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Module Programme

Module: Gender and Migration

Convenor: Caroline Wright

Autumn Term, 2003/04 Mondays, 12.00-14.00 Room H3.22

Module Rationale

Until recently the migration literature has been ‘gender-blind’, ignoring or obscuring the extent to which gender matters in processes and experiences of population movement. On the basis of case studies from around the world, this course highlights the importance of gender and migration in terms of strategic concerns to ‘write women in’, the migration policy insights that are derived from a gendered approach, and the contributions made to migration theory by gendered perspectives. Topics include the 'crisis' migration of refugees and displaced persons, trafficking in women, the race/gender politics of 'Fortress Europe’, the invisibility of Irish women migrants in Britain, the migrant-labour system in southern Africa, gender-sensitive policy making, and diasporic identities. Throughout the module, attention will be paid to the voices of migrants themselves, and to the difficulties and tensions involved in constructing accounts.

Using migration as a lens is a particularly productive way to illuminate several other processes important in the study of gender and the contemporary world. These include colonialism and post-colonialism; poverty; racism; processes and outcomes of ‘mass distress’ (war, famine, flood etc.); the free movement of global capital versus restrictions on the movement of labour; the global ‘market’ for women sex-workers and domestics; women organising to fight for their rights, and the exciting diasporic identities that women migrants forge as they cross borders. It also provides an opportunity to explore shifts in the divisions of labour, power, income, status and identity between men and women, and to analyse these in comparative perspective.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the module the students should have an understanding of:

1. The diversity of migration processes around the world and the extent to which they are differentiated by gender

2. The contribution that a gendered approach has made to migration theory

3. The complexity of diasporic identities and the ways in which they are gendered (as well as classed, ‘raced’ etc)

4. The links between migration and other central areas of concern in gender and development, such as colonialism and post-colonialism, globalization, poverty and racism

5. Policy issues in relation to migration, and how policy making might be made more gender-sensitive

  1. The organisation of migrants to claim their human rights and the struggles involved, especially for women migrants
  2. The role of migration in the international sex industry and in the globalization of domestic labour

With reference to the above, students should be able to:

  1. Understand and analyse the historical, social and political processes which underpin gender and migration in different parts of the world
  2. Locate, retrieve, process and evaluate a wide range of materials about gender and migration internationally
  3. Critically assess comparative material on gender and migration
  4. Participate effectively in seminars
  5. Draw on a range of sources to construct their own reasoned arguments
  6. Make scholarly presentations, verbal and written, on gender and migration

Teaching and Learning Methods

  1. A framework of nine 2-hour seminars that establish the module’s outer limits and internal logic
  2. Substantial student presentations in the latter half of the module
  3. Self-directed individual and collaborative study in the library and on the internet, in preparation for seminar discussions and presentations
  4. The opportunity to discuss the plan of the assessed essay with the tutor

Seminar Structure

Week 2 Why Gender Matters in Migration

Week 3 Women Left Behind? Goldwidows (Video and Discussion)

Week 4 Irish Migrants in Britain: Gender, Racialization, Visibility and Invisibility

Week 5 Gender and Diasporic Identities: Borders and Boundaries

Week 6 Urbanization and Gender: Prospects and Policies

Week 7 Gendering the Crisis: Mass Distress Migration & Refugees

Week 8 Gender and Migration in ‘Fortress Europe’: Asylum Seekers vs. Economic Migrants

Week 9 Trafficking in Women?: Sex Workers

Week 10 Brides & Maids: The Export of Love?

Preparing for Seminars

The module will involve presentations by the tutor and by students and we will also make use of some video material.

Before each seminar, it is very important to do some reading. The majority of the core readings are in the Student Reserve Collection of the Library. In addition, copies of key readings will be provided in the box in the Common Room. This is a shared resource - please don’t take the readings away and please leave the box in an orderly fashion. It will not be possible to replace readings that ‘go missing’. The question(s) provided for each seminar are intended to help you to orient your reading and to provide a structure for discussion or for student presentations, and the minimum reading for each class is that listed under ‘Core reading’. Please make sure you do the minimum reading at least and come to the seminar prepared to talk about the questions. In the second half of the module, we will incorporate student presentations into the seminars, as a way of helping you to think about your essay and develop your skills of organising material into a coherent argument.

