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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Collaborative Learning</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:42:07" n="6453">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nf1336" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="f"><p>nf1336, main speaker, non-student, female</p></person>

<person id="sf1337" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf1337, participant, student, female</p></person>

<person id="sf1338" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf1338, participant, student, female</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="5"><p>number of speakers: 5</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">CELTE (Centre for English Language Teacher Education)</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ss</item>

<item n="partlevel">PG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>




<u who="nf1336"> # our topic this morning is # collaborative learning <pause dur="0.7"/> now <pause dur="0.7"/> the reason that we have this session is actually because a few years ago i think it was four years ago <pause dur="0.7"/> students on the M-A course actually suggested <pause dur="0.6"/> that we do this session at the beginning of the year <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> we were talking about collaborative work <pause dur="0.3"/> and i was using it a lot in my classes <pause dur="0.4"/> and i was doing some research some study of collaborative work <pause dur="0.4"/> and i gave a talk at the end of the year to which M-A students were invited <pause dur="0.4"/> and they said at the end of that talk <pause dur="0.6"/> we think you should do a talk like that at the beginning <pause dur="0.2"/> of the year so that people become aware <pause dur="0.3"/> of the issues in collaborative work <pause dur="0.3"/> because a lot of the tutors <pause dur="0.2"/> use it in their classes <pause dur="0.3"/> and you may well have experienced it already <pause dur="0.4"/> perhaps tutors have asked you to sit together <pause dur="0.3"/> in a small group or to prepare something together out of class <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> a group <pause dur="0.8"/> # so that's really my role this afternoon i'm acting as a kind of intermediary <pause dur="0.4"/>

between previous students <pause dur="0.2"/> and yourselves to pass on <pause dur="0.3"/> some of their thoughts about <pause dur="0.2"/> collaborative work <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> i think it would probably be a good idea <pause dur="0.3"/> just to explain <pause dur="0.4"/> what i mean by collaborative work because it can take many shapes and forms <pause dur="0.6"/> it can be fairly straightforward and simple <pause dur="0.5"/> # in other words <pause dur="0.2"/> a short <pause dur="0.6"/> # group discussion task <pause dur="0.3"/> # during class time <pause dur="0.3"/> just to give you a quick example and i'm taking the examples <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> from my own classes <pause dur="0.3"/> one that i've often used with teachers <pause dur="0.3"/> # which i used <pause dur="0.2"/> many years ago when i was working with <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> which is why his name is there <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> it was at the beginning of a psychology course and we asked teachers to think <pause dur="0.4"/> about <pause dur="0.2"/> the sorts of <pause dur="0.6"/> opinions or assumptions that they had about learning <pause dur="0.5"/> and we gave them some <pause dur="0.2"/> to think about okay <pause dur="0.5"/> # these are statements <pause dur="0.2"/> about language learning in the English language classroom <pause dur="0.6"/> and we wanted the teachers first to look at it together <pause dur="0.7"/> and then to compare their

opinions with those of colleagues in a small group <pause dur="0.5"/> now that task usually took <pause dur="0.4"/> # fifteen to twenty minutes and then there was a plenary <pause dur="0.2"/> afterwards <pause dur="0.3"/> and students tended to be grouped <pause dur="0.2"/> as they were sitting <pause dur="0.3"/> in the classroom and that's probably happened to you <pause dur="0.3"/> already just turn to the few people around you <pause dur="0.3"/> and talk about the particular <pause dur="0.3"/> topic <pause dur="0.3"/> and exchange opinions <pause dur="0.4"/> so that's a fairly short simple <pause dur="0.3"/> example of collaborative work <pause dur="0.4"/> <kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="8"/> but then i think you'll find during the year <pause dur="0.3"/> that there will be more <pause dur="0.3"/> complex and longer <pause dur="0.4"/> tasks which you're asked to do <pause dur="0.3"/> this is another one <pause dur="0.6"/> # and this takes about an hour <pause dur="0.3"/> in the classroom <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's from the topic of extensive reading the idea of setting up <pause dur="0.3"/> a class library <pause dur="0.3"/> of reading material for learners <pause dur="0.5"/> # and you can see <pause dur="0.3"/> that it it's a task that will take quite some time <pause dur="0.3"/> because the teachers are going to select <pause dur="0.2"/> a set of readers <pause dur="0.2"/> that they think would be useful <pause dur="0.2"/> for their classes <pause dur="0.4"/> so we take

into the classroom a huge pile of graded readers <pause dur="0.4"/> ask students to work in groups of four or five <pause dur="0.3"/> and together <pause dur="0.3"/> sort through <pause dur="0.3"/> and decide what they would choose and as they do that <pause dur="0.3"/> think what criteria <pause dur="0.2"/> they are using <pause dur="0.3"/> to make those decisions <pause dur="0.3"/> so at the end of the task <pause dur="0.3"/> they will have <pause dur="0.2"/> a set of criteria <pause dur="0.2"/> for selecting reading material for learners <pause dur="0.4"/> and then we ask them to <pause dur="0.2"/> prioritize <pause dur="0.2"/> the criteria <pause dur="0.6"/> # i think you can appreciate that in asking a group of teachers to do that <pause dur="0.5"/> it gives plenty of time for them to reflect <pause dur="0.6"/> to make sense <pause dur="0.3"/> of this to use their experience to use their own opinions <pause dur="0.3"/> and perceptions <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's likely to be far more effective <pause dur="0.4"/> than somebody just standing up and saying <pause dur="0.3"/> this is a useful list of criteria <pause dur="0.2"/> for selecting <pause dur="0.3"/> reading material in the classroom <pause dur="0.5"/> # it's what some people call <pause dur="0.4"/> deep <pause dur="0.2"/> learning because you become involved <pause dur="0.4"/> in the topic in the task <pause dur="0.3"/> # and you learn by applying <pause dur="0.3"/> your own knowledge your own experience as it were <pause dur="0.5"/> so those are just two

