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Secret Intelligence: A Reader NEW EDITION 2019 - some resources



































Below are some additional web-based resources that are not necessarily on the reading list.







1 What is secret intelligence?

P. Davies, 'Ideas of Intelligence: Divergent Concepts and National Institutions', Harvard International Review 24, 3 (2002): 62-66 (Word Document)

D. Omand, 'Reflections on Secret Intelligence' in Peter Hennessy (ed.), The New Protective State pp.97-122. Available here as the text of a Gresham Lecture.

K.G. Robertson, 'Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties,' Conflict Quarterly 7/2 (1987): 43-50 - see especially p.47 (PDF Document)

G. F. Treverton, Seth G. Jones, Steven Boraz, Phillip Lipscy, Toward a Theory of Intelligence Workshop Report, RAND (PDF Document)

M. Warner, 'Wanted: A Definition of '"Intelligence" ', Studies in Intelligence 46, 3 (2002): 15-22. (PDF Document)

...and specifically on typologies, culture and ethnocentrism

Thomas Bruneau and Kenneth Dombroski, “Reforming Intelligence: The Challenge of Control in New Democracies,” in Thomas Bruneau and Scott Tollefson, (eds.) Who Guards the Guardians and How: Democratic Civil-Military Relations (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006). (PDF Document)




2 In the field: the gritty problems of collection

Stephen Mercado, 'A Venerable Source in a New Era: Sailing the Sea of OSINT in the Information Age', Studies in Intelligence 48/3 (2004): 45-55. (PDF Document)

Mark Lowenthal, 'Intelligence Collection in Transition', World Politics Review, 2 February 2009. (Word Document)

Sir David Omand, Kings College London, 'Optimising At The Margin: Sir Michael Quinlan On Intelligence Requirements', CIISS Conference 14 May 2011. (Video clip)

Michael J. Sulick. 'Human Intelligence', Spring 2007, Q&A session at Seminar on Intelligence, Command,and Control, Center for Information Policy Research, Harvard University. (PDF Document)

Documentary "Echelon - The World's Most Secret Spy System", History Channel, 2005. (Video clip)


3 Estimates and interpretation: the problems of analysis

Myriam Dunn Cavelty and Victor Mauer, ‘Postmodern Intelligence: Strategic Warning in an Age of Reflexive Intelligence’, Security Dialogue, 40/2 (2009): 123-144. (PDF Document)

Carmen Medina, 'What To Do When Traditional Models Fail', Studies in Intelligence 46/3 (2002): 23-9. (See the response by Ward below) (PDF Document)

S.R. Ward, 'Evolution Beats Revolution in Analysis', Studies in Intelligence 46/3 (2002): 29-36. (PDF Document)



4 Intelligence at the top: producer-consumer linkage

PRM-NSC11, an interesting presidential document reviewing US intelligence in 1977 which illustrates many of the issues we discuss in lectures and seminars in weeks 1-5 (PDF Document)

Or Honig, 'Surprise Attacks—Are They Inevitable? Moving Beyond the Orthodox-Revisionist Dichotomy', Security Studies, 17/1 (2008): 72 — 106. (PDF Document)

Robert Jervis, 'Why Intelligence and Policymakers Clash', Political Science Quarterly, 25/2 (2010): 185-206. (PDF Document)



5 Liaison: the delicate diplomacy of intelligence

R.J. Aldrich, 'Transatlantic intelligence and security co-operation', International Affairs, 80/3 (July 2004): 331-55. (PDF Document)

R.J. Aldrich, 'Intelligence co-operation in practice' an uncorrected proof of a paper for the Norwegian parliamentary intelligence oversight body. (PDF Document)

Eveline Hertzberger, 'Counter-Terrorist Intelligence Co-operation in the European Union', UNICRI Report 2007. (PDF Document)

W. Rosenau, 'Liaisons Dangereuses? Transatlantic Intelligence Co-operation and the Global War on Terrorism', in Co-operating Against Terrorism: EU-US Relations Post September 11--Conference Proceedings (Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish National Defence College, 2007) pp.31-40. (PDF Document)

Warren Tucker, 'Co-operative Intelligence', Opening Address – Superstructure Group Intelligence Seminar, Wellington, 23 May 2007.

David Ignatius, 'In the Middle East, a Catch-22 for the CIA', Washington Post, 10 February 2011. (Word Document)




6 Reading Week: No Lectures








7 9/11 - What kind of failure?

David Corn, 'When 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Go Bad', ZNet, 1 March 2002. (PDF Document)

Barbara A. Grewe, Senior Counsel for Special Projects, 'Legal Barriers to Information Sharing:The Erection of a Wall Between Intelligence and Law Enforcement Investigations', Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Staff Monograph, August 20, 2004, declassified 29 May 2009. (PDF Document)

Paul Pillar, 'Intelligent Design? The Unending Saga of Intelligence Reform', Foreign Affairs, March/April 2008. This is Pillar's review of Amy Zegart's book - Spying Blind - and their subsequent correspondence. (Word Document)



8 Proliferation and WMD - the Iraq Case

Tom Blanton, A Classified CIA Me Culpa on Iraqi WMD, Foreign Policy, 5 September 2012.