If you are making a presentation then you should do all the core reading and at least two items of additional reading. You should ensure that your presentation covers the seminar questions, but you are not limited to these. The preparation of handouts and/or overhead transparencies should be considered in order to facilitate your presentation (see me for resources). Presentations should last approximately 30 minutes, which leaves plenty of time for questions.


This module will be assessed by one essay of 5,000 words. The deadline is either Monday 12 January 2004 (for essays 1 and 2 on your degree programme) or Monday 8 March 2004 (for essay 3 on your degree programme). You should take two copies of your essay with completed cover sheets to Christine Wilson in R2.17 and sign them in. Make sure that your student registration number is on your essay but not your name, as we operate a policy of anonymous marking.

A list of essay titles will be circulated in the fourth week of the term. When preparing your essay, you are strongly advised to refer to the relevant sections of the Postgraduate Student Handbook.

Student Module Evaluation

At the end of term, you will be asked to provide some feedback about your experience of the teaching and learning process in this module, through anonymous means. I hope you will take the opportunity to do so. I also welcome comments as the module progresses, either during seminars or at other times.

Reading List and Seminar Questions

The core readings are the minimum that you are asked to have read before you attend the seminar. You will need to read the additional readings listed if you are making a student presentation or preparing on that topic for your essay. Make sure that you read actively, making your own notes as you go along and thinking about the seminar questions. You should come to the seminars prepared to summarize the key readings and begin to answer the seminar questions.

Week 2: Why Gender Matters in Migration & The Teaching Process

Questions: What are the main types of migration and how do they differ?

Why and how does gender matter in migration?

What implications does migration have for concepts of nation and nationalism?

Core Reading

Pettman, Jan Jindy (1996) Worlding Women, London: Routledge, ch. 4 (‘Women in postcolonial and postmigration political identities’)

Phizacklea, Annie (1998) ‘Migration and Globalization: A Feminist Perspective’, in Khalid Koser and Helma Lutz (eds) The New Migration in Europe: Social Constructions and Social Realities, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 21-38

Additional Reading

BarberoBaconnier, J. (1996) ‘Migrant Women: The Path From Beijing’, International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 143-154

Buijs, Gina (1993) ‘Introduction’ in Gina Buijs (ed.) Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, Oxford: Berg, pp. 1-19

Brydon, Lynne and Sylvia Chant (1989) Women in the Third World: Gender Issues in Rural and Urban Areas, Aldershot: Edward Elgar, ch. 5

Campani, Giovanna (1995) ‘Women Migrants: From Marginal Subjects to Social Actors’, in Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 546-550

Chant, Sylvia and Sarah Radcliffe (1992) ‘Migration and Development: The Importance of Gender’ in Sylvia Chant (ed.) Gender and Migration in Developing Countries, London: Bellview Press, pp. 1-29

De Jong, G.F. (1999) ‘Introduction: The Invisibility of Women in Scholarship on International Migration’, in G.A. Kelson and D.L. DeLaet (eds) Gender and Immigration, New York: New York University Press, pp. 1-17

Lee, Sharon M. (1996) ‘Issues in Research on Women, International Migration and Labor’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 5-26

Mohanty, Chandra T. (1991) ‘Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses’, in Chandra T. Mohanty et al (eds) Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, Bloomington and Indianapolis, US: Indiana University Press, pp. 51-80

Willis, Katie and Brenda Yeoh (eds) (2000) Gender and Migration, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar

Week 3: Women Left Behind? Gold Widows (Video and Discussion)

Questions: An additional handout or orientation and questions will be provided. Please make sure you read this before coming to the class. You should also read the following two core references.

