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Learner Autonomy Books, Reports and Proceedings: A Comprehensive Bibliography

Compiled by Richard Smith

A comprehensive chronological list of books, reports, journal special issues, conference proceedings etc. connected with learner autonomy in language learning. See also our growing Digital Archive of Difficult-to-Obtain Writings on Learner Autonomy (please let us know if you would like an item added to which you hold the copyright!)

How old is learner autonomy in language learning? Scroll to the bottom of the page to find out!

Please inform me of any inaccuracies, omissions or desired additions:

Also contact me if you are interested in doing -- and, with mentoring, feel competent to do -- a PhD in the area of 'History of the language learner autonomy movement'. At Warwick we now have a good collection of primary sources, and the time seems ripe for such a study!


Raya, M.J. & Vieira, F. (2015). Enhancing Autonomy in Language Education: A Case-based Approach to Teacher and Learner Development. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.


Morrison, B.R. & Navarro, D. (2014). The Autonomy Approach: Language Learning in the Classroom and Beyond. Peaslake: Delta Publishing. Further information.

Murray, G., ed. (2014). Social Dimensions of Autonomy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Further information.



Barfield, A. and Delgado Alvarado, N., eds. (2013). Autonomy in Language Learning: Stories of Practices. Canterbury, England: IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG. Further information.

Benson, P. and Cooker, L., eds. (2013). The Applied Linguistic Individual: Sociocultural Approaches to Identity, Agency and Autonomy. Sheffield: Equinox.

Crabbe, D., Elgort, I. and Gu, P., eds. (2013). Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching (7/3). Special issue: Autonomy in a Networked World. Table of contents.

Hobbs, M. and Dofs, K., eds. (2013). ILAC Selections: 5th Independent Learning Association Conference. Christchurch, New Zealand: Independent Learning Association. Online:

Huang, J. and Benson, P., eds. (2013). Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (36/1). Special issue for the 16th World Congress of Applied Linguistics: Autonomy in Foreign and Second Language Education. Table of contents

Ludwig, C. and Mynard, J., eds. (2013). Autonomy in Language Learning: Advising in Action. Canberbury, England: IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG. Further information.

Menegale, M., ed. (2013). Autonomy in Language Learning: Getting Learners Actively Involved. Canterbury, England: IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG. Further information.



Dervin, F. and Badrinathan, V., eds. (2012). Synergies France (no. 9). Special issue: L'autonomie dans les pratiques éducatives. Online:

Díaz-Vera, J.E., ed. (2012). Left to My Own Devices: Learner Autonomy and Mobile-assisted Language Learning. Bingley: Emerald.

Irie, K. and Stewart, A., eds. (2012). Realizing Autonomy: Practice and Reflection in Language Education Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ludwig, C., and Mynard, J., eds. ((2012). Autonomy in language learning: Advising in Action. Canterbury: IATEFL.

Mynard, J., and Carson, L., eds. (2012). Advising in Language Learning: Dialogue, Tools and Context. Harlow: Longman.

Rüschoff, B. and Heim, K. (eds) (2012) Involving Language Learners: Success Stories and Constraints. Duisburg, Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr


Aoki, N. & Nakata, Y., eds. (2011). Gakushuusha autonomy: Hajimete no hito no tame no introduction [Learner Autonomy: A Beginners' Introduction]. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.

Benson, P. and Reinders, H., eds. (2011). Beyond the Language Classroom. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dofs, K. and Hobbs, M. (2011). Guidelines for Maximising use of Independent Learning Centres: Support for ESOL Learners. Wellington: Ako Aotearoa. Online:

Everhard, C.J. and Mynard, J. ,with Smith, R., eds.. (2011). Autonomy in Language Learning: Opening a Can of Worms. Canterbury: IATEFL. Further information.

Gardner, D., ed. (2011). Fostering Autonomy in Language Learning. Gaziantep: Zirve University. Available at

Morrison, B., ed. (2011). Independent Language Learning: Building on Experience, Seeking New Perspectives. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Murray, G., Gao, X., and Lamb, T., eds. (2011). Identity, Motivation, and Autonomy in Language Learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Raya, M.J. and Vieira, F., eds. (2011). Understanding and Exploring Pedagogy for Autonomy in Language Education: A Case-based Approach. [DVD]. Dublin: Authentik.