examples <pause dur="0.4"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> but there is also more complex <pause dur="0.3"/> still <pause dur="0.3"/> # types of collaborative <pause dur="0.2"/> learning <pause dur="0.8"/> sometimes you may be asked to work with a group of two or three other students to prepare a presentation <pause dur="0.4"/> of an article <pause dur="0.3"/> on a particular topic that the class is looking at <pause dur="0.4"/> and you will need to work together outside the classroom <pause dur="0.3"/> to decide how you're going to organize the presentation <pause dur="0.4"/> who's going to talk about what <pause dur="0.4"/> and and you will need to build a relationship a rapport with your colleagues in order to do that <pause dur="0.3"/> successfully <pause dur="0.7"/> and later on in the year in the professional practice courses certainly in mine and i think in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s so well <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> you will be asked to form # what we call a design syndicate <pause dur="0.4"/> because part of the purpose of the professional practice courses <pause dur="0.3"/> is that you design materials <pause dur="0.2"/> and you learn through the process of designing them <pause dur="0.6"/> and quite a lot of that design will go on outside <pause dur="0.4"/> the classroom <pause dur="0.5"/> and you will be given the opportunity to work with

who you wish to work with <pause dur="0.3"/> but with the tutor's help if you need help <pause dur="0.3"/> but by that time you probably have got to know people <pause dur="0.3"/> and will know who you might work successfully with <pause dur="0.6"/> and again in groups of four or five <pause dur="0.3"/> you will be asked to design <pause dur="0.2"/> a particular kind of material <pause dur="0.3"/> and then come back to the next week's class and present it <pause dur="0.3"/> to your colleagues who will evaluate it <pause dur="0.3"/> critically <pause dur="0.4"/> # and give comments and opinions and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> as feedback <pause dur="0.4"/> to your work <pause dur="0.7"/> # and as i said a lot of that work will go on <pause dur="0.3"/> outside the classroom so it will be your responsibility <pause dur="0.3"/> to get together <pause dur="0.3"/> to organize yourselves <pause dur="0.3"/> and and to work successfully <pause dur="0.3"/> together <pause dur="0.7"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> there are obviously <pause dur="0.4"/> great advantages i say obviously i hope it's obvious to you as teachers <pause dur="0.5"/> that there are great advantages <pause dur="0.3"/> in working collaboratively <pause dur="0.6"/> <event desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> # i have to say that this summer <pause dur="0.4"/> # i have been doing a small-scale research study <pause dur="0.3"/> with last year's M-A students before

they went home <pause dur="0.5"/> and it involved interviewing <pause dur="0.5"/> # teachers who were on the course last year <pause dur="0.4"/> the topic of the study was actually about <pause dur="0.4"/> the ways in which they felt the course had helped them to develop <pause dur="0.4"/> as teachers as creative <pause dur="0.3"/> as autonomous as resourceful <pause dur="0.2"/> teachers <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and i interviewed about twenty-two <pause dur="0.3"/> of the teachers from last year and i was very <pause dur="0.3"/> pleased to hear that they <pause dur="0.2"/> all but one <pause dur="0.4"/> # felt that they had <pause dur="0.4"/> developed <trunc>con</trunc> substantially <pause dur="0.3"/> # in terms of their their teaching their creativity and so on <pause dur="0.9"/> and when i asked them what in particular <pause dur="0.4"/> had helped them to develop <pause dur="0.7"/> i was i was quite surprised actually <pause dur="0.4"/> but without <trunc>excepti</trunc> well <trunc>w</trunc> with the exception of one <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> they all said <pause dur="0.7"/> that the main <pause dur="0.4"/> prompt <pause dur="0.9"/> towards their development was working with other teachers <pause dur="0.2"/> in the group in the different kinds of collaborative work <pause dur="0.4"/> that they had been doing <pause dur="0.3"/> during the year that they had learned a very great deal <pause dur="0.5"/> not just from the reading not just from the tutors the input <pause dur="0.3"/> but from working with

other people <pause dur="0.2"/> sharing ideas <pause dur="0.3"/> and learning that people all round the world have the same kinds of problems and issues <pause dur="0.2"/> in the English language classroom <pause dur="0.3"/> and have found lots of ideas for resolving them <pause dur="0.3"/> so it was sharing of that kind <pause dur="0.4"/> that they felt particularly useful <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> here are some quotations <pause dur="0.2"/> from teachers <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> <reading>i found <pause dur="0.3"/> that this collaborative work really helped me <pause dur="0.3"/> in finding solutions to problems which i couldn't find entirely <pause dur="0.3"/> from my own experience <pause dur="0.3"/> or from the theory i had learned</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="reveals covered part of transparency" iterated="n"/> here's another one <pause dur="0.5"/> # and this was # a teacher who was also a teacher trainer <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> she said <reading>i think in a teachers' workshop such a method is indispensable <pause dur="0.4"/> and i would surely apply it <pause dur="0.5"/> to get teachers feeling they are part of the learning <pause dur="0.4"/> to draw from their experience <pause dur="0.2"/> and knowledge</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="reveals covered part of transparency" iterated="n"/> here's another one <pause dur="1.1"/> <reading>working in a group <pause dur="0.4"/> sharing my opinion with others was instructive i learned a lot <pause dur="0.3"/>

from my colleagues</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="reveals covered part of transparency" iterated="n"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> this was an interesting one <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>i should try to work with someone i don't like <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> this is important to me as a teacher trainer <pause dur="0.3"/> who has to work together sometimes with someone i don't like</reading> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> i think that was a very sensible <pause dur="0.3"/> approach to take <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="reveals covered part of transparency" iterated="n"/> and this one i found very interesting he was a university lecturer from India <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> he was somebody who was a bit irritated by group work but nevertheless <pause dur="0.2"/> felt that it was important look what he says <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>group work i sometimes felt to be irritating and so polarized <pause dur="0.3"/> so much time is spent before intersubjectivity is achieved <pause dur="0.3"/> and discussion seems to progress <pause dur="0.5"/> so often <pause dur="0.3"/> i've been tempted to chip in <pause dur="0.4"/> and to direct the discussions the way i think <pause dur="0.2"/> is right <pause dur="0.4"/> but group work is a cooperative process that necessarily <pause dur="0.2"/> involves a warming-up period <pause dur="0.5"/> and interpersonal skills <pause dur="0.3"/> i shan't push the river</reading> <pause dur="0.2"/> that's a very nice metaphor <pause dur="0.4"/>

