Super Voice Girl (SVG) was an Idol-style Chinese reality show that allowed only female contestants. The show became famous worldwide for featuring gender nonconforming contestants. This article examines the rise and fall of the most popular online Chinese queer fandom of the 2006 SVG in the forum feise chaonv (FSCN). I focus on the fans' ambivalent play with Chinese-specific female homoerotic imaginaries that initially popularized and protected but eventually led to the decay of FSCN as a queer fantasy space. First, I look at the subtle ways in which the 2006 SVG tactically normalized the female homoerotic imaginaries surrounding its tomboyish national finalists. Then, I examine FSCN fans' struggles with both this female homoeroticism and the stigmatization of real-world lesbianism. I demonstrate that the fictional imagination of female homoeroticism sustained FSCN as a popular queer fantasy space after the show ended. Additionally, I detail the fans' self-contradictory reactions to several real-life lesbian incidents involving the finalists that gradually came to light in the post-show years. I argue that the fans' confinement of female homoeroticism to a youthful, memorable fantasy scenario that was substantially shaped by both Chinese mainstream and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender cultures eventually contributed to the abrupt end of FSCN's queer-themed practices.
The characterization of the protein–protein association mechanisms is crucial to understanding how biological processes occur. It has been previously shown that the early formation of non-specific encounters enhances the realization of the stereospecific (i.e. native) complex by reducing the dimensionality of the search process. The association rate for the formation of such complex plays a crucial role in the cell biology and depends on how the partners diffuse to be close to each other. Predicting the binding free energy of proteins provides new opportunities to modulate and control protein–protein interactions. However, existing methods require the 3D structure of the complex to predict its affinity, severely limiting their application to interactions with known structures.
We present a new approach that relies on the unbound protein structures and protein docking to predict protein–protein binding affinities. Through the study of the docking space (i.e. decoys), the method predicts the binding affinity of the query proteins when the actual structure of the complex itself is unknown. We tested our approach on a set of globular and soluble proteins of the newest affinity benchmark, obtaining accuracy values comparable to other state-of-art methods: a 0.4 correlation coefficient between the experimental and predicted values of ΔG and an error < 3 Kcal/mol.
Availability and implementation:
The binding affinity predictor is implemented and available at http://sbi.upf.edu/BADock and https://github.com/badocksbi/BADock.
In the Subset Feedback Vertex Set (Subset FVS) problem, the input is a graph G on n vertices and m edges, a subset of vertices T, referred to as terminals, and an integer k. The objective is to determine whether there exists a set of at most k vertices intersecting every cycle that contains a terminal. The study of parameterized algorithms for this generalization of the Feedback Vertex Set problem has received significant attention over the past few years. In fact, the parameterized complexity of this problem was open until 2011, when two groups independently showed that the problem is fixed parameter tractable. Using tools from graph minors,, Kawarabayashi and Kobayashi obtained an algorithm for Subset FVS running in time O(f(k)ċ n2 m) [SODA 2012, JCTB 2012]. Independently, Cygan et al. [ICALP 2011, SIDMA 2013] designed an algorithm for Subset FVS running in time 2O(k log k)ċ nO(1). More recently, Wahlström obtained the first single exponential time algorithm for Subset FVS, running in time 4kċ nO(1) [SODA 2014]. While the 2O(k) dependence on the parameter k is optimal under the Exponential Time Hypothesis, the dependence of this algorithm as well as those preceding it, on the input size is at least quadratic. In this article, we design the first linear time parameterized algorithms for Subset FVS. More precisely, we obtain the following new algorithms for Subset FVS.
— A randomized algorithm for Subset FVS running in time O(25.6kċ (n + m)).
— A deterministic algorithm for Subset FVS running in time 2O(k log k) ċ (n + m).
Since it is known that assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis, Subset FVS cannot have an algorithm running in time 2o(k)nO(1), our first algorithm obtains the best possible asymptotic dependence on both the parameter as well as the input size. Both of our algorithms are based on "cut centrality," in the sense that solution vertices are likely to show up in minimum size cuts between vertices sampled from carefully chosen distributions.