Reinders, H. and White, C., eds. (2011). Language Learning & Technology (Volume 15, Issue 3, 2011). Special issue: 'Learner Autonomy and New Learning Environments'.

Trebbi, T., ed. (2011) Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching (Volume 5, Issue 2, 2011). Special issue: ‘The 10th Nordic Conference on Language Learner Autonomy in the FL Classroom: Reinforcing the What, the Why and the How: Challenges and Change’. Table of contents

Trebbi, T. & Miliander, J. (2011), eds.. Educational Policies and Language Learner Autonomy in School: A New Direction in lLnguage Education? Dublin: Authentik.

M. J. Raya & F. Vieira (Eds.), Understanding and exploring pedagogy for autonomy in language aducation: A case-based approach. DVD. Dublin: Authentik.


Dheram, P.( 2010). Promoting Learner Autonomy: A Teacher's Reflections on ESL in India. Hyderabad: EFL University / Orient BlackSwan.

Gao, X. (2010) Strategic Language Learning: The Roles of Agency and Context. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Jiang, X. (2010). Learner autonomy in Chinese contexts: University Students’ Conceptions. Saarbruecken: VDM.

Luzón, M.J., M.N. Ruiz-Madrid and M.L. Villanueva, eds. (2010) Digital Genres, New Literacies and Autonomy in Language Learning. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars. Table of contents, preface and sample chapter

O'Rourke, B. and Carson, L., eds. (2010) Language Learner Autonomy: Policy, Curriculum, Classroom. A Festschrift in Honour of David Little. Oxford: Lang.


Carroll, M., Castillo, D., Cooker, L., and Irie, K., eds. (2009) Proceedings of the Independent Learning Association 2007 Japan Conference (online): Exploring theory, enhancing practice: Autonomy across the disciplines. Kanda University of International Studies, Chiba, Japan, October 2007.Online:, retrieved 8 October 2009.

Kjisik, F., Voller, P., Aoki, N., and Nakata, Y., eds. (2009) Mapping the Terrain of Learner Autonomy: Learning Environments, Learning Communities and Identities. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.

Pemberton, R., Toogood, S. and Barfield, A., eds. (2009) Maintaining Control. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Smith, R. and Vieira, F., eds. (2009) Special issue on 'Teacher Education for Learner Autonomy: Building a Knowledge Base'. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 3/3. Contents: 

Thang, S.M. and Sinclair, B. (2009) Learner Autonomy: Research and Practice in Malaysia and Singapore. Malaysia: Pearson Malaysia.

Vieira, F., ed. (2009) The Struggle for Learner Autonomy: Reflecting, Acting and Being. Frankfurt: Lang.



Benson, P., Collins, H. and Sprenger, T.M., eds. (2008) Special issue on 'From Autonomy in Language Learning to Autonomy in Language Teaching'. DELTA: Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada, vol. 24. Online:

Dam, L., ed. (2008). 9th Nordic Conference on Developing Learner Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching: Status and Ways Ahead after Twenty Years, 2006. Copenhagen: CVU

Jiménez Raya, M. and T.E. Lamb, eds. (2008). Pedagogy for Autonomy in Modern Languages Education: Theory, Practice, and Teacher Education. Dublin: Authentik.

Hurd, S. and T. Lewis, eds. (2008). Language Learning Strategies in Independent Settings. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Kalaja, P., Menezes, V. & Barcelos, A.-M., eds. (2008). Narratives of Learning and Teaching EFL. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Karlsson, L. (2008). Turning the Kaleidoscope: (E)FL Educational Experience and Inquiry as Auto/biography. Language Centre Publications 1. Helsinki: University of Helsinki Language Centre Online:

Lamb, T. and Reinders, H., eds. (2008). Learner and Teacher Autonomy: Concepts, Realities and Responses. AILA Applied Linguistics Series, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Schmenk, B. (2008). Lernerautonomie: Karriere und Sloganisierung des Autonomiebegriffs. Giessener Beiträge zur Fremdsprachendidaktik. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Schwienhorst, K. (2008) Learner Autonomy and CALL Environments. New York: Routledge.

