text <pause dur="0.3"/> then the balance back <pause dur="0.2"/> swings back in favour of the Council of Ministers <pause dur="2.6"/> all right so that <pause dur="0.3"/> the # Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> can then <pause dur="1.5"/> refer back to the original common position <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> and approve the legislation through qualified majority voting <pause dur="8.9"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="sm1181"/> hiya <pause dur="0.2"/> so the Council of Ministers effectively wins out at the end of the day of the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.4"/> but the European Parliament can make it very difficult indeed <pause dur="0.4"/> and when it rejects <pause dur="0.4"/> # a decision it makes it practically impossible for the Council of Ministers to pass it through <pause dur="2.8"/> but the key thing here in the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.2"/> is to

encourage <pause dur="0.4"/> cooperation and further agreement between the different member states <pause dur="0.9"/> # sorry the the different institutions of the European # <pause dur="0.5"/> at the European level </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1188" trans="pause"> were they very successful these conciliations </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> well we'll just get to that in a moment there </u><u who="sm1188" trans="overlap"> ah </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> <pause dur="1.6"/> okay i haven't talked about the assent procedure i'll have to go back to that in a moment <pause dur="0.2"/> # </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm1189" trans="pause"> can i just ask a quick <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> yeah sure </u><u who="sm1189" trans="latching"> so does the commission <pause dur="0.7"/> its only role if if it's been to have the right <pause dur="0.4"/> is to force the council to <pause dur="1.3"/> greater <trunc>un</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> unanimity <pause dur="1.0"/> basically </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> well the <trunc>c</trunc> the commission has a a fairly <trunc>relat</trunc> # has a relatively limited role once the whole process has got going <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean it's made its proposal <pause dur="0.4"/> and <trunc>th</trunc> the <pause dur="0.2"/> the commission acts in the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="0.3"/> tries to promote some sort of agreement so it plays an <trunc>im</trunc> important mediating role <pause dur="0.7"/> but # <pause dur="0.8"/> it the power is out of its hands effectively then <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> it can only make <pause dur="0.3"/> a slight amount of difference <pause dur="0.7"/> # through its different you know

you can see there you've got these two strands coming through <pause dur="0.5"/> the positive opinion <pause dur="0.4"/> # and the negative opinion on the E-P's <pause dur="0.2"/> amendments and that affects how easy <pause dur="0.2"/> how easily the council can then <pause dur="0.3"/> overrule the European Parliament's decisions <pause dur="0.6"/> but # <pause dur="0.3"/> its main <pause dur="0.5"/> part of the process is <pause dur="0.3"/> is in <pause dur="0.4"/> putting the proposal forward in <pause dur="0.2"/> # at the beginning and trying to get some <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of agreement reached at the end </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sm1189" trans="pause"> so if the the E-P rejects something </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> u-huh </u><u who="sm1189" trans="overlap"> something outright </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> u-huh </u><u who="sm1189" trans="latching"> then is it more or less going to <pause dur="0.2"/> be very difficult to put through <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> well it depends what stage it rejects it so if it rejects it after the first reading <pause dur="0.5"/> then it becomes <trunc>qu</trunc> very difficult for the # for the council to # <pause dur="0.8"/> to get something through they can't come to some sort of agreement at the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="2.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> at the later stage if the European Parliament rejects the conciliation committee in other words after they've had a conciliation committee <pause dur="0.2"/> on

amendments <pause dur="0.6"/> then # then it <pause dur="0.2"/> reverts back to the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.9"/> it's not simple is it </u><u who="sm1189" trans="latching"> no </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> oh no <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> all right so now i just want you to spend a few minutes # <pause dur="0.2"/> thinking about the consequences of these different procedures because <pause dur="0.5"/> part of the point of involving the European Parliament if you remember rightly <pause dur="0.4"/> was to try <pause dur="0.3"/> and increase the transparency <pause dur="0.2"/> and democracy of the European decision making <pause dur="1.2"/> now that's a nightmare that's not very democratic that whole decision making process there <pause dur="0.3"/> it's so convoluted and there's so many different twists and turns <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's so slow <pause dur="0.2"/> and there's so many rules and laws to follow <pause dur="0.3"/> that it takes a considerable amount of of power of brain power just to <pause dur="0.2"/> work it out <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> it's harder for the M-E-Ps who are trying to operate within it <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's practically impossible for people who haven't taken the time out to do a degree in <pause dur="0.4"/> in # European whatever politics </u><u who="sm1186" trans="latching"> i've <pause dur="0.3"/> i've lost a plot in the bit in the sense that <pause dur="0.5"/> do