i shan't push the river <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>it makes me realize what i ask of my students <pause dur="0.2"/> in discussion</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> because it is standard practice now in many parts of the world <pause dur="0.3"/> to get students in the language learning classroom <pause dur="0.3"/> to work together <pause dur="0.3"/> so when you experience it as a teacher <pause dur="0.3"/> it can be quite a salutary <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # experience <pause dur="0.6"/> so there are very positive things that teachers <event desc="takes off transparency" iterated="n"/> report on <pause dur="0.6"/> but of course group work <pause dur="0.8"/> has <pause dur="0.6"/> implicit in it <pause dur="0.4"/> quite a lot of potential <pause dur="0.2"/> problems and issues <pause dur="0.4"/> # <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> that # teacher <pause dur="0.3"/> said it can be very irritating <pause dur="0.3"/> and sometimes he wanted to direct it <pause dur="0.4"/> # in his own way <pause dur="0.7"/> # i remember reading an article in the Higher Education Journal a British journal <pause dur="0.5"/> # and it was about collaborative learning on undergraduate courses <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> where students had to work in a team for six months <pause dur="0.2"/> and produce materials and give presentations <pause dur="0.4"/> and some of the students were interviewed <pause dur="0.4"/> about what they had learned from that

experience <pause dur="0.3"/> and i always remember one of them said <pause dur="0.8"/> i learned how not to do murder <pause dur="0.5"/> just <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> # and that that was really her main reaction it had been so difficult and so painful at times she wanted to murder <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> her colleagues <pause dur="0.4"/> # and i remember a course i ran some years ago <pause dur="0.3"/> it was a diploma course a practical diploma course <pause dur="0.3"/> where teachers were practising teaching together <pause dur="0.3"/> and i had a party at home and invited everybody home <pause dur="0.4"/> and i said to one of them Caroline i said <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm very impressed about the way <pause dur="0.2"/> the group has got together this year everybody seems to be getting on it's gelled very well <pause dur="0.4"/> and there's been none of the usual screaming and shouting that you get before that happens <pause dur="0.3"/> and she said <pause dur="0.5"/> oh <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> there was plenty of screaming and shouting going on <pause dur="0.2"/> but it was in our heads <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> right <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> what students from previous years really want me to pass on to you <pause dur="0.5"/> are some of the issues that arise in

group work <pause dur="0.4"/> things to think about when you find yourself working in a group <pause dur="0.4"/> with other people on the course <pause dur="0.6"/> i'm going to give you an example <pause dur="0.4"/> # of one oh i in <trunc>f</trunc> fact it's in your handout <pause dur="0.2"/> on pages two and three <pause dur="0.6"/> you'll find an example <pause dur="0.3"/> of some group work going on <pause dur="0.3"/> and this was on this M-A course # <pause dur="0.3"/> a couple of years back <pause dur="1.0"/> if you have a look at page two <pause dur="0.5"/> # oh sorry i haven't <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> given them out <pause dur="1.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> if you have a look at pages two and three <pause dur="0.4"/> you'll find that one <event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf1336" trans="pause"> now as i said this is a transcript <pause dur="0.5"/> from <pause dur="1.9"/> a group discussion <pause dur="0.6"/> a few years ago <pause dur="2.1"/> and it's right at the beginning <pause dur="0.6"/> of the professional practice course <pause dur="3.9"/> and the task that students have been given <pause dur="0.5"/> is a design task so they're working in what we call design syndicates <pause dur="0.6"/> # and as you can see in this group there were five people <pause dur="0.6"/> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> and it was a multicultural group <pause dur="0.6"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> and <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.8"/> from different countries <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> all European countries in this in this group <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact <pause dur="0.8"/> and what they were doing <pause dur="0.3"/> was designing <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a presessional course <pause dur="0.8"/> we chose a

presessional course because some of them had experience of that <pause dur="0.6"/> # and could inform the group <pause dur="0.3"/> but we wanted <pause dur="0.3"/> a course that <pause dur="0.3"/> everybody could think about not a course that would be specific to any particular country <pause dur="0.7"/> and this is how they started off on the discussion <pause dur="0.3"/> because they were looking <pause dur="0.4"/> at the scores the IELT scores <pause dur="0.3"/> that the group of students had it was a simulation so they had information <pause dur="0.3"/> about a group of students their IELT scores <pause dur="0.3"/> their needs for the future and so on <pause dur="0.5"/> and they just started off trying to talk <pause dur="0.3"/> about the information that they had <pause dur="0.8"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> if you take time to read this at length <pause dur="0.3"/> you will find that it's rather a nervous <pause dur="0.3"/> discussion <pause dur="0.8"/> because the group <pause dur="0.2"/> was in <pause dur="0.2"/> the very early stages of forming <pause dur="0.4"/> what we know <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> from a lot of research into <pause dur="0.4"/> groups and group development <pause dur="0.3"/> is that they usually go through four stages and this is something worth thinking about <pause dur="0.5"/> what we have here is an

example <pause dur="0.3"/> of stage one <pause dur="0.5"/> which is usually called forming <pause dur="1.1"/> that's a nice set of words here because they're <pause dur="0.3"/> four verbs <pause dur="0.2"/> # which rhyme <pause dur="0.7"/> forming storming norming and performing <pause dur="0.8"/> and at the forming stage <pause dur="0.2"/> you can imagine it i think people are sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> eyeing each other up <pause dur="0.4"/> wondering what they're like <pause dur="0.4"/> wondering who's going to become dominant who's going to want to lead the group <pause dur="0.6"/> # who's going to be silent why are they silent <pause dur="0.4"/> # how they're going to manage to get on with people who's going to do the work who might not do the work and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's a kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> edgy <pause dur="0.2"/> nervous getting to know people <pause dur="0.3"/> as the group <pause dur="0.3"/> forms <pause dur="0.4"/> and you need a bit of time <pause dur="0.2"/> to get through <pause dur="0.2"/> that stage <pause dur="0.4"/> and then we have <pause dur="0.2"/> storming <pause dur="0.4"/> you can imagine from the word <pause dur="0.3"/> what that involves very often <pause dur="0.3"/> you then get a difficult stage <pause dur="0.3"/> where people start clashing <pause dur="0.3"/> personalities clash <pause dur="0.5"/> or aims clash <pause dur="0.5"/> or people clash because they <pause dur="0.2"/> they each want to control the group <pause dur="0.3"/> you've got two strong personalities who want to be the chair <pause dur="0.2"/> and direct

