From the literature survey it is clear that reinforced brickwork pocket type retaining walls are a well established form of construction in the USA, however, only a small number have been built in the UK. This is surprising since coat studies have consistently indicated that pocket type construction la more economical than fair-faced concrete walls. The available and forthcoming design guidance on reinforced brickwork is reviewed.
The main aim of this research was to Investigate the structural performance of pocket type walls in relation to the requirement of the Draft Code for Reinforced Masonry.
Reported within are the method and results of an experimental research programme. In all six walls and fifteen beams were tested. The parameters examined were brick type, percentage of reinforcement, slenderness and shear span ratio. Flexural failure occurred in all the walls and in the medlum-1ightly reinforced beams whilst only the heavily reinforced beams failed in shear. The experimental results were predicted accurately when analysed using the flexural design equations in the Draft
Code. However the Code requirements for shear appear to be unduly conservative.
Concurrent with the experimental work a finite element program was developed to analyse pocket type walls. In spite of the many assumptions made in the modelling of material properties there was good agreement between analytical and experimental results.
Subsequently a parametric survey was undertaken. The variables selected for examination were slenderness, pocket spacing, panel thickness percentage of reinforcement and arching action in the panels. Both rectangular and flanged sections were investigated.
The results indicated that the Draft Code gave good predictions when flexural failure of the stem occurred. But when panel failure developed neither yield line analysis nor arching theory was able to predict collapse. Guidance is given on the sizing of panels.
It is concluded that pocket type walls, when designed to the
requirements of the Draft Code, perform adequately at
serviceability and ultimate design loads for pocket spacings up to 1.0m. Further experimental work is necessary to establish whether the guidance given in the Code is applicable to walls with pocket spacings greater than 1.0m.
This thesis examines the pattern and level of unemployment in the British Economy from 1855 to 1913. The structure of and variations in supply and demand for labour and unemployment are examined using data mostly from published sources. Various models are discussed and tested on the data using the standard techniques of regression analysis.
It is found that the pre first world war labour market can be described as free of major institutional and structural distortions, adjusting via a series of short run equilibria to a long run equilibrium. It is argued that the interwar labour market should be depicted as failing to adjust and suffering continuous excess supply of labour. In this context, the supply side role for the effect of unemployment benefits is limited and the mal-distribution of unemployment across industries and regions is a consequence, rather than a cause of unemployment. It is argued that, under such conditions, there would have been scope for demand management policies and these would have involved both public spending and exchange rate policies.
Humans are inherently curious creatures, continuously seeking out information about future outcomes. Such advance information is often valuable, potentially allowing people to select better courses of action. In non-human animals, this drive for information can be so strong that they forego food or water to find out a few seconds earlier whether an uncertain option will provide a reward. Here, we assess whether people will exhibit a similar sub-optimal preference for advance information. Participants played a card-flipping task where they were probabilistically rewarded based on the pattern of 3 cards that were revealed after a 5-s delay. During this delay, participants could instead pay a cost to find out the next card's identity immediately. This choice to find out early did not influence the eventual outcome. Participants preferred to find out early about 80% of the time when the information was free; they were even willing to incur an expense to get advance information about the eventual outcome. The expected magnitude of the outcome, however, had little impact on the likelihood of finding out early. These results suggest that humans, like animals, value noninstrumental information and will pay a price for such information, independent of its utility.
The experimental technique of high energy y-ray inelastic scattering has been investigated in great detail with respect to the influence of experimental factors on the Compton profiles of the transition metals Vanadium and Iron. New experimental procedures and analysis methods have yielded highly accurate data which throw doubt on the applicability of Local Density Approximations in the calculation of electron correlation effects in these materials. The concept of electron momentum density is developed as an observable which is particularly sensitive to such valence electron properties.
We develop the projection sorting algorithm, used to compute pairwise short-range interaction forces between particles in molecular dynamics simulations. We contrast this algorithm to the state of the art and discuss situations where it may be particularly effective.
We then explore the efficient implementation of the projection sorting algorithm in both on-node (shared memory parallel) and off-node (distributed memory parallel) environments. We provide AVX, AVX2, KNC and AVX-512 intrinsic implementations of the force calculation kernel. We use the modern multi- and many-core architectures: Intell Haswell, Broadwell Knights Corner (KNC) and Knights Landing (KNL), as representative slice of modern High Performance Computing (HPC) installations.
In the course of implementation we use our algorithm as a means of optimising a contemporary biophysical molecular dynamics simulation of chromosome condensation. We compare state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics (MD) algorithms and projection sorting, and experimentally demonstrate the performance gains possible with our algorithm. These experiments are carried out in single- and multi-node configurations. We observe speedups of up to 5x when comparing our algorithm to the state of the art, and up to 10x when compared to the original unoptimised simulation. These optimisations have directly affected the ability of domain scientists to carry out their work.