Core Reading

Brown, Barbara (1983) 'The Impact of Male Labour Migration on Women in Botswana', African Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 328, pp. 367-388

Walker, Cherryl (1990) ‘Gender and the Development of the Migrant Labour System c. 1850-1930’, in Cherryl Walker (ed.) Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, London: James Currey, pp. 168-196

Additional Reading

Bozzoli, Belinda with Mmantho Nkotsoe (1991) Women of Phokeng: Consciousness, Life Strategy and Migrancy in South Africa, 1900-1983, James Currey, especially chs 4 and 9

Buijs, Gina (1993) 'Women Alone: Migrants from Transkei Employed in Rural Natal', in Gina Buijs (ed.) Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, Oxford: Berg, pp. 179-194

Cock, Jacklyn (1989) Maids and Madams: Domestic Workers under Apartheid, London: The Women’s Press

Crush, Jonathan (1995) ‘Cheap Gold: Mine Labour in Southern Africa’, in Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 172-177

Davies, Robert and Judith Head (1995) ‘The Future of Mine Migrancy in the Context of Broader Trends in Migration in Southern Africa’, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 439-450

Jeeves, Alan H. (1995) ‘Migrant Labour and the State under Apartheid: 1948-1989’, in Robin Cohen (ed.) The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 178-182

Potts, Lydia (1990) The World Labour Market: A History of Migration, London: Zed Books, ch. 4

Sibisi, Harriet (1977) 'How African Women Cope with Migrant Labor in South Africa', Signs, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 167-177

Swaisland, Cecilie (1993) ‘Female Migration and Social Mobility: British Female Domestic Servants to South Africa - 1860-1914’, in Gina Buijs (ed.) Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, Oxford: Berg, pp. 161-178

Week 4: Irish Migrants in Britain: Gender, Racialization, Visibility and Invisibility

Questions: How is Irish emigration gendered?

    Are Irish women in Britain ‘doubly invisible’? What are the implications of this position for Irish women themselves and our understanding of Irish emigration to Britain?

    How do the experiences of Irish women emigrants challenge notions of Irish cultural and gendered identity?

Core Reading

Rossiter, Ann (1993) ‘Bringing the Margins into the Centre: A Review of Aspects of Irish Women’s Emigration from a British Perspective’ in Ailbhe Smyth (ed) Irish Women’s Studies Reader, Dublin: Attick Press, pp.177-202

Walter, Bronwen (2001) Outsiders Inside: Whiteness, Place and Irish Women, London: Routledge, Chapter 3, pp. 76-117

Additional Reading

Enda, Delaney (2000) Demography, State and Society, Irish Migration to Britain, 1921-1971, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Gray, Breda (1994) ‘The ‘Home of Our Mothers and Our Birthright for Ages’? Nation, Diaspora and Irish Women’ in Mary Maynard and June Purvis (eds) New Frontiers in Women’s Studies: Knowledge, Identity and Nationalism, London: Taylor & Francis

Gray, Breda (1997) ‘Unmasking Irishness: Irish Women, the Irish Nation and the Irish Diaspora’, in Jim MacLaughlin (ed.) Location and Dislocation in Contemporary Irish Society, pp. 209-235

Hickman, Mary J. & Bronwen Walter (1995) ‘Deconstructing Whiteness: Irish Women in Britain’, Feminist Review, No. 50, Summer

Kells, Mary (1996) ‘‘I’m myself and nobody else’: gender and ethnicity among young middle-class Irish women in London’, in Patrick O’Sullivan (ed.) Irish Women and Irish Migration, pp. 201-234

McKenna, Yvonne (2003) 'Forgotten Migrants: Irish Women Religious in England, 1930s-1960s', International Journal of Population Geography, 9, pp. 295-308

O’Sullivan, Patrick (1995) (ed.) Irish Women and Irish Migration, London: Leicester University Press

Travers, Pauric (1995) ‘‘There was nothing for me there’: Irish female emigration, 1922-71’ in Patrick O’Sullivan (ed.) Irish Women and Irish Migration, London: Leicester University Press, pp. 146-167

Walter, Bronwen (1997) ‘Contemporary Irish Settlement in London: Women’s Worlds, Men’s Worlds’, in Jim MacLaughlin (ed.) Location and Dislocation in Contemporary Irish Society, Cork: Cork University Press, pp. 61-93

Week 5: Gender and Diasporic Identities: Borders and Boundaries

Questions: Are migrants caught between two cultures or remaking culture?