everything <pause dur="0.6"/> so you get that stage of storming <pause dur="0.4"/> and then gradually <pause dur="0.5"/> the group will <pause dur="0.4"/> work out <pause dur="0.3"/> its routines its procedures <pause dur="0.2"/> if they're going to rotate the chair <pause dur="0.2"/> how are they going to function together <pause dur="0.3"/> and will reach the stage of <pause dur="0.3"/> norming <pause dur="0.2"/> they've sorted it out <pause dur="0.5"/> and after <pause dur="0.2"/> they have <pause dur="0.3"/> normed they will be able to perform <pause dur="0.3"/> effectively <pause dur="0.3"/> now bear that in mind <pause dur="0.4"/> if you're in a design syndicate <pause dur="0.2"/> next term <pause dur="0.3"/> you need probably to go through <pause dur="0.3"/> those stages you need to be aware <pause dur="0.4"/> that that that's normal <pause dur="0.7"/> and and you don't need to get worried <pause dur="0.3"/> about the storming phase because normally it will sort itself out <pause dur="0.3"/> and things will fall into place and routines <pause dur="0.3"/> will form <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> i've given you that # <pause dur="0.5"/> transcript <pause dur="0.4"/> in your handout but let me show you <pause dur="0.3"/> what i discovered because i think it illustrates this and it shows some of the issues <pause dur="0.5"/> because <pause dur="0.2"/> while the groups were working <pause dur="0.4"/> i asked them to write diaries about what was going on <pause dur="0.6"/> some of them wrote things down as they were actually working in the group every

so often <pause dur="0.3"/> they stopped and wrote something in their diary <pause dur="0.3"/> and some of them wrote diaries afterwards immediately afterwards <pause dur="0.2"/> so i was able to take things from the diaries <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> relate them to what was going on <pause dur="0.2"/> in the group and it was <kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> really very very interesting let me show you some of the things <pause dur="0.3"/> so here we have <pause dur="0.5"/> the transcript <pause dur="0.8"/> and this is what they wrote in their diaries <pause dur="0.3"/> here's one <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>i don't like to work in a group with her <pause dur="0.6"/> she's too straightforward in expressing her ideas <pause dur="0.2"/> opinions <pause dur="0.3"/> and rude in rejecting other people's opinions</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> right <pause dur="0.9"/> or this one <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>i cannot progress at my own pace but at the pace of the group <pause dur="0.4"/> one member had to beg for explanations as she could not follow</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> right <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps some of you will recognize these feelings <pause dur="0.3"/> from when you've been working in groups <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>pity we're all saying the same thing and don't realize it</reading> <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> <reading>i tried to butt in several times and repeat my

idea until at last one of my friends says they accept mine</reading> <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> <reading>it annoys me when people emphasize words all the time</reading> <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> there was somebody with very very dogmatic <pause dur="0.4"/> # style in that <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>nothing new was said that i didn't already know <pause dur="0.8"/> i've been on enough committees to know what a shambles they can be</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> right <pause dur="0.7"/> or this one <reading>discussions tended to be dominated by a few individual students <pause dur="0.3"/> others could be given a chance to speak <pause dur="0.7"/> some wanted to impress tutors they were active participants and others wanted to be on the cassette <pause dur="1.0"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> this talk struggle was contrary to usual turn-taking</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> right <pause dur="0.4"/> so you can see some of the issues coming up here <pause dur="0.3"/> that need to be resolved <pause dur="0.4"/> and a couple more <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="2"/> <reading>i decided to express my disagreement i noticed a certain rejection to what i was saying <pause dur="0.3"/> i know i was a bit direct <pause dur="0.3"/> but what i said was true</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> and this is the person who the other person said <pause dur="0.3"/> was very dominating </u><u who="sf1337" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="nf1336" trans="latching">

in the discussion <pause dur="1.8"/> <reading>this disorganization makes me feel impatient and aggressive especially as there's one person in the group who's very negative</reading> <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and then <kinesic desc="indicates point on screen" iterated="n"/> this one which is interesting <reading>because the group was mixed and had different educational and cultural backgrounds <pause dur="0.3"/> i found it difficult at times to discuss openly <pause dur="0.4"/> 'cause i didn't really know what the reactions would be</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> and i think we have to bear in mind here <pause dur="0.2"/> in CELTE <pause dur="0.3"/> that we are working in a multicultural <pause dur="0.2"/> group <pause dur="0.4"/> and people <pause dur="0.2"/> have very different ways <pause dur="0.3"/> of doing things <pause dur="0.3"/> let me <pause dur="0.2"/> give you an anecdote about that <pause dur="0.3"/> some years ago in another university <pause dur="0.4"/> i organized an induction from a <pause dur="0.2"/> for an M-A group <pause dur="0.3"/> and i asked the president of the Students' Union to come along his name was Winston <pause dur="0.8"/> and Winston came along and talked about the Students' Union <pause dur="1.4"/> and then he said any questions <pause dur="0.5"/> and and one of the teachers in the group <pause dur="0.3"/> raised a hand and said yes i yes i've i've got a few