TESOL, ed. (2008) Learner Autonomy: What Does the Future Hold? [Proceedings of TESOL Symposium, Faculty of Languages, University of Sevilla, Spain, Saturday November 8, 2008]. Alexandria, VA: TESOL. Online:

Vogel, T., Satchell, R. and Moravčíková, A., eds. (2008) Language Centres at Universities: Crossing Bridges, Integrating Cultures. Papers from the 9th CercleS Conference Frankfurt (Oder), 28-30 September 2006. Frankfurt (Oder): CercleS.



Allford, D. and N. Pachler. (2007) Language, Autonomy and the New Learning Environments. Oxford: Lang.

Amritavalli, R. (2007). English in Deprived Circumstances: Maximising Learner Autonomy. Bangalore: Foundation Books.

Barfield, A. and S. Brown, eds. (2007) Reconstructing Autonomy in Language Education: Inquiry and Innovation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benson, P., ed. (2007) Learner Autonomy 8: Teacher and Learner Perspectives. Dublin: Authentik

Gardner, D., ed. (2007) Learner Autonomy 10: Integration and Support. Dublin: Authentik.

Miller, L., ed. (2007) Learner Autonomy 9: Autonomy in the Classroom. Dublin: Authentik.

Raya, M.J. and L. Sercu, eds. (2007). Challenges in Teacher Development: Learner Autonomy and Intercultural Competence. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Raya, M.J., T. Lamb and F. Vieira. (2007). Pedagogy for Autonomy in Language Education in Europe: Towards a Framework for Learner and Teacher Development. Dublin: Authentik.

Rubin, J., ed. (2007) Special issue on 'Language Counseling'. System 35/1.

Usuki, M. (2007). Autonomy in Language Learning: Japanese Students' Exploratory Analysis. Japan: Sankeisha.


Bobb-Wolff, L. and Vera Batista, J.L., eds. (2006) The Canarian Conference on Developing Autonomy in the Classroom: Each Piece of the Puzzle Enriches Us All. Book and CD-ROM. La Laguna: Consejería de Educacíon, Cultura y Deportes del Gobierno de Canarias.

Carter, B-A. (2006) Teacher/Student Responsibility in Foreign Language Learning. New York: Lang

Dixon, D, H. Baba, P. Cozens,and M. Thomas. (2006) Independent Learning Schemes: A Practical Approach. Dubai: TESOL Arabia.

Lamb, T. and H. Reinders, eds. (2006) Supporting Independent Language Learning: Issues and Interventions. Bayreuth Contributions to Glottodidactics, vol. 10. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Skier, E.M. and M. Kohyama, eds. (2006) Learner and Teacher Autonomy in Japan 2: More Autonomy You Ask! Tokyo: The Learner Development Special Interest Group of JALT.



Benson, P. & Nunan, D., eds. (2005) Learners’ Stories: Difference and Diversity in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fan, J. and Pang, J., eds. (2005) [in Chinese]. Selected Papers from the International Conference on Autonomy and Language Learning: Maintaining Control. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Press.

Moravčíková, A., Taylor Torsello, C. & Vogel, T., eds. (2005) University Language Centres: Broadening Horizons, Expanding Networks. Proceedings of the 8th CercleS Conference Bratislava, 9–11 September 2004. Bratislava: CercleS.



Reinders, H., Anderson, H., Hobbs, M. & Jones-Parry, J., eds. (2004) Supporting independent learning in the 21st century. Proceedings of the inaugural conference of the Independent Learning Association, Melbourne September 13-14 2003. Auckland: Independent Learning Association Oceania.

Satchell, R. & Chenik, N., eds. (2004) University Language Centres: Forging the Learning Environments of the Future. Papers from the 7th CercleS Conference, Paris, 19-21 September 2002. Paris: CercleS.