Butler Report, 'Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction', 14 July 2004, HC 898. (PDF Document)

David Isenberg, 'See, Speak, and Hear No Incompetence: An Analysis of the Findings of The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction', BASIC Report 2005. (PDF Document)

Philip H.J. Davies, 'A Critical Look at Britains' Spy Machinery: Collection and Analysis on Iraq', Studies in Intelligence 49/4 (2007).

Robert Jervis, 'Intelligence & WMD: Reports, Politics, and Intelligence Failures: The Case of Iraq’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 29/1 (2006): 3 – 52. (PDF Document)

Brian Jones, 'Intelligence, Verification and Iraq’s WMD’, in Verification Yearbook 2004 (London: Vertic, 2004). (PDF Document)

Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq [Includes Appendices and Statements by Senate Intelligence Committee Members], Classification Excised, Report, 7 July 2004, 524 pp (PDF Document)



9 Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the liberal state

Sir David Omand talks about his book Securing the State to the Mile End Group, 5 July 2010 (Video clip)

Dame Elizah Manningham-Buller, 'Reflections on Intelligence' at the Mile End Group, 9 March 2010 (Word Document)



10 Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the market state

Peter Chalk, William Rosenau, 'Confronting "the Enemy Within" Security Intelligence, the Police, and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies', RAND MG-100-RC, 2004. (PDF Document)

Sir David Omand, 'The National Security Strategy: Implications for the UK Intelligence Community', A discussion paper for the IPPR Commission on National Security for the 21st Century, February 2009. (PDF Document)

Martin Innes, 'Policing Uncertainty: Countering Terrorism Through Community Intelligence and Democratic Policing', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605 (May 2006): 1-20. (PDF Document)



11 Intelligence and Tyranny: the non-democratic state

P. Holquist, 'Information Is the Alpha and Omega of Our Work": Bolshevik Surveillance in Its Pan-European Context', The Journal of Modern History, 69, 3 (1997): 415-450. (PDF Document)

Maria Los, 'The Technologies of Total Domination', Surveillance & Society 2/1 (2004): 15-38. (PDF Document)

Yuri Durhinikov, 'Informer 001: The Myth of Pavlik Mozorov', (translated by Sonia Melnikova). 





12 The problems of accountability and democratic control

GREEN PAPER - For ESSAY QUESTION 12a - Sir Malcolm Rifkind is interviewed for Civil Service Network.

Arar Commission, A New Review Mechanism For The RCMP’s National Security Activities: Commissionof Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar (Ottawa: Minstry of Public Works, 2006). (PDF Document)

Hans Born and Ian Leigh, 'Democratic Accountability of Intelligence Services', Policy Paper No.19, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. (PDF Document) 

Peter Gill, 'Democratic and Parliamentary Accountability of Intelligence Services after September 11th'. Working Paper No.103, Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces. (PDF Document)

Ministerial Review Commission on Intelligence, South Africa, 'Intelligence in a Constitutional Democracy', Final Report to the Minister for Intelligence Services the Honourable Mr Ronnie Kasrils MP, 10 September 2008. (PDF Document)

T. Wetzling, 'The Democratic Control of Intergovernmental Intelligence Cooperation (DCAF Working Paper No. 165), 2006. (PDF Document)

Matteo M. Winkler, 'When "Extraordinary" Means Illegal: International law and the European Reactions to the United States Rendition Program', Yale Law School, Yale Law School Student Scholarship Series, Paper 46 (2007). (PDF Document)

Portugal's Oversight Committee - Conselho de Fiscalização do Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa (CFSIRP) usefully provides links to all other oversight committees here.

The is little literature on "in house" inquiry mechanisms like the CIA Inspector General - but here is a recent in depth press story on the subject ->

‘At CIA, grave mistakes, then promotions’ by ADAM GOLDMAN and MATT APUZZO, Associated Press, Wed 9 Feb 2011

On the role of international courts see ->

NICHOLAS KULISH, 'Court Finds Rights Violation in C.I.A. Rendition Case', New York Times, 13 December 2012.


13 The problems of civil rights and intelligence

Francesca Bignami, 'European Versus American Liberty: A Comparative Privacy Analysis of Anti-Terrorism Data-Mining', Boston College Law Review, 48, 609 (May 2007). (PDF Document)

James A. Baker, 'The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act', September 2007, A Q&A session at the Seminar on Intelligence, Command and Control, Center for Information Policy Research, Harvard University. (PDF Document)

Louise I. Gerdes (ed.) Current Controversies: Espionage and Intelligence Gathering (Farmington: Greenhaven, 2004). (PDF Document)

David Lyon talks about surveillance and society at the University of Sydney, 48 minutes, 1 March 2012. (Video clip)

James Sheptycki, 'High Policing in the Security Control Society' Policing, 1/1 (2007): 70–79. (PDF Document)