the cooperation procedures and the codecision procedures look at different issues or is it the same bill going through </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> no there <trunc>d</trunc> there are different procedures for different issues </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.3"/> okay </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> yeah </u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> but which is which or does that <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> well it's all it's all listed down in the treaties i mean effectively <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> what happened was that after the single European <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> after <trunc>ni</trunc> the nineteen-ninety-two deadline was reached <pause dur="0.4"/> and the Maastricht Treaty came in again in sort of ninety-two ninety-three <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> then <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.6"/> procedures which hadn't been <pause dur="0.4"/> or or the policies which hadn't been reached <pause dur="0.6"/> # for <trunc>com</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the completion of the single European market <pause dur="0.3"/> then went on to codecision <pause dur="0.9"/> and the cooperation procedure's become practically irrelevant now as we'll see <pause dur="0.4"/> after the Amsterdam <pause dur="0.6"/> after we talk about the Amsterdam Treaty <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> okay so what i want you to think about now is # have a <pause dur="0.3"/> quick couple of minutes <pause dur="0.3"/> to to discuss <pause dur="0.6"/> how these <pause dur="0.3"/> procedures have affected the

balance of power between the different institutions <pause dur="0.6"/> # in the European Union so think about the commission <pause dur="0.4"/> think about <pause dur="0.3"/> the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> think about the Council of Ministers and all the different subcommittees that we've seen there <pause dur="0.3"/> which ones do you think cooperate more how do you think the structures <pause dur="0.2"/> work together and who wins out and who's lost <pause dur="2.0"/> all right <pause dur="2.1"/> so just for # just for five minutes then </u><event desc="discussing task" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="unknown"/> <gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> right so # <pause dur="1.5"/> what did you think <pause dur="0.6"/> who wins out is it <pause dur="0.6"/> does it make the process <pause dur="0.2"/> more democratic or less democratic <pause dur="0.4"/> which institutions have <pause dur="0.5"/> gained the most and which have lost </u><u who="sm1186" trans="latching"> i think the E-P's gained more </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> the E-P okay </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><pause dur="2.9"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> and does this what <trunc>ef</trunc> what's the net effect of this on the # on European decision making </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1190" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm1191" trans="pause"> is <pause dur="0.2"/> is it slower </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> slower yeah absolutely it's slower <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> i mean the the the key thing is that the # <pause dur="0.5"/> most of the # # the hold-ups have been

in the Council of Ministers rather than <pause dur="0.4"/> in the # <pause dur="0.2"/> conciliation <pause dur="0.6"/> committee <pause dur="1.2"/> but # <pause dur="0.2"/> that's an important consequence of it so it takes even longer i mean they've had <pause dur="0.3"/> about four or five conciliation committees <pause dur="0.3"/> a year in the first year <pause dur="0.3"/> now it <pause dur="0.3"/> it's become slightly more effective they get up to about seven or eight but there's not a huge amount of <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> there's an <pause dur="0.2"/> not a huge amount of turnover in these # conciliation committees <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="sm1192" trans="overlap"> how how democratic are they <pause dur="0.8"/> isn't there a huge amount of room for like dodgy dealing </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> dodgy dealing <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> yeah <trunc>abso</trunc> well i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> to a degree yes there is but i mean you've got the dodgy dealings between slightly more democratic actors now <pause dur="0.7"/> i mean <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and this is the difference they're <trunc>M</trunc> M-E-Ps who are making the dodgy dealings rather than just the member states <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is part of the problem because <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> if they were to just make the # <pause dur="0.9"/> the # the Council of Ministers more transparent more open <pause dur="0.4"/> then the decision