queries <pause dur="0.5"/> # and he asked a question <pause dur="0.3"/> and Winston just opened his mouth to start answering and <pause dur="0.2"/> this teacher Matthew said no no wait i've got another question <pause dur="0.9"/> # and people looked a bit shocked but Matthew just ploughed on and and asked another question <pause dur="0.5"/> and Winston waited till he finished and <pause dur="0.3"/> just started to speak and <trunc>m</trunc> no i haven't finished yet i've got another question <pause dur="0.9"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and he actually went through five questions by which time Winston had <pause dur="0.2"/> got his notebook out <pause dur="0.3"/> and was <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> jotting then down <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> that was actually very fortunate because after it had happened <pause dur="0.4"/> one of the students in the group who was quite direct said to Matthew <pause dur="0.6"/> is that the way you do things in your country <pause dur="0.3"/> and he looked very surprised and said well <pause dur="0.6"/> well yes what's the problem <pause dur="0.6"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and and the other people said well <pause dur="0.6"/> we wouldn't do it like that in my culture you know <trunc>pe</trunc> people might get a bit offended and it's difficult to

remember all the questions <pause dur="0.4"/> so we were able to move into <pause dur="0.2"/> a useful discussion <pause dur="0.5"/> about cultural differences <pause dur="0.2"/> in the group <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> all sorts of things like <pause dur="0.8"/> what are the polite ways in # a British context or in a multicultural setting <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> get your way into a conversation if there's # a seminar discussion going on <pause dur="0.3"/> and you want to say something <pause dur="0.3"/> what are the ways in which it's acceptable <pause dur="0.2"/> to do it <pause dur="0.2"/> that won't offend other people <pause dur="0.5"/> do you just butt in <pause dur="0.4"/> and and speak over another person <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.4"/> well what are the ways what strategies would you use <pause dur="0.3"/> if somebody's talking perhaps you think they've been talking too much and you want to say something <pause dur="0.3"/> and there's a group of eight of you sitting around <pause dur="0.3"/> what would you do to get into the conversation </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> excuse me </u><u who="nf1336" trans="overlap"> excuse me so you would use verbal excuse me <pause dur="0.3"/> and then you'd try to say something what

else could you do </u><u who="ss" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf1336" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> </u><u who="sf1338" trans="latching"> <unclear>i'm putting</unclear> my raised hand </u><u who="nf1336" trans="latching"> yeah <trunc>w</trunc> yes <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> </u><u who="sf1338" trans="overlap"> <unclear>in the air</unclear> <gap reason="inaudible due to overlap" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf1336" trans="overlap"> waving your hand <pause dur="0.3"/> yes so some kind of non-verbal signal <pause dur="0.3"/> waving your hand or <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="puts finger up" iterated="n"/> raising a finger <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> or <pause dur="0.9"/> or <trunc>half</trunc> halfway between verbal and non-verbal <pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> right coughing or clearing your ready to speak <pause dur="0.5"/> but there are ways that are acceptable and there are ways which are not so acceptable <pause dur="0.4"/> and which might cause offence and this is the kind of thing <pause dur="0.3"/> that one needs to be <pause dur="0.3"/> aware of <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> why are people silent <pause dur="0.2"/> in groups <pause dur="0.7"/> what are the reasons for silence in groups <pause dur="0.5"/> is it because somebody's bored <pause dur="0.6"/> is it because they haven't understood the topic <pause dur="1.0"/> # is it nothing to do with the class whatsoever <pause dur="0.3"/> is it because they had a row with their partner before they came to

class <pause dur="0.4"/> is it because their car broke down on the way to work and they're worried about what it's going to cost <pause dur="0.3"/> to fix it <pause dur="0.6"/> right is it because they were cruel to their cat and they're feeling guilty <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> i mean there could be lots and lots of reasons why people are silent in class <pause dur="0.3"/> what is the significance of silence <pause dur="0.3"/> and if somebody is silent <pause dur="0.4"/> what can you do <pause dur="0.2"/> as another member <pause dur="0.2"/> of the group to perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> draw them <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> so there are lots of things going on in groups <pause dur="0.3"/> some of them we may be aware of some of them we may not be <pause dur="0.7"/> when i analysed all the diaries i found that the things <pause dur="0.3"/> teachers were particularly concerned about <pause dur="0.4"/> were these i've just built some categories <pause dur="0.4"/> # and these are there in in the handout for you <pause dur="1.9"/> interpretation <pause dur="0.9"/> you are given a task by a tutor <pause dur="1.3"/> and sometimes people get <pause dur="0.4"/> # different impressions of what they're supposed to do <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's always worth spending the first few minutes of the say half-hour that you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> to do the task <pause dur="0.4"/> just talking through what it is you're supposed to do if

somebody says okay what are we doing <pause dur="0.6"/> # how are we going to tackle this <pause dur="0.4"/> so that you're sharing interpretations <pause dur="0.2"/> of the task <pause dur="0.4"/> # and especially if you're working by yourselves out of class <pause dur="0.2"/> it's very useful if somebody <pause dur="0.3"/> takes on that role and says okay <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>w</trunc> what are we doing <pause dur="0.3"/> # and how are we going to go about doing it <pause dur="0.6"/> which <trunc>d</trunc> which leads us on to procedures <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> the need for some organized constructive <pause dur="0.2"/> approach <pause dur="0.5"/> # and somebody here comments on <reading>it took a long time to form the group <pause dur="0.5"/> to clear the backgrounds to find a way of working <pause dur="0.2"/> together</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> so it's always a good idea if you've been put together by <pause dur="0.2"/> the tutor <pause dur="0.5"/> just to say who you are <pause dur="0.3"/> where you're from <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and then to move on to interpreting <pause dur="0.3"/> the task <pause dur="0.3"/> and to make decisions <pause dur="0.3"/> about how you're going to proceed <pause dur="0.2"/> i'll give you an example later on of what one group decided <pause dur="0.3"/> because they actually put together <pause dur="0.3"/> a set of procedures that they wanted to use for group work <pause dur="0.3"/> and they