Barfield, A. & Nix, M., eds. (2003) Learner and Teacher Autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy You Ask! Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.

Gollin, J., G. Ferguson and H. Trappes-Lomax (eds), Symposium for Language Teacher Educators: Papers from Three IALS Symposia [specifically, Autonomy in Language Teacher Education (2001)] (CD-ROM). Edinburgh: IALS, University of Edinburgh.

Jiménez Raya, M. & Lamb, T., eds. (2003) Differentiation in the Modern Languages Classroom. Foreign Language Teaching in Europe, vol. 7. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Little, D., Ridley, J. & Ushioda, E., eds. (2003) Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Classrooms: Teacher, Learner, Curriculum and Assessment. Dublin: Authentik.

Lewis, T. & Walker, L., eds. (2003) Autonomous Language Learning in Tandem. Sheffield: Academic & Electronic Press.

van Esch, K. & St.John, O., eds. (2003) A Framework for Freedom: Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Teacher Education. Foreign Language Teaching in Europe, vol. 8. Frankfurt am Main: Lang. [with video: In the Driving Seat].

Palfreyman, D. & Smith, R. C., eds. (2003) Learner Autonomy across Cultures: Language Education Perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.



Benson, P. & Toogood, S., eds. (2002) Learner Autonomy 7: Challenges to Research and Practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Little, D. (ed.) (2002) The European Language Portfolio in Use: Nine Examples. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Available online (20/8/06):

Little, D., Ridley, J. & Ushioda, E. (2002) Towards Greater Learner Autonomy in the Foreign Language Classroom. Dublin: Authentik.

Mackenzie, A.S. & McCafferty, E., eds. (2002) Developing Autonomy. [Proceedings of the JALT CUE Conference 2001.] Tokyo: The Japan Association for Language Teaching College and University Educators Special Interest Group.

Ruane, M. & Meijers, G., eds. (2002) Language Centres: The Promotion of Quality in Language Learning. Papers from the 6th CercleS Conference, Antwerp 14-16 September 2000. Dublin, CercleS.

Ushioda, E. and J. Ridley (2002) Working with the European Language Portfolio in Irish post-primary schools: report on an evaluation project. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 61. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College. 1987

Vieira, F., Moreira, M.A., Barbosa, I. & Paiva, M., eds. (2002) Pedagogy for Autonomy and English Learning: Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Working Group – Pedagogy for Autonomy. Braga: University of Minho.



Benson, P. (2001) Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. London: Longman.

Dam, L. (ed.) (2001) Learner Autonomy: New Insights. AILA Review 15. Available online at:

Kohonen, V., Jaatinen, R., Kaikkonen, P. & Lehtovaara, J. (2001) Experiential Learning in Foreign Language Education. Harlow: Longman.

Mozzon-McPherson, M. & Vismans, R., eds. (2001) Beyond Language Teaching: towards Language Advising. London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.



Aase, L., A-B. Fenner, D. Little and T. Trebbi (2000) Writing as cultural competence: a study of the relationship between mother tongue and foreign language learning within a framework of learner autonomy. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no.56. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Breen, M.P. & Littlejohn, A., eds. (2000) Classroom Decision-Making: Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Camilleri, A., ed. (2000) Introducing Learner Autonomy in Teacher Education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. [French version also published in same year: Introduction de l'autonomie de l'apprenant dans la formation des enseignants.]

Camilleri, G., ed. (2000) Learner Autonomy: The Teachers' Views. Strasbourg: Council of Europe [French version also published in same year: Autonomie de l'apprenant - la perspective de l'enseignant.]

Karlsson, L., Kjisik, F. & Nordlund, J., eds. (2000) All Together Now (Papers from the 7th Nordic Conference and Workshop on Autonomous Language Learning, Helsinki, September 2000), University of Helsinki Language Centre.

Kohonen, V., ed. (2000) Experiential Learning in Foreign Language Education. London: Longman

Little, D., Dam, L. and Timmer, J., eds. (2000) Focus on Learning rather than Teaching: Why and How? Dublin: Trinity College, Centre for Language and Communication Studies.