making just goes back into the toilets <pause dur="0.3"/> you know and <pause dur="0.2"/> it doesn't really make it any more transparent whereas <pause dur="0.3"/> the whole point of having these procedures is that it forces <pause dur="0.4"/> the different # <pause dur="0.2"/> the different # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> actors from the different institutions to come together <pause dur="0.3"/> so at some point they have to reveal their differences if it's going to be significant </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm1193" trans="pause"> isn't the only real <pause dur="0.2"/> advantage that the <pause dur="1.0"/> the Council of Ministers and to a degree the commission <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> have got a moral imperative <pause dur="0.4"/> to # <pause dur="0.8"/> take a very careful look at what is the incentive </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> okay what what do you mean by moral imperative </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm1193" trans="pause"> well if they've got <pause dur="0.4"/> a <pause dur="2.2"/> a a reasonable <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="1.1"/> # as <pause dur="0.3"/> qualified majority <pause dur="0.2"/> in the <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> European Parliament saying <pause dur="0.8"/> we don't agree with this </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> mm </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1193" trans="pause"> doesn't that make the <pause dur="0.4"/> Council of Ministers think <pause dur="1.7"/> we've got to be careful because of the publicity we might get </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> right okay well that's fair enough but <pause dur="0.3"/> how does the codecision procedure make that <pause dur="0.5"/> more or less significant that moral <pause dur="0.2"/>

imperative </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sm1194" trans="pause"> try and build this <pause dur="0.2"/> democratic <pause dur="0.3"/> # deficit </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> well how <trunc>d</trunc> what do you mean by the democratic deficit i mean there was a democratic deficit before <pause dur="0.4"/> people were still involved in the in the in the cooperation procedure </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sm1194" trans="pause"> well <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> why does the codecision procedure mean that that that the # <pause dur="0.4"/> the moral imperative which <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> referred to becomes more important </u><u who="sm1194" trans="latching"> well because <pause dur="0.3"/> i mean you could say that the <pause dur="0.2"/> M-E-Ps <pause dur="0.4"/> are you know directly elected from European citizens <pause dur="0.5"/> and # </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="1.4"/> but they were anyway under the cooperation procedure </u><u who="sm1194" trans="latching"> oh right so <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> so what's the difference how does <trunc>i</trunc> 'cause this is the <trunc>ad</trunc> this is the key to the point i mean there was this obligation <pause dur="0.3"/> to speak to these M-E-Ps <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> as soon as they were elected in seventy-nine so <pause dur="0.5"/> what is it that's made it different what's made them <pause dur="0.8"/> what's made this moral imperative more <pause dur="0.2"/> significant </u><u who="sf1195" trans="latching"> the amendments procedure </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> the amendments procedure </u><u who="sf1195" trans="latching">

yeah </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> what </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1195" trans="pause"> more <unclear>complex</unclear> </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> okay </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1195" trans="pause"> gives more power to the <trunc>u</trunc> M-E-Ps </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> right okay so the M-E-Ps basically have <pause dur="0.3"/> a greater role now because of the conciliation <pause dur="0.2"/> committee all right <pause dur="0.2"/> and that is the key institutional <pause dur="0.2"/> development here which forces the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> to take the whole process on board <pause dur="0.4"/> now it's not just because of <pause dur="0.4"/> the # the fact that they're sat there in a room having to talk to each other <pause dur="0.5"/> because again they had to do that before <pause dur="0.4"/> it's also because <pause dur="0.4"/> they have to come up <pause dur="0.4"/> with # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> convergent legislative programmes as well <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> if you've got # <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>n</trunc> a whole number of decisions which are coming through codecision <pause dur="1.4"/> # and the European Parliament are aware of this and so <pause dur="0.2"/> is the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> then <pause dur="0.5"/> the two secretariats have to get together to make sure that they've got time to do it <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean otherwise you're not going to <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> otherwise <pause dur="0.2"/> there's no point in having the codecision procedure at all <pause dur="0.3"/> and otherwise nothing gets done at all <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not