14 Ethics and espionage

Louise I. Gerdes (ed.) Current Controversies: Espionage and Intelligence Gathering (Farmington: Greenhaven, 2004). (PDF Document)

David L. Perry, 'Repugnant Philosophy: Ethics, Espionage, and Covert Action,' Journal of Conflict Studies, 15/1 (1995): 92–115. (PDF Document)


15 Torture and assassination

B. Berkowitz, 'Is Assassination an Option?', Hoover Digest (2002), 1.

Alan Dershowitz, 'Should We Fight Terror with Torture?', The Independent, 3 July 2006. (Word Document)

John Goetz and Britta Sandberg, 'CIA Outsourced Development of Interrogation Plan', Der Spiegel, 13 May 2009. (Word Document)

Michael Hayden and Michael B. Mukasey, 'The President Ties His Own Hands on Terror: The point of interrogation is intelligence, not confession', Wall Street Journal, 17 April 2009. (Word Document)

Testimony of Michael Scheuer on rendition, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress First Session, 17 April 2007, Serial No. 110-28 (PDF Document)

Gal Luft, 'The Logic of Israel's Targeted Killing', Middle East Quarterly, 10/1 (Winter 2003). (Word Document)

Kenneth Roth, ‘Who Profits Most From Torture?’, Human Rights Watch, 13 July 2006. (Word Document)

Professor Philippe Sands (University College London) 'Torture and International Law and the War on Terror', speaking at CIISS, 13 May 2011. (Video clip)

Greg Sargent, 'Private letter from CIA chief undercuts claim torture was key to killing Bin Laden', Washington Post, 16 May 2011. (Word Document)

David Sussman, 'What's Wrong with Torture', powerpoint summary of his 2005 article in Philosophy and Public Affairs. (Powerpoint Presentation)

Philip Zelikow, 'A Dubious C.I.A. Shortcut', New York Times op-ed, April 23, 2009. 

Oxford's Changing Character of War project has useful torture debate resources here.





16 Reading Week







17 Cyberespionage

Ben Buchanan, 'The Legend of Sophistication in Cyber Operations,' Belfer Center: Harvard Kennedy School (2017).  

18 Covert Action


Covert Action and Cultural Cold War

Alan Johnson, 'The Cultural Cold War: Faust Not the Pied Piper', New Politics, 8, (new series). 

J. Petras, 'The CIA and the Cultural Cold War Revisited', Monthly Review, November 1999. (PDF Document)


Covert Action and Democratic Peace

T. Barkawi, ‘War inside the Free World: The Democratic Peace and the Cold War in the Third World” in Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey (eds.) Democracy, Liberalism, and War: The Democratic Peace Debate (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2001), pp.107-128. (PDF Document)

C.I. Clement, 'Enmity over Amity: US Belligerence toward Latin American Elected Governments', Presented at the International Studies Association 2008 Annual Conference. (PDF Document)

J. Kim, 'Democratic Peace and Covert War: A Case Study of the U.S. Covert War in Chile;, Journal of International and Area Studies, 12/1, (2005): 25-47. (PDF Document)

Mary Lauren Lilley and Alexander B. Downes, 'Covert Action, Democratic Peace , and the Cold War', Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, 26-29 March 2008. (PDF Document)



Ernest S. Tavares, 'Operation Fortitude: The Closed Loop D-Day Deception Plan', A Research Report US Air Command and Staff College Air University, 2001. (PDF Document)



19 Intelligence for NGOs and Peacekeeping

Melanie Ramjoué, 'Improving United Nations Intelligence: Lessons from the Field', GCSP Policy Paper n°19, August 2011 (PDF Document)

S. Chesterman, 'Shared Secrets: Intelligence and Collective Security', Lowy Institute, Paper 10 (2006) (PDF Document)

S. Chesterman, The Spy Who Came In From The Cold War: Intelligence And International Law, Michigan Journal of International Law, 27 (Summer 2006):1077-1126. (PDF Document)

Helene L. Boatner, 'Sharing and Using Intelligence in International Organizations: Some Guidelines', National Security and the Future, 1/1 (2000): 81-92. (PDF Document)



20 Conspiracy Theory

Kenneth Mulligan and Philip Habel. "The implications of fictional media for political beliefs." American Politics Research 41.1 (2013): 122-146.  


21 Intelligence in a globalising world

Zygmunt Bauman, 'Reconnaissance Wars of the Planetary Frontierland', Theory, Culture & Society, 19/4 (2002): 81–90. (PDF Document)

Peter Gill, 'Not Just Joining the Dots But Crossing the Borders and Bridging the Voids: Constructing Security Networks after 11 September 2001', Policing & Society, 16/1 (2006): 27-49. (PDF Document)

Simon Chesterman, 'We Can't Spy If We can't Buy!', AEL 2009/2 Academy of European Law.  (PDF Document)

Robert Steele, Human Intelligence: All Humans, All Minds, All the Time, Monograph, 2010, pp.123. (PDF Document)






And finally some interesting powerpoints by other people that I have come across on diverse subjects->