Coordination is essential to the effective operation of multi-agent systems. Convention emergence offers a low-cost and decentralised method of ensuring compatible actions and behaviour, without requiring the imposition of global rules. This is of particular importance in environments with no centralised control or where agents belong to different, possibly conflicting, parties. The timely emergence of robust conventions can be facilitated and manipulated via the use of fixed strategy agents, who attempt to influence others into adopting a particular strategy. Although fixed strategy agents have previously been investigated, they have not been considered in dynamic networks. In this paper, we explore the emergence of conventions within a dynamic network, and examine the effectiveness of fixed strategy agents in this context. Using established placement heuristics we show how such agents can encourage convention emergence, and we examine the impact of the dynamic nature of the network. We introduce a new heuristic, Life-Degree, to enable this investigation. Finally, we consider the ability of fixed strategy agents to manipulate already established conventions, and investigate the effectiveness of placement heuristics in this domain.
I have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding a thyroid hormone receptor from a Xenopus laevis mature oocyte cDNA library. This receptor binds thyroid hormone with high affinity when expressed in COS cells. Expression from the thymidine kinase promoter containing an artificial thyroid hormone response element could be induced by thyroid hormone in the presence (but not in the absence) of this receptor. Thyroid hormone receptors isolated from other organisms are known to act directly upon gene expression at the level of transcription by binding to regulatory sequences within thyroid hormone responsive genes. My results with the Xenopus thyroid hormone receptor are consistent with this mode of action.
There appear to be several rare transcripts in X. laevis ovary which hybridised to the thyroid hormone receptor cDNA clone. These transcripts could not be detected in eggs, suggesting that they are located in the follicle cells rather than the oocyte itself.
Several rare transcripts which hybridised to the cDNA clone are also present in early embryonic stages. These differently sized but clearly related transcripts are suggestive of differential splicing. Synthetic RNA prepared from the entire cDNA translates very poorly in vitro and this is almost certainly due to the presence of several AUG codons upstream of the long open reading frame.
Thyroid hormone is known to play a vital role in inducing the many biochemical and physiological changes that occur during amphibian metamorphosis. It is almost certain that some of these changes are the result of the activation and repression of specific genes at a transcriptional level. I have demonstrated that transcription of the Xenopus albumin genes is activated at the onset of metamorphosis. The albumin genes are therefore candidates for genes whose expression is activated by thyroid hormone. I have tested the response of a cloned X. laevis 68Kda albumin gene to thyroid hormone in a transient transfection assay. From this experiment I tentatively conclude that thyroid hormone does increase expression of the 68Kda albumin gene, at the level of the messenger RNA, and that this increase requires the presence of the co-transfected (Xenopus) thyroid hormone receptor.
The liver-specific expression of albumin genes from Xenopus and other organisms is known to be controlled at the level of transcription by liver-specific trans-acting factors which interact with regulatory sequences upstream of these genes. In vivo, in the developing liver, transcription of the Xenopus albumin genes might require the presence of both tissue-specific trans-acting factors and the thyroid hormone receptor complex.
The thesis critically examines the main theories of union growth, especially white-collar unionism, and argues they have inadequately analysed the labour process and its precise importance in understanding the development of unionization. It is suggested that unionization is better understood through analysing (a) the various pressures which imply changes in the labour process; (b) the impact of these changes on the relationships between employees and not just those between employer and employees; (c) how this shapes the patterns of employees experience and their response in terms of collective organization and action. This allows a clearer understanding of how certain conjunctural influences may affect union organization and activity; in particular, the role of employers policies, state intervention and the autonomy of trade unions from the labour process. These arguments are developed in the context of a detailed analysis of the Bookmaking Industry, the rise of The Union of Bookmakers Employees (TUBE) in the early 1970s, and its subsequent merger with the TGWU.
This paper focuses on paths towards innovation and considers different types of innovation. It develops a new framework to analyze the internal and external factors that influence the types of innovation and their relationships with business performance in the manufacturing sector. A proposed theoretical model is tested and used to evaluate the process of innovation by country (Peru and Chile) and companies by size, type of industry, financial aspects and level of patenting. In Chile, the driver is technological innovation in processes, whereas in Peru, it is non-technological innovation. Companies with high perceptions of financial constraints exhibit a preference for the development of marketing innovations to substantially improve production performance; if a company perceives few financial barriers, it increases innovation resources and process innovation to significantly improve market performance. Small businesses increase non-technological innovation by investing in staff to manage the social networks. Moreover, the participation of foreign capital may overcome the institutional voids and lack of support systems. Furthermore, the combination of process and organizational innovation increases export performance, and the effect of the cooperation depends on the type of industry. Finally, we note the limitations and propose future research.