Ribé, R., ed. (n.d. [2000]) Developing Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning, Barcelona: University of Barcelona.

Scharle, Á. & Szabó, A. (2000) Learner Autonomy: A Guide to Developing Learner Responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sinclair, B., McGrath, I. & Lamb, T., eds. (2000) Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy: Future Directions. London: Longman.

Usuki, M. (2000) Learner autonomy: learning from the student's voice. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 60. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Victori, M. (ed.). (2000) Special issue on ‘Autonomy in second language learning’. Links & Letters 7. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Servei de publicacions.



Appel, M.C. (1999) Tandem language learning by e-mail: some basic principles and a case study. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 54. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Bickerton, David & Gotti, Maurizio, eds. (1999) Language Centres: Integration through Innovation. Papers from the 5th CERCLES Conference, Bergamo, 17-19 September 1998. Plymouth: CERCLES.

Cotterall, S. & Crabbe, D., eds. (1999) Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Defining the Field and Effecting Change. Bayreuth Contributions to Glottodidactics, Vol 8. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Dexter, P. and S. Sheerin, eds. (1999) Learner Independence Worksheets 2. Whitstable: IATEFL

Edelhoff, C. and R. Weskamp (eds). Autonomes Fremdsprachenlernen. Ismaning: Hueber.

Gardner, D. & Miller, L. (1999) Establishing Self-access: from Theory to Practice. Cambridge University Press.

Little, D. , E. Ushioda, M.C. Appel, J. Moran, B. O'Rourke and K. Schwienhorst (1999) Evaluating tandem language learning by e-mail: report on a bilateral project. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 55. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Mißler, B. and Multhaup, U., eds. (1999) The Construction of Knowledge, Learner Autonomy and Related Issues in Foreign Language Learning. Tübingen: Stauffenberg.

Morrison, B., ed. (1999) Experiments and Evaluation in Self-Access Language Learning. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Association for Self-Access Learning and Development.



Rebenius, I. (1998) Elevautonomi i språkundervisningen. [Pupils’ Autonomy in Language Teaching.] Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.

Vieira, F. (1998) Autonomia na Aprendizagem da Língua Estrangeira: Uma Intervenção Pedagógica em Contexto Escolar [Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning: A Pedagogic Intervention in the School Context]. Braga: Institute of Education and Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal.



Gabrielsen, G., ed. (1997) Fifth Nordic Conference on Developing Autonomous Learning in the Foreign Language Classroom, Danmarks Lærerhøjskole, Copenhagen, August 24-27, 1995. Copenhagen: Danmarks Lærerhøjskole.

Benson, P. & Voller, P., eds. (1997) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. London: Longman.

Dickinson, L., ed. (1997) Autonomy 2000: The Development of Learning Independence in Language Learning. Conference Proceedings. Bangkok: King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Thonburi.

Eriksson, R. & Tholin, J. (1997) Engelska för livet. Lärares och elevers medvetenhet om språkinlärning. [English for life. Teachers’ and pupils’ awareness of language learning.] Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Gardner, D. and Miller, L. (1997) A Study of Tertiary Level Self-Access Facilities in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong. Available online (5/2/08):

Holec, H. and Huttunen, I. (eds.) (1997) L’autonomie de l’apprenant en langues vivantes / Learner Autonomy in Modern Languages. Strasbourg: Council of Europe

Karlsson L., Kjisik F. & Nordlund J. (1997) From Here to Autonomy. Helsinki University Press.

Little, D. & Voss, B., eds.(1997) Language Centres: Planning for the New Millennium. Papers from the 4th CERCLES Conference, Dresden, 26-28 September 1996. Plymouth: CERCLES

Macaro, E. (1997) Target Language, collaborative learning and autonomy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Ridley, J. (1997) Learner Autonomy 6: Developing Learners’ Thinking Skills. Dublin: Authentik.

Tort-Moloney, D. (1997) Teacher autonomy: a Vygotskian theoretical framework. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 48. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.