just about <pause dur="0.3"/> ensuring that the # that the two actors get together and <pause dur="0.2"/> and meet <pause dur="0.2"/> at a certain <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> # over certain issues at a certain stage of the policy making procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> the whole institutional machinery itself <pause dur="0.3"/> has to # has to operate more closely as well <pause dur="0.9"/> yeah </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1196" trans="pause"> do <pause dur="0.2"/> the conciliation committees do they only consider by proposal <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm1196" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> so that <pause dur="0.2"/> reduces the the the possibility of certain trade-offs between <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> the the Council of Ministers is saying oh we'll help you on this one and the E-P saying well we'll help you on that one </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> yeah okay yeah i mean it does yeah that that's that's fair enough # <pause dur="0.8"/> i mean again there's not an awful lot of information about the conciliation committees yet so that <pause dur="0.2"/> there's not much research on that so <pause dur="0.5"/> # i couldn't say definitively but <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> the likelihood of there being the ability to coordinate different <pause dur="0.4"/> different M-E-Ps for example <pause dur="0.2"/> with different member states <pause dur="0.2"/> that's less likely because <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>par</trunc> party groupings aren't <pause dur="0.2"/>

sufficiently hierarchical to ensure that sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> that long term coordination </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> that <pause dur="0.2"/> that also slows the procedure down <unclear>like</unclear> in the <pause dur="0.2"/> U-K Parliament you've got different standing committees operating at the same time </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> discussing <pause dur="0.3"/> in different rooms </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> mm-hmm </u><u who="sm1186" trans="latching"> whereas if you only got one committee going <pause dur="0.5"/> at at a time </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> mm-hmm </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> full stop </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> mm </u><u who="sm1186" trans="latching"> instead of having three four or five that can slows the legislation procedure down anyway </u><pause dur="1.1"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> well there's no no shortage of M-E-Ps and representatives to go and talk on it <pause dur="0.4"/> # </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> no i'm sure but if you've only got one committee in session <pause dur="0.2"/> at a time </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> oh no you can have loads of different conciliation committees going on at the same time </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> ah right </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> i mean there are <pause dur="0.2"/> plenty </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> i misunderstood that </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> no there's plenty it's not just one committee <pause dur="0.3"/> the the actual institution itself of the conciliation committees <pause dur="0.2"/> is the development of the Maastricht Treaty <pause dur="0.5"/> but

you can have <pause dur="0.5"/> conciliation committees on <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> one on transport one on fishing </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> yeah absolutely </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> all going off at the same time </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> referring to yeah there's been <pause dur="0.2"/> there's been plenty i can give you a number <pause dur="1.3"/><event desc="looks through notes" iterated="y" dur="55"/> even <pause dur="2.3"/> did someone else have a question to ask while i'm yeah </u><u who="sm1197" trans="overlap"> i was just saying is there is there any more outside influences # at this conciliation committee and do lobbyists at all manage to get their say at any stage <pause dur="0.3"/> or is that all gone by then </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> yeah no absolutely yeah i mean this is it creates another sort of level at which <pause dur="0.3"/> at which # lobbyists can can influence the decision making yeah you're absolutely right <pause dur="0.3"/> and another <trunc>who</trunc> you know you get this whole <pause dur="0.3"/> other problem about <pause dur="0.2"/> whose influences are are <trunc>c</trunc> are coming across most effectively <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="1.1"/> you have # national level <pause dur="0.2"/> forms of lobbying which <pause dur="0.4"/> correspond to <pause dur="0.5"/> you know the different stages of the codecision procedure so <pause dur="0.3"/> companies will still try and get stuck in <pause dur="0.4"/> if they # if if if they feel