To investigate the effect of double readings by a second radiologist on recall rates, cancer detection and characteristics of cancers detected in the National Health Service Breast Screening Program in England.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective analysis we evaluated 805,206 women through screening and diagnostic test results by extracting one year of routine data from 33 English breast screening centers. Centers used double reading of digital mammograms, with arbitration if there were discrepant reads. Information on reader decisions, with results of follow-up tests, were used to explore the effect of the second reader. The statistical tests used were the test for equality of proportions, the χ2 test for independence and the t-test.
The first reader recalled 4·76%, (38295/805206, 95% CI 4·71%-4·80%) of women. Two readers recalled 6·19% in total, (49857/805206, 95% CI 6·14%- 6·24%), but arbitration of discordant reads reduced recall rate to 4·08%, (32863/805206, 95% CI 4·04%-4·12%, p<0.001). 7055 cancers were detected of which 627 (8·89%, 95% CI 8·22%-9·55%, p<0.001) were detected by the second reader only. These additional cancers were more likely to be ductal carcinoma in situ, (30·5% (183/600) vs 22.0% (1344/6114), p<0.001); and additional invasive cancers were smaller (mean 14·2mm vs 16·7mm, p<0.001), had fewer involved nodes, and were likely to be lower grade.
Double reading with arbitration reduces recall and increases cancer detection compared to single reading. Cancers detected only by the second reader were smaller, lower grade, and had less nodal involvement.
This work reports the preparation of a three-dimensional Si thin film negative electrode employing a porous Cu current collector. A previously reported copper etching procedure was modified to develop the porous structures inside a 9 μm thick copper foil. Magnetron sputtering was used for the deposition of an n-type doped 400 nm thick amorphous Si thin film. Electrochemical cycling of the prepared anode confirmed the effectiveness of utilizing the approach. The designed Si thin film electrode retained a capacity of around 67 μAh cm-2 (1675 mAh g-1) in 100th cycle. The improved electrochemical performance resulted in an enhancement of both areal capacity and capacity retention in contrast with flat and rough current collectors that were prepared for comparison.
Integral bridges have become established as a viable structural form in many countries for reducing maintenance liability and increasing structure robustness. The advent of new design guidance associated with the Eurocodes provides an opportunity to review the design of these structures. Research indicates that peak stresses due to bridge expansion continually increase with cycles and in theory may reach fully passive. However, this may not happen in practice during a bridge's life. A numerical model has been developed and calibrated against test data, enabling predictions of the development of lateral stresses acting on a full-height frame integral abutment during its life, both in terms of magnitude and distribution down the wall. Design guidance is shown to be appropriate for bridges up to 60 m in length, but to be unconservative for longer bridges. The effect of applying daily cycles of movement rather than just annual cycles has also been investigated.
Ge1–xSnx epitaxial heterostructures are emerging as prominent candidates for the monolithic integration of light sources on Si substrates. Here we propose a suitable explanation for their temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) that is based upon the so far disregarded optical activity of dislocations. By working at the onset of plastic relaxation, which occurs whenever the epilayer releases the strain accumulated during growth on the lattice-mismatched substrate, we demonstrate that dislocation nucleation can be explicitly seen in the PL data. Notably, our findings point out that a monotonic thermal PL quenching can be observed in coherent films, in spite of the indirect nature of the Ge1–xSnx band-gap. Our investigation, therefore, contributes to a deeper understanding of the recombination dynamics in this intriguing group IV alloy and offers insights into crucial phenomena shaping the light emission efficiency.
Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) offers an alternative wide bandgap semiconductor to conventional materials such as hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) or gallium nitride (GaN) for the detection of UV light and can offer a closely lattice matched virtual substrate for subsequent GaN heteroepitaxy. As 3C-SiC can be heteroepitaxially grown on silicon (Si) substrates its optical properties can be manipulated by controlling the thickness and doping concentrations. The optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers have been characterized by measuring the transmission of light through suspended membranes. Decreasing the thickness of the 3C-SiC epilayers is shown to shift the absorbance edge to lower wavelengths, a result of the indirect bandgap nature of silicon carbide. This property, among others, can be exploited to fabricate very low-cost, tuneable 3C-SiC based UV photodetectors. This study investigates the effect of thickness and doping concentration on the optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers grown at low temperatures by a standard Si based growth process. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry.