published it <pause dur="0.2"/> and circulated it to all of the tutors <pause dur="0.2"/> in the department this is how we <pause dur="0.2"/> want to do group work when you ask us to do it <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> participation <pause dur="0.8"/> being aware <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> turn-taking <pause dur="0.5"/> making sure that you're not being too dominant that you're giving other people a chance <pause dur="0.3"/> trying to contribute <pause dur="0.3"/> and if people aren't contributing <pause dur="0.3"/> trying to <pause dur="0.2"/> draw them in i'll say a bit more about that later <pause dur="1.4"/> relationships often get in the way especially in the early stages you want to get to know people you're not sure about them perhaps you want to impress them <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> your relationship with other members of the group <pause dur="0.5"/> and this student this teacher has said <reading>overrode the need <pause dur="0.3"/> for objectivity or efficiency in carrying out the task</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> now that's something <pause dur="0.2"/> that may happen in the early stages you're so busy getting to know <pause dur="0.3"/> other people <pause dur="0.3"/> and finding a way of working together you're not focusing sufficiently <pause dur="0.3"/> on the task but you do need to get <pause dur="0.2"/> through

that <pause dur="0.2"/> as it were <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> and the other things <pause dur="0.2"/> disputes <pause dur="5.2"/> and perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> ideally <pause dur="0.5"/> you do need <pause dur="0.4"/> # a stage of storming <pause dur="0.6"/> where you can actually say look <pause dur="1.0"/> i don't actually agree with the way that we're doing this could we possibly consider another way of doing it <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.6"/> i do feel perhaps you're talking <pause dur="0.2"/> a bit too much and <pause dur="0.4"/> other people <pause dur="0.4"/> perhaps should have a chance to talk <pause dur="0.5"/> and if it's done <pause dur="1.3"/> politely <pause dur="0.2"/> pleasantly <pause dur="0.3"/> # it usually works i i find that teachers <pause dur="0.4"/> are usually <pause dur="0.2"/> very collaborative people <pause dur="0.4"/> # it it's part of the the ethos of education <pause dur="0.6"/> i might regret saying that this year but <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.3"/> # i do i do think that that's often the case teachers want to be <pause dur="0.3"/> collaborative people and are anxious to get on <pause dur="0.3"/> with others <pause dur="0.8"/> time was something that came up again and again and this is worth thinking about <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>i think the collaborative work was much more productive when we started to feel the time pressure</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> and you'll see when i show you <pause dur="0.4"/> the procedures that one M-A group came up with is

they decided <pause dur="0.3"/> that whenever they had group work they would appoint a chair <pause dur="0.3"/> who would keep the discussion going <pause dur="0.4"/> a secretary who would make notes for the feedback <pause dur="0.3"/> and a timekeeper <pause dur="0.7"/> so if the task had like four parts to it <pause dur="0.2"/> it was the timekeeper's job to say we've got twenty minutes <pause dur="0.2"/> five minutes on each <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and the timekeeper would keep an eye <pause dur="0.3"/> on the watch <pause dur="0.2"/> and <trunc>k</trunc> and keep the group moving <pause dur="0.3"/> so even if you didn't finish one bit of it you could move on and think about <pause dur="0.3"/> another part of the task <pause dur="0.7"/> and achievement as well and this is something for the tutor too <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>i have the feeling that the group is limited by its own ideas there must be many ideas in other groups <pause dur="0.2"/> that we haven't used</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> now your tutor <pause dur="0.3"/> will have some method of feedback either a plenary discussion <pause dur="0.5"/> or you may be asked to # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> to appoint a spokesperson who will speak for the group <pause dur="0.4"/> or you may be asked to write notes on a poster <pause dur="0.3"/> which is then put up on the wall and people can wander round <pause dur="0.4"/> and

see the things <pause dur="0.2"/> that you've written <pause dur="0.4"/> or somebody might be asked to write a short report for the next <pause dur="0.2"/> meeting of the class <pause dur="0.5"/> # different ways of <pause dur="0.2"/> plenary work <pause dur="0.5"/> if you find that a tutor hasn't done that <pause dur="0.4"/> you may like to organize it for yourselves if you want to know what's been happening in other groups <pause dur="0.2"/> suggest it <pause dur="0.3"/> don't be afraid to suggest things <pause dur="0.3"/> in class <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> so those are the sorts of issues that have come up <pause dur="0.4"/> # over the years as it <pause dur="0.2"/> were <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> i just wanted to give you <pause dur="0.3"/> a couple of ideas about <pause dur="0.2"/> how you might tackle <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> these sorts of issues if you look at page six <pause dur="1.1"/> in the handout <pause dur="0.6"/> i've given you there <pause dur="0.6"/> what's called a self-perception <pause dur="0.3"/> inventory <pause dur="0.6"/> of functions in group work <pause dur="1.4"/> the research that has gone on <pause dur="0.9"/> # and a lot of it has gone on not in education but in a business context <pause dur="0.4"/> where people for example in multinational companies <pause dur="0.3"/> have to meet <pause dur="0.3"/> and discuss things and <pause dur="0.4"/> cope with cultural differences <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> a lot of that research has

shown that when a group is working together <pause dur="0.6"/> there are two types of function within that group <pause dur="0.4"/> that will lead to <pause dur="0.2"/> successful or unsuccessful <pause dur="0.2"/> collaborative <pause dur="0.2"/> work <pause dur="0.7"/> # one type of function is called a task <pause dur="0.3"/> function <pause dur="0.5"/> and if you have a look at some of those <pause dur="0.5"/> obviously you need people who will give opinions <pause dur="1.2"/> you you need people who will elicit opinions <pause dur="0.2"/> from colleagues or peers <pause dur="0.8"/> you need somebody who is monitoring the discussion and if something is unclear <pause dur="0.4"/> will say <pause dur="0.3"/> # let's just stop a moment can we clarify that what exactly did you mean <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> # you need people <pause dur="0.2"/> who will <pause dur="0.4"/> elaborate who will build on other people's contributions <pause dur="0.3"/> well that's an interesting idea <pause dur="0.4"/> # perhaps we could develop it a bit because it seems to me that this might be possible <pause dur="0.4"/> now these are all task functions that keep the discussion <pause dur="0.2"/> going <pause dur="0.3"/> and get the job of work done <pause dur="1.0"/> but groups don't function very well if you don't also have <pause dur="0.3"/> what we call <pause dur="0.2"/> team <pause dur="0.2"/> functions <pause dur="0.7"/> you need somebody as i said earlier <pause dur="0.3"/> who will draw in <pause dur="0.3"/> the