they've got a # an interest <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> breakdown of conciliations by presidency page twenty-two <pause dur="1.1"/> twenty-two <pause dur="1.7"/> okay <pause dur="2.3"/> right <reading>with regard to the hundred-and-thirty codecision procedures completed <pause dur="0.8"/> in one-hundred-and-twenty-seven cases agreement has been reached between the two <pause dur="0.3"/> the two institutions</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> so a hundred-and-twenty-seven out of a hundred-and-thirty <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> seventy-eight were agreed without convening the conciliation committee <pause dur="1.9"/> forty-nine <pause dur="0.5"/> following approval of a joint text by the conciliation committee so <pause dur="1.0"/> forty-nine out of a hundred-and-thirty <pause dur="1.0"/> # codecision # under the codecision procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> # have required <pause dur="0.5"/> # a conciliation <pause dur="0.5"/> committee <pause dur="1.7"/> and there's other sort of # <pause dur="0.2"/> trainspotting facts should you want them <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> again you know just get on that web site and have a look 'cause it's actually quite well set out <pause dur="0.4"/> and you get <pause dur="0.2"/> # a progress report <pause dur="0.4"/> this one here is ninety-seven to ninety-eight <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and you also have # a whole range of updates on what's going on today in the conciliation committees <pause dur="0.3"/> #

a little you know <pause dur="0.6"/> fascinating publication it's amazing what can come out of this <pause dur="0.7"/> so # <pause dur="0.2"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> okay so just for a few the last five minutes # <pause dur="0.6"/> i just want to quickly go over <pause dur="0.2"/> the impact of the Amsterdam Treaty <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> mention the assent procedure 'cause i've not done it so far and we should do that <pause dur="0.4"/> and then # <pause dur="0.3"/> briefly discuss what the impact is <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> for theory and sort of broadly understanding how <pause dur="0.5"/> the E-U operates <pause dur="1.6"/> right the Amsterdam Treaty hasn't been ratified yet <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.6"/> # it's very important because it set up a certain <pause dur="0.3"/> # range of # <pause dur="0.4"/> thoughts and ideas about how <pause dur="0.2"/> the codecision procedure <pause dur="0.2"/> would operate <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="1.0"/> # which has influenced some some of problems <pause dur="0.3"/> of the # <pause dur="0.5"/> that that have come about in the codecision procedure <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>the Treaty of Amsterdam <pause dur="1.2"/> coming to force in ninety-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> probably <pause dur="0.5"/> # has four essential changes to the codecision procedure first of all <pause dur="0.4"/> the extension of the number and scope <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> procedures covered by codecision</reading> <pause dur="3.7"/> so codecision now effectively becomes the

default policy making procedure <pause dur="0.5"/> # in pillar one of the European Union <pause dur="4.9"/> and that's very important because <pause dur="0.2"/> it means that the possibility for conciliation <pause dur="0.3"/> and for the European Parliament to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> provide obstacles to further <pause dur="0.5"/> # to to to new decisions are much greater and it can operate in a much more nuanced fashion <pause dur="2.4"/> secondly <pause dur="2.3"/> # there is the <reading>the Amsterdam Treaty introduces the possibility of concluding the codecision procedure at first reading</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> so it can be <pause dur="0.4"/> if you like the fastest <pause dur="0.4"/> decision making procedure ever <pause dur="0.8"/> they can just shoot straight through it <pause dur="1.0"/> well when i say ever it's really like <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.4"/> the # <pause dur="0.7"/> # consultation procedure <pause dur="1.1"/> but with the possibility of moving on <pause dur="0.3"/> to all these other different other ways of # <pause dur="0.6"/> of # making decisions <pause dur="4.0"/> # thirdly <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>the Amsterdam Treaty provides for the acceleration of the beginning of conciliation <pause dur="0.3"/> after the council's second reading</reading> <pause dur="5.0"/> so they can start the whole process much quicker <pause dur="0.8"/> it doesn't have

