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CE923

CE923 Exercises

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  1. Please use the *Reply* function to respond to any of the exercises in the module materials, for example the first exercise on your own ‘theory’ of career development.
     
  2. Re: Exercises
    > Please use the *Reply* function to respond to any of > the exercises in the module materials, for example > the first exercise on your own ‘theory’ of career > development. Please feel free to share your ideas on a personal theory of career development. We ran an event in 2009 at which participants were asked to share an ‘image of career’. There were a range of metaphors offered: paths, trees, mountains, wheels of life and so on.
     
  3. Re: Exercises
    Mine was a walk in the Peak District, or somewhere else fairly rural and hillly. You start off in a valley, look up at the hills and can’t believe you’re ever going to make it up there. But you set off, you have a map and you think you know where you’re going. Over the course of the day, your view changes, and so does your confidence. Sometimes you aren’t totally sure where you’re going and whether you’re going in the right direction, so you keep your fingers crossed and plough on anyway. At other points, what you see around you matches the map perfectly, and you know you’re on track. Sometimes you suddenly get to a point where you can look back and see where you’ve come from, and it all makes total sense. Even when you’ve done that, though, you can still go around another corner or over another bump and lose yourself again! I think that’s one of the things I always think about – you can plan your career, but there will always be bits you don’t expect and times when you’re not sure where you’re going, and some parts will only make sense in retrospect. And it’s not really about getting to a particular endpoint, although that can be satisfying – ideally, you should getting something out of it as you’re going along.
     
  4. Re: Exercises
    Hello I mapped out my career and coded each step. The key words I ended up with were: · Family culture/expectations · Practicality/realism · Trial and error · Discovering personal aptitudes/interests · Following heart · Dead end · Pursuing specific goal · Fate/luck · Reaching particular life stage · Opportunity
     
  5. Re: Exercises
    Well done for completing the exercise Charlotte and welcome to the module. That’s a really interesting list of key words. For me, it underscores the complex range of influences that form our career development. I wonder if anyone else has any thoughts drawing from their own career thus far? Phil
     
  6. Re: Exercises
    A colleague at work just got back from Estonia where she’d given a workshop on the Researcher Development Framework. She said that the concept of ‘career’ has negative associations for people there stemming from the former communist regime. ‘Career’ implies treading over others to get to where you want to be. I thought this seemed like a good example of the effect of society/community/labour structures on individual and group perceptions.
     
  7. Re: Exercises
    Charlotte, That’s a really interesting perspective of Estonia. I was speaking recently to someone who spent a few years working there and I learned about Estonia’s “lost generation”. When the communist regime collapsed young people adapted quicker and advanced much more rapidly in the new capitalist reality. It meant that the generation who had trained and started their working life under the communist regime just got forgotten about and were seen as workhorses for the younger more innovative and flexible knowledge workers. It shows how a major cultural shift can have such wide reaching consequences! Brian.
     
  8. Re: Exercises
    Certainly does! I wonder how the concept of ‘career’ is changing in Greece? Charlotte
     
  9. Re: Exercises
    Thanks to Brian and Charlotte for these ideas. One of the things this flags up for me is how many contrasting meanings of career there are. This is of course true of other words. In the academic literature, career is often used in a different sense from many of these everyday meanings (some sociologists talk of the careers of mental patients, criminals or marijuana users). Also, when Super talks about career he does not exactly mean the same thing as Savickas, so these terms are debated and contested. This highlights the importance of understanding contrasting interpretations and meanings of career, both in our work with people and in encountering the literature. Phil
     
  10. Re: Exercises
    My own theory of career development It’s a bit like one of those choose your own adventure books where you choose a course of action then turn to the appropriate page to find out the consequence of that action and choose the next. As you progress through you start to get a feel for what decisions are right for you and, if you’re like me, you keep a finger in the page you’ve just come from in case you discover it was a bad decision. So, you progress, not without hiccup, through the book and a personal story unfolds in which you learn a great deal and hopefully avoid the nasty pitfalls.
     
  11. Re: Exercises
    Thanks very much for sharing this John. It seems to me there is an explicit narrative dimension to this image of career. Interested in hearing about other career development theories of others too. Phil
     
  12. Re: Exercises
    It also suggests that we are aware of all of the options open to us when making decisions which certainly isn’t always the case. Clearly it needs work :)
     
  13. Re: Exercises
    My personal theory/metaphor of career development: A novice sailor takes charge of a small, new sailing boat. At first, setting out the novice is confused, anxious and concerned about what does what and how to navigate the winds, the tides and negotiate the various shipping channels. She feels she knows very little. Grabbing at ropes, jumping about the vessel, not knowing quite what to do. It all seems quite chaotic. She feels she is making it up as she is going along. External factors always seem to be controlling progress, pushing or pulling the boat in various directions and the novice sailor feels she has no choice but to go along with these forces. The boat moves but not always in the direction the novice expected. However, over time, more experienced sailors share their knowledge with her and along with trial and error the novice starts to learn about her boat and how to work with the winds and the tides. She learns to how to use the nautical maps to help her negotiate sand banks and harbours. As her confidence in handling the boat builds, her anxiousness subsides and is replaced by real enjoyment of some of her nautical trips. She starts being able to choose her routes and sail to the more interesting places, go where she wants to go. She makes some more calculated risks and is more adventurous. She is very aware of the ever changing external factors she has to deal with ie bad weather, storms or damaging tides and these are sometimes completely unforeseen. However, she deals with these conditions more and more effectively. She feels she is a sailor now and she is working with her boat in a positive and productive way.
     