    How much do borders matter to gendered identities? (physical borders, cultural borders, psychological borders, sexual borders, spiritual borders)

What intellectual and political resources does Brah’s concept of diaspora space offer to our understanding of gender and migration?

Core Reading

Anzaldua, Gloria (1987) Borderlands La Frontera, San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, chs 1 & 2

Brah, Avtar (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora, London: Routledge, ch. 8 (‘Diaspora, border and transnational identities’)

Chaudhuri, Maitrayee (1998) ‘Among My Own in Another Culture: Meeting the Asian Indian Americans’, in Meenakshi Thapan (ed.) Anthropological Journeys: Reflections from the Field, New Delhi: Orient Longman, pp. 188-214

Additional Reading

Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture, London: Routledge

Bhachu, Parminder (1993) ‘Identities Constructed and Reconstructed: Representations of Asian Women in Britian’, in Gina Buijs (ed.) Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, Oxford: Berg, pp. 99-117

Braziel, Jana Evans and Anita Mannur (eds) (2003) Theorizing Diaspora: A Reader, Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell (especially Part III)

Crewe, Emma and Uma Kothari (1998) ‘Gujarati Migrants’ Search for Modernity in Britain’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 13-20

Hoving, Isabel (2001) In Praise of New Travelers: reading Caribbean Migrant Women Writers, Stanford: Stanford University Press

Hom, Sharon K. (ed.) (1999) Chinese Women Traversing Diaspora: Memoirs, essays and poetry, New York, London: Garland

Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette (ed.) (1994) Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration, University of California Press

Jochelson, Karen (1995) ‘Women, Migrancy and Morality: A Problem of Perspective’, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 323-332

Kosmarskaya, Natalya (1997) ‘ “I Have a Feeling of Being Exiled Here: Women Migrants in Central Russia’, in Ronit Lentin (ed.) Gender and Catastrophe, London: Zed, pp. 211-223

Nasta, Susheila (2002) Home Truths: Fictions of the South Asian Diaspora in Britain, Basingstoke: Palgrave (especially Part III)

Summerfield, Hazel (1993) ‘Patterns of Adaptation: Somali and Bangladeshi Women in Britain’, in Gina Buijs (ed.) Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities, Oxford: Berg, pp. 83-98

Week 6: Urbanization and Gender: Prospects and Policies

Questions: Do urban environments offer women more choices or more constraints?

What impacts does rural-urban migration have on gender relations?

Why is gender so commonly ignored in the process of policy-making and planning around migration and urbanization? What are the costs of ignoring gender?

Core Reading

Silvey, Rachel and Rebecca Elmhirst (2003) ‘Engendering Social Capital: Women Workers and Rural-Urban Networks in Indonesia’s Crisis’, World Development, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 865-879

Moser, Caroline O.N. (1995) ‘Women, Gender and Urban Development Policy: Challenges for Current and Future Research, Third World Planning Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 223-235

Wright, Caroline (1999) ‘Female Singlehood and Urban Space in Lesotho’, Review of Southern African Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 76-103

Additional Reading

Bradshaw, Sarah (1995) ‘Female-headed Households in Honduras: Perspectives on Rural-urban Differences’, Third World Planning Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 117-131

Chant, Sylvia (1985) 'Single-parent Families. Choice or Constraint?’, Development and Change, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 635-656

Chant, Sylvia (1996) Gender, Urban Development and Housing, New York: UNDP

Erman, T. (1997) ‘The Meaning of City Living for Rural Migrant Women and Their Role in Migration: The Case of Turkey’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 20: 2, pp. 263-273

Jokisch, Brad and Jason Pribilsky (2002) ‘The Panic to Leave: Economic Crisis and the “New Emigration” from Ecuador’, International Migration, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 75-101