to take this this amount of time <pause dur="0.4"/> which is set out <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in the codecision procedure <pause dur="2.8"/> and fourthly <pause dur="3.6"/> and this is important <pause dur="0.5"/> # the codecision <pause dur="1.0"/> <reading>the Amsterdam Treaty <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> eliminates the possibility of a third reading <pause dur="0.8"/> by the council after the failure of a conciliation</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> right so the council can't now after <pause dur="0.6"/> they've been through the whole conciliation procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> on the amendments of the European Parliament <pause dur="0.6"/> the council cannot now <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> forget about the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> if they don't agree <pause dur="0.2"/> and just go on on a <trunc>c</trunc> and and <pause dur="0.3"/> and take through the proposal <pause dur="0.4"/> on the basis of qualified majority voting <pause dur="0.6"/> right which it could under Maastricht <pause dur="1.3"/> now that <pause dur="0.2"/> possibility is <pause dur="0.6"/> gone </u><pause dur="2.2"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> so really they've got to come to some sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> consensus or let it go </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> yeah or yeah exactly <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="1.8"/><event desc="stops notes from falling off table" iterated="n"/> slippery table </u><pause dur="1.9"/> <u who="sf1195" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <pause dur="1.1"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> all right the areas which the # </u><u who="sf1195" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> sorry <trunc>d</trunc> </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sf1195" trans="pause"> <unclear>okay</unclear> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> no you're all right okay </u><u who="sf1195" trans="overlap"> <unclear>are we on</unclear> the third reading </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> hey </u><u who="sf1195" trans="latching"> yeah i'm

fine </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> okay the third reading basically comes down here # <pause dur="0.8"/> you've got the first reading <pause dur="0.6"/> where # if you look <pause dur="0.2"/> <unclear>going to <trunc>l</trunc></unclear> on the codecision procedure you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> this column on the left <pause dur="0.3"/> one two three council establishes a common position <pause dur="0.7"/> all right <pause dur="0.7"/> # then you've got a second reading <pause dur="1.0"/> where the council approves the E-P's amendments <trunc>s</trunc> sorry the where the council can reject or whatever <pause dur="0.7"/> and then the third one after the conciliation committee doesn't <pause dur="0.2"/> make some sort of agreement <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> where the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> where the Council of Ministers can then adopt whether it <pause dur="0.3"/> whether the European Parliament likes it or not <pause dur="1.1"/> so if you're going through the picture <pause dur="0.8"/> you've got your first <pause dur="1.4"/> # common position which is the third one down <pause dur="3.1"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> the second one is <pause dur="0.7"/> actually the second one would be the middle one <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> this # <pause dur="0.4"/> cluster on the right <pause dur="0.9"/> so that's where the council rejects the E-P's amendments <pause dur="4.1"/> and then the <trunc>thir</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> then the <trunc>th</trunc> the last one is this <pause dur="0.3"/> one here <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="holds up handout" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on handout" iterated="n"/>

sorry so you've got one here <kinesic desc="indicates point on handout" iterated="n"/> that's number one <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on handout" iterated="n"/> that's number two <pause dur="0.3"/> that one there <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on handout" iterated="n"/> and that's number three there <pause dur="0.7"/> all right so that's the third reading <pause dur="0.5"/> that's no more </u><pause dur="2.4"/> <u who="sm1186" trans="pause"> once once Amsterdam's ratified </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> once Amsterdam's ratified yeah </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> <unclear>but it won't be then</unclear> </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> yeah <pause dur="1.0"/> all right now you can see this all on <pause dur="0.2"/> all on the web site # <pause dur="2.8"/> all right so the the point is there that the <pause dur="0.3"/> that the Council of Ministers can't sort of suddenly undermine the whole point of <pause dur="0.3"/> being involved in this process <pause dur="1.7"/> right now this isn't the main <pause dur="1.2"/> thing to take away with you really i mean this sort of anal detail here <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the key thing is to think about how this affects <pause dur="0.2"/> the way the different institutions work together <pause dur="0.3"/> and what you have here is much greater coordination of activities between the council <pause dur="0.3"/> of <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Council of Ministers secretariat <pause dur="0.3"/> and the European Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> and also <pause dur="0.3"/> the role of the presidencies <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in the Council of Ministers becomes

much more important <pause dur="0.3"/> if you've got a friendly <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # President <pause dur="0.3"/> of the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> then their activities <trunc>b</trunc> can become <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> significant in promoting cooperation with the European Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> a more <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> # radical presidency <pause dur="1.1"/> is likely to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to undermine the process more <pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> i've got lots of other things here <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> so this joint planning has been an important development of # the introduction of codecision <pause dur="3.9"/> # and that's in respect to the # to to the commission <pause dur="0.6"/> but there's been sort of a normalization of <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> relations between the council <pause dur="0.3"/> and the European Parliament which is another important development <pause dur="0.3"/> part of this <pause dur="0.3"/> you know requirement to go through the codecision <trunc>proc</trunc> procedure so often <pause dur="0.3"/> means that when it comes about <pause dur="0.2"/> it isn't this big issue <pause dur="0.3"/> it becomes much more an everyday part of the day to day activities <pause dur="0.4"/> and this is an important development as well because <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the context in which conciliation committees take place <pause dur="0.2"/> are less

