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Week 2: Modernity and humanism

  • Immanuel Kant: ‘What is Enlightenment?’ in Kant’s Political Writings

Available online at: 

  • Michel Foucault: ‘What is Enlightenment?’ in The Foucault Reader

Available online at:

Week 3: Modernity and the limits of humanism

  • G.W.F. Hegel: ‘The Modern Time’, in The Philosophy of History

Available online at:, p430 onwards

 Week 4: Sociology and the reconstruction of humanism
  • Karl Löwith:  Max Weber and Karl Marx, Chapters 2 and 3. (not available yet)  

Week 5 Historicism and the limits of humanism
  • Hannah Arendt ‘Tradition and the Modern Age’ in Between Past and Future. (not available yet)

Week 6: The movement against humanity
  • Hannah Arendt: ‘On the nature of totalitarianism’ in Essays in Understanding. (not available yet)
  • Zygmunt Bauman: Modernity and the Holocaust, chapter 1 (PDF Document)

 Week 7: Subjects without subjectivity
  • Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer: ‘Elements of antisemitism’ in Dialectic of Enlightenment (PDF Document)

Week 8: Repression and violence
  • Sigmund Freud: Civilisation and its Discontents (PDF Document)

Week 9: Humanism and the unfinished project of modernity
  • Jurgen Habermas: ‘Modernity versus Postmodernity’, in the journal New German Critique (PDF Document)

 Week 10: Modernity and the idea of humanity
  • Peter Wagner: Modernity as Experience and Interpretation, Cambridge: Polity, 2008. (selection)
  • Bernard Yack: The Fetishism of Modernities, University of Notre Dame Press, 1997 (selection)