Jones-Correa, M. (1998) ‘Different Paths: Gender, Immigration and Political Participation’, International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 326-349

Levy, Caren (1992) ‘Transport’ in Lise Ostergaard (ed.) Gender and Development: A Practical Guide, London: Routledge, pp. 94-109

Little, Jo, Linda Peake and Pat Richardson (eds) (1988) Women in Cities: Gender and the Urban Environment, Basingstoke: Macmillan Education

Moser, Caroline O.N. (1992) ‘Housing’ in Lise Ostergaard (ed.) Gender and Development: A Practical Guide, London: Routledge, pp. 76-93

Sharma, Ursula (1986) Women's Work, Class and the Urban Household: A Study of Shimla, North India, London: Tavistock

Singhanetra-Renard, Anchalee and Nitaya Prabhudhanitisarn (1992) ‘Changing Socio-economic Roles of Thai Women and their Migration’, in Sylvia Chant (ed.) Gender and Migration in Developing Countries, London: Belhaven Press, pp. 154-173

Varley, Ann (1995) ‘Neither Victims Nor Heroines: Women, Land and Housing in Mexican Cities’, Third World Planning Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 169-182

Week 7: Gendering the Crisis: Mass Distress Migration and Refugees

Questions: How are processes and experiences of mass-distress migration differentiated by gender?

    Why has a gendered perspective so often been absent from policy initiatives to tackle ‘crisis’ migration?

    What are the consequences of such an absence, or the failure to adequately implement initiatives?

Core Reading

Callamard, Agnes (1999) ‘Refugee Women: A Gendered and Political Analysis of the Refugee Experience’, in Alastair Ager (ed.) Refugees, London: Pinter, pp. 196-214

Meertens, Donny and Nora Segura-Escobar (1996) ‘Uprooted Lives: Gender, Violence and Displacement in Colombia’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 17: 2, pp. 165-178

Wallace, Tina (1991) ‘“Taking the Lion by the Whiskers”: Building on the Strengths of Refugee Women’, in Tina Wallace with Candida March (eds) Changing Perceptions: Writings on Women and Development, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 60-67

Additional Reading

El Bushra, Judy and Eugenia Piza Lopez, (1993) Development in Conflict: The Gender Dimension, Report of an Oxfam AGRA East Workshop held in Pattaya, Thailand, 1-4 February 1993, Oxford: Oxfam UK / I-ACORD

Bonnerjea, Lucy et al (1985) Shaming the World: The Needs of Women Refugees, London: CHANGE and World University Service

Focus on Gender Vol. 2, No. 1 (1994) Special Issue on Women and Emergencies, Oxfam

Forbes-Martin, Susan (1992) Refugee Women, London: Zed Books, especially pp. 33-50

Jones, Alex (1998) ‘Migration, Ethnicity and Conflict’ in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 57-62

Payne, Lina (1998) ‘Food Shortages and Gender Relations in Ikafe Settlement, Uganda’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 30-36

Spijkerboer, Thomas (2000) Gender and Refugee Status, Aldershot: Ashgate, ch. 3 ‘The Construction of the Female Applicant in Decision Making’, pp. 45-107

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1995) The State of the World’s Refugees: In Search of Solutions, Oxford: Oxford University Press (especially pp. 11-17; pp. 26-55; pp. 60-61; pp. 120-121; pp. 171-185)

See also the following internet resources:

United Nations High Commission for Refugees

Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium

Week 8: Gender and Migration in Fortress Europe: ‘Asylum Seekers’ vs ‘Economic Migrants’

Questions: Evaluate the view that European immigration policies are a racist and exercise reinforcing patriarchal power.

Workers but not citizens: what does this mean for migrants in Britain and the European Union?