likely to be confrontational <pause dur="1.9"/> with respect to the commission <pause dur="0.3"/> the commission is much more important in <pause dur="0.2"/> circulating information and mediating <pause dur="0.3"/> between <pause dur="0.2"/> other institutions <pause dur="0.6"/> so that's <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> previously distinct distinctive role of mediation <pause dur="0.2"/> and circulating information <pause dur="0.2"/> has become <pause dur="0.3"/> less <pause dur="0.3"/> # less separate it's become blurred effectively <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and the European Parliament and the council <pause dur="0.2"/> are able to discuss things <pause dur="0.5"/> between each other without <pause dur="0.2"/> having to rely on the commission as an intermediary <pause dur="2.0"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> the main areas in which there is disagreement <pause dur="0.2"/> in the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.3"/> is generally <pause dur="0.2"/> on traditional disputes <pause dur="0.4"/> such as committee procedures <pause dur="0.3"/> and the amount of fundings to be included in in an act <pause dur="1.1"/> and so what you can see here is <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not so much that the conciliation committee <pause dur="0.3"/> hasn't <pause dur="0.3"/> worked and introduced new actors <pause dur="0.2"/> it has and it's made the decision making process <pause dur="0.3"/> more <trunc>a</trunc> more <pause dur="0.2"/> # democratic effectively by involving the European Parliament <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> but the key really difficult <pause dur="0.2"/> issues <pause dur="0.2"/>

# <pause dur="0.4"/> such as over <pause dur="0.2"/> certain committee procedures <pause dur="0.2"/> haven't necessarily been <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> resolved <pause dur="0.2"/> and this has meant that quite a large amount of <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the negotiations between the council <pause dur="0.4"/> and the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> happen on on an informal basis <pause dur="1.1"/> right so rather than going through <pause dur="0.3"/> the # the sort of these formally defined procedures which we've seen in the <pause dur="0.3"/> in in in the handouts here <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> negotiations between for example <pause dur="0.3"/> # expert committees in the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> and the relevant <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> working group under COREPER <pause dur="0.7"/> are much more <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> fully developed <pause dur="1.2"/> and this means that these sort of the informal basis of decision is much more importing <pause dur="0.3"/> important </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="sm1198" trans="pause"> oh so the procedure and <pause dur="0.5"/> there's another one that you said they'd got <unclear>property of</unclear> <pause dur="1.2"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> # of financial matters just <pause dur="0.4"/> dishing out the dosh <pause dur="0.3"/> which is always a bit of an issue <pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> okay # i've got some figures here on cooperation against codecision but that's not really that interesting <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> all right the assent procedure is the final one which we haven't looked at yet <pause dur="3.6"/> are there

any questions there on the codecision i've had to rush that last bit a bit <pause dur="2.1"/> no okay well you can sort them out in the in the # <pause dur="0.8"/> in the seminars if you like <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> oh right the assent procedure is the last <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of major procedure <pause dur="0.9"/> and in this one the commission proposes <pause dur="0.4"/> the E-P votes to approve or reject <pause dur="0.7"/> by an absolute majority <pause dur="2.3"/> and then it's # <pause dur="0.5"/> the E-P either rejects and the proposal fails <pause dur="0.4"/> or the E-P approves <pause dur="0.2"/> and the council <pause dur="0.2"/> adopts through <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> unanimity <pause dur="0.9"/> now the key thing here is that <pause dur="0.4"/> here the European Parliament has a solid veto <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> areas to which this # <pause dur="0.2"/> relates <pause dur="0.4"/> are very limited it's essentially <pause dur="0.5"/> # agreements or associations with third party member states <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> member states outside the European Union <pause dur="0.3"/> or the accession of new member states to the E-U </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sm1196" trans="pause"> sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> can you just <pause dur="0.2"/> so the commission proposes it </u><u who="sm1196" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="sm1196" trans="overlap"> and the E-P votes on it </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm1196" trans="pause"> one way or the other </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="sm1196" trans="latching"> and if they reject it nothing goes to the council at all </u><u who="nm1177" trans="latching"> well it