silent people <pause dur="0.6"/> and actually say what do you think <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> it may be that person is silent <pause dur="0.2"/> especially in a multicultural group <pause dur="0.7"/> because the discussion is going quickly <pause dur="0.7"/> and it takes some people time <pause dur="0.3"/> not just to think what they want to say <pause dur="0.3"/> but to think how to say it in English <pause dur="0.8"/> # some people feel more confident in the English language <pause dur="0.3"/> and they start to dominate <pause dur="0.2"/> and may think <pause dur="0.3"/> well there are some very quiet people in this group i i ought to say something or we're not going to get anywhere <pause dur="0.6"/> but in fact perhaps all it needs is to say <pause dur="0.2"/> what what do you think have you got an opinion and give somebody <pause dur="0.3"/> time <pause dur="0.3"/> to formulate their thoughts in English and <pause dur="0.3"/> and get them out as it were to express them <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> we need encouragers we need people to <pause dur="0.4"/> encourage <pause dur="0.5"/> we need people <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> respond <pause dur="0.7"/> when they're listening <pause dur="0.5"/> to actually say things like <pause dur="0.4"/> that's an interesting idea <pause dur="0.3"/> you know what do you think <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> to get people together working together <pause dur="0.6"/> or if people start disagreeing to say <pause dur="0.2"/> you know wait a minute

we seem to have a disagreement here <pause dur="0.3"/> let's try and sort it out <pause dur="0.8"/> and teams groups don't really work unless there are people doing <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> a couple of years back <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i was using <pause dur="0.7"/> research instruments like this all the way through <pause dur="0.2"/> a term <pause dur="0.3"/> and at the end of a term <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> i asked the students to write about their experiences of <pause dur="0.2"/> group work <pause dur="0.3"/> and i've given you one example i've called it case study one <kinesic desc="holds up handout" iterated="n"/> here <pause dur="0.6"/> this was a teacher <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="0.3"/> Eastern Europe <pause dur="0.6"/> she was a teacher trainer <pause dur="1.0"/> and here she's reflecting <pause dur="0.6"/> on the way in which she felt she was able <pause dur="0.3"/> to change <pause dur="0.5"/> her contributions to group work <pause dur="0.5"/> as she said <pause dur="1.5"/> to begin with she felt that she was very dominant very hyper she always wanted to talk she always wanted to make contributions <pause dur="0.4"/> but as the term progressed she tried more and more <pause dur="0.5"/> to take on some team functions to draw other people in <pause dur="0.4"/> to be a responsive <pause dur="0.3"/> listener <pause dur="0.3"/> to conciliate <pause dur="0.3"/> when there were disagreements <pause dur="0.4"/> and at the end of the course she said <pause dur="0.2"/> that was one of the most useful things that

she had learned <pause dur="0.3"/> because she had developed skills <pause dur="0.3"/> of interacting with other people in groups <pause dur="0.2"/> which she had to do a lot <pause dur="0.3"/> in her work <pause dur="0.3"/> so she felt she had developed skills that were transferable <pause dur="0.3"/> to her job when she went <pause dur="0.2"/> home <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> think about <pause dur="0.4"/> those <pause dur="1.0"/> functions as they're described <pause dur="0.4"/> and perhaps when you're doing group work <pause dur="0.5"/> afterwards just have a look at that list and think <pause dur="0.4"/> which functions did i perform <pause dur="0.6"/> # and are there some others <pause dur="0.2"/> that i could do <pause dur="0.3"/> in the group <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> # and the other thing that you might like to think about is how you actually set up <pause dur="0.4"/> your group work this is the <pause dur="0.3"/> thing i talked about earlier <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that the M-A course participants published to tutors <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and they said okay <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>tutors should have primary responsibility for designating the members of each group <pause dur="0.5"/> in order to ensure variety throughout the year</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="1.1"/> <reading>tutors should indicate the approximate amount of time available <pause dur="0.3"/> for the completion of the task</reading> sometimes we forget to do that <pause dur="0.4"/> right <pause dur="0.4"/> so it would

be very good if somebody <pause dur="0.3"/> in the group in your group actually said # how long have we got for this <pause dur="0.2"/> very nicely if the tutor forgets to tell you <pause dur="0.3"/> 'cause then you can organize yourselves <pause dur="0.2"/> you know how much time you've got <pause dur="0.9"/> <reading>that each group should appoint its own chair <pause dur="0.3"/> secretary spokesperson and timekeeper</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> right <pause dur="0.6"/> and the roles of the above are as follows <reading>the chair is to guide discussion and ensure progress <pause dur="0.4"/> the secretary is to take notes for later feedback <pause dur="0.5"/> either <pause dur="0.3"/> in clear written form for typing and display or as the basis for oral reporting <pause dur="0.4"/> the timekeeper <pause dur="0.3"/> is to remind the group of its deadlines</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> the fifth <pause dur="0.4"/> point <reading>that the product of the discussion or task <pause dur="0.3"/> should be either <pause dur="0.3"/> presented in written form <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> reported by the secretary</reading> and this was useful <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>with additions from the other group members</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> that you never leave it entirely to one person <pause dur="0.5"/> but that you make it possible for other people to chip in <pause dur="0.3"/> with something that the