Aub-Buscher, G., ed. (1996) The Linguistic Challenge of the New Europe. Papers from the 3rd CERCLES Conference, Hull, 23-25 September 1994. Plymouth: CERCLES.

Booton, P. & Benson, P. (1996) Self-access: Classification and Retrieval. Manchester: The British Council.

Bosch, M. (1996) Autonomia i aprenentatge de llengües. Barcelona: Editorial Graó. [Cited in Victori 2000.]

Broady, E. & Kenning, M-M., eds. (1996) Promoting Learner Autonomy in University Language Teaching. London: Association for French Language Studies in association with CILT.

Gardner, D.. & Miller, L. (1996) Tasks for Independent Language Learning. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Harrison, L., ed. (1996) Learner Independence Worksheets. Whitstable: IATEFL.

Holec, H., Little, D. and Richterich, R. (1996). Strategies in Language Learning and Use: Studies towards a Common European Framework for Language Learning and Teaching. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. [French version also published in same year: Stratégies dans l’apprentissage et l’usage des langues.]

Little, D. and H.Brammerts, eds. (1996) A guide to language learning in tandem via the Internet. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 46. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Pemberton, R., Li, E.S.L., Or, W.W.F. and Pierson, H.D., eds. (1996) Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Ushioda, E. (1996) Learner Autonomy 5: The Role of Motivation. Dublin: Authentik.

van Lier, L. (1996). Interaction in the Language Classroom: Awareness, Autonomy and Authenticity. London: Longman.



Miliander, J., ed. (1995) Fourth Nordic Conference on Developing Autonomous Learning in the Foreign Language Classroom. Proceedings of a conference at Ransäter, Sweden, 29 August - 1 September, 1991. Karlstad, Sweden: Högskolan I Karlstad.

Dam, L. (1995) Learner Autonomy 3: From Theory to Classroom Practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Dickinson, L. & Wenden, A., eds. (1995) Special issue on autonomy. System 23/2.

McGarry, D. (1995) Learner Autonomy 4: The Role of Authentic Texts. Dublin: Authentik.

van Lier, L. (1995) Interaction in the Language Curriculum: Awareness, Autonomy and Authenticity. London: Longman.



Esch, Edith (ed.). (1994). Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner. London: CILT.

Gardner, D. & Miller, L., eds. (1994) Directions in Self-Access Language Learning. Hong Kong University Press.

Wolff, D., ed. (1994) Special issue on Learner Autonomy. Die Neueren Sprachen, 93:5.



Carvalho, D. (1993) Self-access: Appropriate Material. Manchester: The British Council.

Eriksson, R. (1993). Teaching Language Learning. In-service training for communicative teaching and self-directed learning in English as a foreign language. Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences, 92. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet.



Dickinson, L. (1992) Learner Autonomy 2: Learner Training for Language Learning, Dublin: Authentik.

McCall, J. (1992) Self-access: Setting up a Centre. Manchester: The British Council.

Moore, C. (1992) Self-access: Appropriate Technology. Manchester: The British Council.

Olsson, A. (1992) Inlärningsstrategier i praktiskt klassrumsarbete – ett första steg mot Learner Autonomy. [Learning strategies in practical classroom work – a first step towards Learner Autonomy.] Uppsala: Fortbildningsavdelningen, Uppsala universitet.

Sturtridge, G. (1992) Self-access: Preparation and Training. Manchester: The British Council.



Eriksson, R. & Miliander, J. (1991) Lärarstyrd elevplanerad engelska Slutrapport från ett språkdidaktiskt forskningsprojekt vid Högskolan i Karlstad. [Teacher-directed pupil-planned English. Final report from a language-didactic research project at Karlstad University College.] Stockholm: Skolöverstyrelsen.

Legutke, M. & Thomas, H. (1991) Process and Experience in the Language Classroom. London: Longman.

Little, D. (1991) Learner Autonomy. 1: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin: Authentik.

Wenden, A. (1991) Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. London: Prentice Hall.



Gathercole, I., ed. (1990) Autonomy in Language Learning. London: CILT.