just # well it it # <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah it it fails <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah it that's it end of story <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> the E-P has a solid sort of # veto here <pause dur="0.4"/> # but again as i said it's it's # <pause dur="1.1"/> it's on very limited areas <pause dur="0.5"/> and that's # <pause dur="0.4"/> that's important with respect to of <pause dur="0.3"/> to for example Turkish accession where this has been the European Parliament has been <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> a major advocate of <pause dur="0.6"/> of # human rights issues </u><u who="sm1186" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> human <trunc>iss</trunc> third party issues <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm1177" trans="pause"> they're the main ones </u><u who="sm1186" trans="latching"> and that's it really </u><u who="nm1177" trans="overlap"> yeah that's the main ones <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> all right so how do these affect our understanding of # <pause dur="0.5"/> of the <trunc>th</trunc> the relevance of the theories <pause dur="0.3"/> well essentially what you can see here is that <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> with the movement of these decision making procedures the the <trunc>e</trunc> their evolution to a more <pause dur="0.3"/> complex <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="0.3"/> a more <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> well increasingly informal basis <pause dur="0.4"/> the boundaries between the different institutions become <pause dur="0.3"/> less <pause dur="0.2"/> clearly defined <pause dur="0.4"/> so these distinctions between supranational <pause dur="0.3"/> and intergovernmental which we've seen <pause dur="0.3"/> have # typified much of the

international relations approaches <pause dur="0.3"/> have become <pause dur="1.0"/> less relevant <pause dur="1.9"/> similarly when we're talking about the # <pause dur="0.4"/> the comparative politics approaches <pause dur="0.6"/> issues of accountability and transparency don't become more clear <pause dur="0.4"/> they become less clear <pause dur="1.0"/> so the decision making has moved away from <pause dur="0.3"/> the European Parliament <pause dur="0.3"/> and from the # # from the Council of Ministers <pause dur="0.3"/> and from even these formal decision making procedures <pause dur="0.3"/> are moved much more into informal relationships <pause dur="0.3"/> between <pause dur="0.4"/> # the the relevant subcommittees <pause dur="1.5"/> so transparency hasn't necessarily been improved <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is part of the <pause dur="0.7"/> part of # # of the problem # <pause dur="0.2"/> which Amsterdam was meant to try and <pause dur="0.4"/> resolve and which it hasn't effectively done <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> so thirdly what about this constructivist approach well to a degree that's been quite useful <pause dur="0.3"/> # because it <pause dur="0.2"/> it helps us understand how it is <pause dur="0.5"/> how these decision making procedures have affected the

relationship between <pause dur="0.6"/> the different actors <pause dur="0.2"/> and how it's structured and restructured those <pause dur="0.2"/> relationships <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> members of the European Parliament <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> cooperate more freely with the Council of Ministers' members <pause dur="0.5"/> and that <pause dur="0.9"/> to understand that you have to understand how <pause dur="0.3"/> their identities and their perspectives have been altered <pause dur="0.3"/> by the development of new institutional procedures <pause dur="0.2"/> and structures at the European level <pause dur="1.1"/> so there's another way of <pause dur="0.4"/> of integrating the # the more constructivist approaches to understanding European <pause dur="0.4"/> integration <pause dur="2.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> okay any questions <pause dur="2.0"/> all right <pause dur="0.9"/> okay have a look at this web page before next time <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> people in my seminar group <pause dur="0.4"/> we're going to do what we didn't do last time <pause dur="0.2"/> and then we'll rearrange <pause dur="0.2"/> we'll reschedule another <pause dur="0.3"/> seminar <pause dur="1.6"/> all right <pause dur="0.2"/> thank you very much