To compare the clinical outcomes and direct costs at 5 years between TAVI or SAVR using real-world evidence.
We performed a nationwide longitudinal study using data from the French Hospital Information System over 2009-2015. We matched inside hospitals two cohorts of adults who underwent TAVI or SAVR in 2010 on propensity score based on patients characteristics. Outcomes analysis included mortality, morbidity, and total costs and with a maximum 60-month follow-up. Clinical outcomes were compared between cohorts using Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from Cox proportional hazards model for all-cause death, and from Fine and Gray's competing risk model for morbidity.
Based on a cohort of 1598 patients (799 in each group) from 27 centers, a higher risk of death was observed after 1 year with TAVI compared to SAVR (16.8% vs. 12.8% respectively; HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02-1.72) and was sustained up to 5 years (52.4% vs. 37.2%; HR 1.56, 95%CI 1.33-1.84). At 5 years, the risk of stroke was increased (HR 1.64, 95%CI 1.07-2.54) as was myocardial infarction (HR 2.30, 95%CI 1.12-4.69) and pacemaker implantation (HR 2.40, 95%CI 1.81-3.17) after TAVI. The hospitalization costs per patient at 5 years were €69,083 after TAVI and €55,687 after SAVR (p<0.001).
In our study, high-risk patients after TAVI harbor a greater risk of mortality and morbidity at 5 years compared to SAVR and higher hospitalizations costs. Those results should encourage to be more cautious before enlarging the indications of TAVI.
Large scale fabrication using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor compatible technology of semiconductor nanostructures that operate on the principles of quantum transport is an exciting possibility now due to the recent development of ultra-high mobility hole gases in epitaxial germanium grown on standard silicon substrates. We present here a ballistic transport study of patterned surface gates on strained Ge quantum wells with SiGe barriers, which confirms the quantum characteristics of the Ge heavy hole valence band structure in 1-dimension. Quantised conductance at multiples of 2e2/h is a universal feature of hole transport in Ge up to 10 × (2e2/h). The behaviour of ballistic plateaus with finite source-drain bias and applied magnetic field is elucidated. In addition, a reordering of the ground state is observed.
In this study, we propose a 3D structured composite anode containing silicon thin film on graphene coated Ni foam prepared using chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques. The electrochemical test results show that 3D structure of current collector is capable to effectively suppress/diminish the volume changes of the anode upon cycling. Along with this, graphene serves as an additional electrochemically active component and provides improved conductivity. Designed anode exhibits a high areal capacity of around 75 μAh cm−2 upon 500 cycles with the coulombic efficiency of around 99%.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method for studying the human brain that is now widely used to study functional connectivity. Functional connectivity concerns how brain regions interact and how these interactions change over time, between subjects and in different experimental contexts and can provide deep insights into the underlying brain function.
Multiregression Dynamic Models (MDMs) are dynamic Bayesian networks that describe contemporaneous, causal relationships between time series. They may therefore be applied to fMRI data to infer functional brain networks. This work focuses on the MDM Directed Graph Model (MDM-DGM) search algorithm for network discovery. The Log Predictive Likelihood (model evidence) factors by subject and by node, allowing a fast, parallelised model search. The estimated networks are directed and may contain the bidirectional edges and cycles that may be thought of as being representative of the true, reciprocal nature of brain connectivity.
In Chapter 2, we use two datasets with 15 brain regions to demonstrate that the MDM-DGM can infer networks that are physiologically-interpretable. The estimated MDM-DGM networks are similar to networks estimated with the widely-used partial correlation method but advantageously also provide directional information. As the size of the model space prohibits an exhaustive search over networks with more than 20 nodes, in Chapter 3 we propose and evaluate stepwise model selection algorithms that reduce the number of models scored while optimising the networks. We show that computation time may be dramatically reduced for only a small trade-off in accuracy. In Chapter 4, we use non-local priors to derive new, closed-form expressions for the model evidence with a penalty on weaker, potentially spurious, edges. While the application of non-local priors poses a number of challenges, we argue that it has the potential to provide a flexible Bayesian framework to improve the robustness of the MDM-DGM networks.