Thavenius, C. (1990) Learner Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Lund: Lunds universitet.

Trebbi, T., ed. (1990) Third Nordic Workshop on Developing Autonomous Learning in the FL Classroom, Bergen, August 11-14, 1989: Report. Bergen, Norway: Institutt for praktisk pedagogikk, Universitet i Bergen. (Mimeo). Available online (30/12/07) via:



Ellis, G. & Sinclair, B. (1989) Learning to Learn English: A Course in Learner Training. [Student's Book, Teacher's Book]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Little, D. (ed.). (1989). Self-access Systems for Language Learning. Dublin: Authentik.



Brookes, A. and P. Grundy, eds. (1988) Individualisation and Autonomy in Language Learning. ELT Documents 131. London: Modern English Publications / The British Council.

Holec, H., ed. (1988) Autonomy and Self-directed Learning: Present Fields of Application / Autonomie et apprentissage autodirigé: terrains d’application actuels. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Little, D.G. and D. M. Singleton (1988) Authentic materials and the role of fixed support in language teaching: towards a manual for language learners. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no.20. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Nunan, D. (1988) The Learner-centred Curriculum: A Study in Second Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Sheerin, S. (1988) Self-access. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Gabrielsen, G. (ed.). 1987. Report: Developing Autonomous Learning in the FL Classroom, Køge, September 18-21 1986. Copenhagen: Danmarks Lærerhøjskole.

Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-Instruction in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



Devitt, S.M. (1986) Learning a foreign language through the media. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 18. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.

Huttunen, I. (1986) Towards Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning in Senior Secondary Schools. Oulu: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis.

Little, D.G. and A. J. Grant (1986) Learning German without a teacher. Report on a self-instructional programme for undergraduate students of Engineering Science at TrinityCollege, Dublin, 1982-1984. CLCS (Centre for Language and Communication Studies) Occasional Paper no. 14. Dublin: CLCS, Trinity College.



Riley, P. (ed.) 1985. Discourse and Learning: Papers in Applied Linguistics and Language Learning from the Centre de Recherches et d’Applications Pédagogiques en Langues (C.R.A.P.E.L.). London : Longman.

Mason, R.J., ed. (1985) Self-directed learning and Self-access in Australia: from Practice to Theory. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Adult Migrant Education Programme, Melbourne, June 1984. Melbourne: Council of Adult Education.



Geddes, M. and Sturtridge, G. (eds). 1982. Individualisation. London: Modern English Publications.



Holec, H. (1981) Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon. (First published 1979 (in French), 1980 (in English), Strasbourg: Council of Europe.)



Altman, H.B. and James, C.V. (eds) 1980. Foreign Language Teaching: Meeting Individual Needs. Oxford: Pergamon.

Holec, H. (1980) Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. (First published 1979 in French.)

Oskarsson, M. (1980) Approaches to Self-Assessment in Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.



Holec, H. (1979) Autonomie et apprentissage des langues étrangères. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.



Harding-Esch, E.M., ed. (1977) Self-Directed Learning and Autonomy. Report of a Seminar held at Cambridge, 13-15 December 1976. University of Cambridge, Department of Linguistics and CRAPEL. (Mimeo). Available online (30/12/07) via


And before?

People have actually exercised their autnomy from the earliest times of second language learning (whenever they were!), though references to 'autonomy' in the professional literature on language teaching and learning seem to have only started in the early to mid-1970s (at CRAPEL in Nancy, France: see this short article). And the late 20th - early 21st century 'autonomy movement' has many antecedents (see Benson 1997 - reference above - and Smith, R.C. 2002. 'Autonomy, context and "appropriate methodology"').

If you've read this far you're probably interested, like me, in the history of such things! We have a good collection of primary sources relating to the autonomy movement at Warwick and you're welcome to come and browse any time. Also, check out these digitalized resources (I hope we can upload more in future, but it takes time, dedication and effort, which is one reason I'm hoping to attract a PhD student to help in this area - see top)!!

Please contact me if you're interested in any of this or have queries:

Richard Smith, March 2014