Core Reading

Bhabha, Jacqueline and Sue Shutter (1994) Worlds Apart: Women Under Immigration, Nationality and Refugee Law, Pluto, ch. 6

Kofman, Eleonore and Rosemary Sales (1998) ‘Migrant Women and Exclusion in Europe’, European Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 5, Nos. 3-4, pp. 381-398

Razack, Sherene (1995) ‘Domestic Violence as Gender Persecution: Policing the Borders of Nation, Race, and Gender’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, Vol. 8, pp. 45-88

Additional Reading

Ackers, Louise (1998) Shifting Spaces: Women, Citizenship and Migration within the European Union, Bristol: Policy Press, ch. 5 ‘Women on the Move in the European Union’, pp. 139-181

Andall, Jacqueline (1992) ‘Women Migrant Workers in Italy’, Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 41-48

Bloch, A., T. Galvin and B. Harrell-Bond (2000) ‘Refugee Women in Europe: Some Aspects of the Legal and Policy Dimensions’, International Migration, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 169-190

Brown, Andy R. (1999) Political Language of Race and the Politics of Exclusion, Aldershot: Ashgate

Cohen, Robin (1994) Frontiers of Identity: The British and the Others, London: Longman

Crawley, Heaven (2001) Refugees and Gender: Law and Process, Bristol: Jordan

Joly, Daniele (ed.) (2002) Global Changes in Asylum Regimes, Basingstoke: Palgrave

Kofman, Eleonore and Rosemary Sales (1992) ‘Towards Fortress Europe?’, Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 29-39

Kofman, Eleonore (1999) ‘“Female Birds of Passage” a Decade Later: Gender and Immigration in the European Union’, International Migration Review, Vol. 33, pp. 269-299

Moroksavic, Mirjana (1991) ‘Fortress Europe and Migrant Women’, Feminist Review, No. 39, pp. 69-85

Refugee Women’s Legal Group (1998) Gender Guidelines for the Determination of Asylum Claims in the UK, London: Refugee Women’s Legal Group

Tacoli, Cecilia (1995) ‘Gender and International Survival Strategies: A Research Agenda with Reference to Filipina Labour Migration in Italy, Third World Planning Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 199-212

Westwood, Sallie and Annie Phizacklea (2000) Trans-nationalism and the Politics of Belonging, London: Routledge

See also the following internet resources:

The Refugee Council (UK):

National Asylum Support Services (UK)

Immigration and Nationality Directorate (UK):

Week 9: Trafficking in Women?: Sex Workers

Questions: Does anti-trafficking legislation and its implementation protect women sex workers or unfairly target and ‘other’ them?

      What sort of work is sex work? How does it fit into the global economy?

Core Reading

Berman, Jacqueline (2003) ‘(Un)Popular Strangers and Crises (Un)bounded: Discourses of Sex Trafficking, the European Political Community and the Panicked State of the Modern State’, European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 37-86

Doezema, Jo (2001) ‘Ouch! Western Feminists’ “Wounded Attachment” to the “Third World Prostitute”’, Feminist Review, No. 67, pp. 16-38

Skrobanek, Siriporn, Nattaya Boonpakdi and Chutima Janthakeerp (1997) The Traffic in Women: Human Realities of the International Sex Trade, London: Zed, ch. 7, ‘Working Conditions’

Additional Reading

Adams, Niki (2003) ‘Anti-trafficking Legislation: Protection or Deportation?’, Feminist Review, No. 73, pp. 135-139

Association for Community Development (1995) International Migration of Women, ACD: Rajshahi, Bangladesh, ‘Migrant Women Case Studies’, pp. 29-38

Ateneo Human Rights Center (1999) The Philippine-Belgian Pilot Project Against Trafficking in Women, AHRC: Makati City, Philippines, ‘Introduction and Executive Summary’, pp. 1-19

Ehrenreich, Barbara and Arlie Russell Hothschild (eds) (2003) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta

Gauhar, Khadijah (1983) ‘Some Forms of Trafficking in Women - The Results of a Survey’, Manushi, 16, pp. 36-37

Kelly, Liz (2003) ‘The Wrong Debate: Reflections on why force is not the key issue with respect to trafficking in women for sexual exploitation’, Feminist Review, No. 73, pp. 139-144

Kempadoo, Kamala and Jo Doezema (eds) (1998) Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance and Redefinition, London: Routledge

Masika, Rachel (ed.) (2002) Gender, Trafficking and Slavery, Oxford: Oxfam GB

Mensendiek, Martha (1997) ‘Women, Migration and Prostitution in Thailand’, International Social Work, Vol. 40, pp. 163-176

Pettman, Jan Jindy (1996) Worlding Women, London: Routledge, ch. 9 (‘The international political economy of sex’)

Pettman, Jan Jindy (1997) ‘Body Politics: International Sex Tourism’, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 93-108.