spokesperson <pause dur="0.4"/> might have forgotten <pause dur="1.0"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> those are just things to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> when you find yourself involved in group work <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="0.7"/> but there's one other point that i would like <pause dur="0.2"/> to make because <pause dur="0.4"/> again <pause dur="0.5"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> this is something that has developed <pause dur="0.4"/> over the years <pause dur="0.5"/> students <pause dur="0.4"/> on the M-A course have found it very very useful <pause dur="0.3"/> to set up their own <pause dur="0.2"/> learning <pause dur="0.3"/> syndicates <pause dur="0.2"/> now the last page of the handout <pause dur="0.5"/> # gives you some information about that <pause dur="1.3"/> they have functioned extremely well <pause dur="0.8"/> and when i was doing my interviews this summer <pause dur="0.5"/> this was the kind of group work that people found particularly <pause dur="0.2"/> useful <pause dur="0.6"/> what do we mean by a learning syndicate <pause dur="0.7"/> it's a self-<pause dur="0.2"/>chosen <pause dur="0.2"/> self-help <pause dur="0.2"/> group <pause dur="0.5"/> you get together <pause dur="0.3"/> with other students <pause dur="0.5"/> the numbers are usually four five or six not more than that <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's a group that meets <pause dur="0.2"/> outside of classes <pause dur="0.5"/> nothing to do with the organization of tutors <pause dur="0.3"/> as i said self-selecting <pause dur="0.7"/> # making your own decisions about when to

meet where to meet <pause dur="0.3"/> and what to do <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> and really <pause dur="0.2"/> its goal is to cooperate in order to support <pause dur="0.3"/> whatever work you're involved in <pause dur="0.4"/> at different times of the year <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> it is independent from tutors but what i found over the years and it's very helpful <pause dur="0.4"/> is that if a learning syndicate has come up with some kind of problem or issue <pause dur="0.7"/> perhaps to do with a coursework assignment and they want to meet with the tutor <pause dur="0.6"/> then they arrange a joint meeting with the tutor <pause dur="0.4"/> so that six people <pause dur="0.2"/> will go to see me or <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> or <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> together <pause dur="0.4"/> to talk about the same issue <pause dur="0.3"/> and that is very very economical <pause dur="0.3"/> for you and for us because there are a lot of you <pause dur="0.5"/> # and a discussion in a group usually yields more <pause dur="0.5"/> # than just a discussion between two people <pause dur="0.4"/> but i've listed here some of the things <pause dur="0.3"/> that learning syndicates can <pause dur="0.2"/> do <pause dur="0.5"/> # there are some things that you <pause dur="0.2"/> are very well advised to do and some that you really should avoid <pause dur="0.4"/> doing <pause dur="0.3"/> so i've put things here like sharing library books and articles <pause dur="0.2"/>

that's a very useful thing <pause dur="0.3"/> to do <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> sharing lecture notes or recordings as well <pause dur="0.7"/> # and taking turns at producing a set of notes if you've got three classes in one day <pause dur="0.5"/> you might have three different people in your syndicate <pause dur="0.2"/> making the notes and then sharing them <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's a lot less work for everybody <pause dur="1.0"/> buying textbooks together <pause dur="0.6"/> that's a good way of sharing it <pause dur="0.3"/> and establishing a private syndicate library <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> # reading each others' drafts of coursework assignments and commenting on them <pause dur="0.4"/> trying to see any language problems <pause dur="0.3"/> or saying whether you feel something is clear <pause dur="0.3"/> or not <pause dur="0.8"/> practising giving seminar presentations you're all going to be asked to give presentations <pause dur="0.3"/> at some point in the year <pause dur="0.3"/> good idea to practise it and get feedback <pause dur="0.4"/> from colleagues <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> or just providing help on demand somebody rings you up can you help me with this <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> or just giving moral support <pause dur="0.3"/> if somebody begins to feel stressed or a bit low <pause dur="0.3"/> about things giving <pause dur="0.2"/> moral support can be very

useful <pause dur="0.8"/> what you must avoid <pause dur="0.9"/> is doing your assignments together <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="4"/> because tutors become very <pause dur="0.2"/> aware of that <pause dur="0.4"/> and we don't have a policy in CELTE <pause dur="0.4"/> of doing work <pause dur="0.2"/> together because it has to be assessed <pause dur="0.3"/> individually <pause dur="0.7"/> it may be possible later in the year if you choose similar topics for dissertations <pause dur="0.4"/> to work together on some kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> research <pause dur="0.2"/> instrument <pause dur="0.4"/> # i've just marked two dissertations from my own students and they wanted to investigate <pause dur="0.3"/> staff appraisal <pause dur="0.3"/> as a topic <pause dur="0.4"/> and we found that there were only about twenty people <pause dur="0.3"/> on the M-A course and among staff <pause dur="0.3"/> who had experience of staff appraisal in schools <pause dur="0.3"/> and i said it's not a good idea if you both <pause dur="0.3"/> try to give those twenty people a questionnaire <pause dur="0.3"/> you're not going to get complete returns <pause dur="0.3"/> so they worked together <pause dur="0.4"/> on the questionnaire and designed it <pause dur="0.3"/> and administered it <pause dur="0.3"/> but then i made <pause dur="0.2"/> two lots of copies <pause dur="0.2"/> and they analysed it and wrote it up completely <pause dur="0.2"/> separately <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> collaboration may be possible

to a certain extent <pause dur="0.3"/> but your written work should always be <pause dur="0.2"/> your own <pause dur="0.4"/> and tutors will <pause dur="0.2"/> recognize immediately if three people have turned out the same essay <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's not a very good thing to do <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> you will find classrooms empty <pause dur="0.3"/> in the late afternoon <pause dur="0.7"/> the period between about four and six <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot of the rooms are free <pause dur="0.4"/> and you just need to ask in the office <pause dur="0.4"/> # if there's a room that you can use <pause dur="0.2"/> for your group <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> but do <pause dur="0.3"/> do think about that because we've had such positive feedback <pause dur="0.4"/> from members of the course <pause dur="0.2"/> about the usefulness the value <pause dur="0.3"/> of these self-help groups during the year <pause dur="0.4"/> may not be something you're familiar with <pause dur="0.5"/> but certainly something worth trying <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> and that really brings me to the end of the messages that i'm passing on <pause dur="0.3"/> from previous students <pause dur="0.3"/> # how are we doing it's nearly two o'clock does anybody have a burning question at all <pause dur="5.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> no <pause dur="1.2"/> okay well i hope that's given you some ideas for the year