Pickup, Francine (1998) ‘More Words but No Action? Forced Migration and Trafficking of Women’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 44-51

Rubin, Gayle (1975) ‘The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex’, in Rayna Reiter (ed.) Towards an Anthropology of Women, London: Monthly Review Press

Seabrook, Jeremy (1996) Travels in the Skin Trade: Tourism and the Sex Industry, London: Pluto

Sullivan, Barbara (2003) ‘Trafficking in Women: Feminism and New International Law’, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 67-91

Truong, Thankh-Dam (1990) Sex, Money and Morality: Prostitution and Tourism in South-East Asia, London: Zed

UNODCCP (2000) ‘The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons’,

WEDPRO (1998) Halfway Through The Circle: The Lives of Eight Filipino Women Survivors of Prostitution and Trafficking, Manila: WEDPRO, ‘Introduction: From the Shadows Into the Light’

See also the following internet resources:

Anti-Slavery International:

End Child Prostitution and Trafficking:

The Research and Action Center to Combat Modern Day Slavery:

Week 10: Brides and Maids: The Export of Love?

Questions: Discuss the case for and against including ‘Maids’ and ‘Brides’ as examples of Trafficking in women.

      What does the circulation of women as ‘Maids’ and ‘Brides’ tell us about women’s status in the twenty first century?

      Is love the new cash crop?

Core Reading

Hothschild, Arlie Russell (2003) ‘Love and Gold’, in Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hothschild (eds) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers, London: Grant, pp. 15-30

Tai, Hung Cam (2003) ‘Clashing Dreams: Highly Educated Overseas Brides and Low Wage U.S. Husbands’, in Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russell Hothschild (eds) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers, London: Grant, pp. 230-253

Tolentino, Roland B. (1996) ‘Bodies, Letters, Catalogs. Filipinas in Transnational Space’, Social Text, Vol. 14, No. 3

Additional Reading

Abu-Habib, Lina (1998) ‘The Use and Abuse of Female Domestic Workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 52-56

Cheng, Shu-Ju Ada (1996) ‘Migrant Women Domestic Workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: A Comparative Analysis’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 139-152

Davin, Delia (1999) Internal Migration in Contemporary China, London: Macmillan, ch. 8 ‘Marriage Migration’, pp. 137-150

Enloe, Cynthia (1989) Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, London: Pandora, ch. 8 (‘“Just Like One of the Family”)

Grandea, Nona with Joanna Kerr (1998) ‘ “Frustrated and Displaced”: Filipina Domestic Workers in Canada’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.) Gender and Migration, Oxford: Oxfam, pp. 7-12

Heyzer, Noeleen, Geertje Lyckland a Nijelholt and Nedra Neerakoon (eds) (1994) The Trade in Domestic Workers, London: Zed, especially chs 1 and 2

Lutz, Helma (2002) ‘At Your Service Madam! The Globalization of Domestic Service’, Feminist Review, Vol. 70, pp. 89-104

Momsen, Janet Henshall (1999) ‘Maids on the Move: Victim or Victor’, in Janet Henshall Momsen (ed.) Gender, Migration and Domestic Service, London: Routledge

Piper, Nicola (1997) ‘Globalisation, Gender and Migration: The Case of International Marriage in Japan’, presented at Towards a Gendered Political Economy Conference, Sheffield Univ., 17-18 Sept.

Truong, Thanh-Dam (1996) ‘Gender, International Migration and Social Reproduction: Implications for Theory, Policy, Research and Networking’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 27-52

Wong, Diana (1996) ‘Foreign Domestic Workers in Singapore’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 117-138