  14. Re: Exercises
    Thanks very much for sharing this metaphor Liz I used to do some estuary kayaking and your comments made me recall how I often had to set a course to the left or right of my destination in order to take account of winds and tides. Best wishes Phil
     
  15. Re: Exercises
    Hello, I became aware of the following aspects within my diagram: - choices and barriers - the geography of work - identity and work - the impact of IT developments Thank you. Best wishes, Sally
     
  16. Re: Exercises
    Some thoughts on the exercise at the end of the Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory ppt I took from this theory the importance of exploring and, if necessary, challenging students’ self-efficacy and world view beliefs. For example if in a one-to-one discussion a student says ‘I’m no good at working with numbers’, asking them ‘what evidence do you have for this?’ and ‘Would your friends/family/others who know you well agree with you?’. Challenging world view assumptions could be done with LMI and the wealth of research and reports written – e.g. a quiz dispelling some popular myths in a group workshop is often a good way to spark debate between students, on, for example, the wildly varying ‘average graduate starting salaries’ reported in the media. Could there be a danger in relying too much on instrumental learning experiences in career decision-making that a person repeats an activity and perhaps develops a skill for something in order to continue to receive positive feedback rather than because it is something from which they derive personal satisfaction or enjoyment? Perhaps if using this skill was important in that person’s career choice they may eventually lose motivation? If, for example, I was working with a student whose career aim was to be an orchestral musician, this decision could have been informed by instrumental learning (e.g. praise for performing recitals), associative learning (e.g. student is inspired and uplifted when attending orchestral concerts) and self-efficacy belief informed by their passing exams to a high level and perhaps even the ‘special ability’ of perfect pitch. I would encourage them to consider both the task approach skills and the environmental conditions (e.g. how are orchestral musicians recruited? Is the work mainly freelance or permanent? What are the salaries like?) through reading occupational profiles, case studies, networking etc. Without this kind of understanding success in this field would seem unlikely because of the vast difference between playing music for pleasure v playing in a professional orchestra. Any thoughts? Anne
     
  17. Re: Exercises
    *Anne and others *Thanks very much for your post I took from this theory the importance of exploring and, if necessary, challenging students’ self-efficacy and world view beliefs. For example if in a one-to-one discussion a student says ‘I’m no good at working with numbers’, asking them ‘what evidence do you have for this?’ and ‘Would your friends/family/others who know you well agree with you?’. Challenging world view assumptions could be done with LMI and the wealth of research and reports written – e.g. a quiz dispelling some popular myths in a group workshop is often a good way to spark debate between students, on, for example, the wildly varying ‘average graduate starting salaries’ reported in the media. *I agree this can be a way of helping students getting behind the headlines. Could there be a danger in relying too much on instrumental learning experiences in career decision-making that a person repeats an activity and perhaps develops a skill for something in order to continue to receive positive feedback rather than because it is something from which they derive personal satisfaction or enjoyment? Perhaps if using this skill was important in that person’s career choice they may eventually lose motivation? If, for example, I was working with a student whose career aim was to be an orchestral musician, this decision could have been informed by instrumental learning (e.g. praise for performing recitals), associative learning (e.g. student is inspired and uplifted when attending orchestral concerts) and self-efficacy belief informed by their passing exams to a high level and perhaps even the ‘special ability’ of perfect pitch. I would encourage them to consider both the task approach skills and the environmental conditions (e.g. how are orchestral musicians recruited? Is the work mainly freelance or permanent? What are the salaries like?) through reading occupational profiles, case studies, networking etc. Without this kind of understanding success in this field would seem unlikely because of the vast difference between playing music for pleasure v playing in a professional orchestra. *You make some very good points. I agree it is a good idea to help students broaden and deepen their learning. This is highly consistent with Krumboltz’s ideas. It is worth considering to what extent the actions you propose are working from the position of the adviser having access to special or expert knowledge (e.g. true messages about salaries or the chances of success in music). My reading of Krumboltz leads me to think our area of expertise lies in helping design learning experiences for clients of all kinds. *What do others think? *Phil Any thoughts? Anne
     
  18. Re: Exercises
    I looked at this task in a different way, and took each key idea and attributed how this could come into a 1:1 discussion or other area of careers provision. Instrumental learning experiences – giving them positive reinforcement in order to encourage the confidence to go away and repeat an action. For example, in a practice interview, praising certain aspects of their performance (especially the day before a real interview!) in order to foster a positive learning experience. Associative learning experiences – this will give the CA and student the chance to explore previous choices made and see if there is any link to prior positive experiences. So in a 1:1 asking a student their motivation or understanding about a career in a particular sector. This might be linked to a positive account from a family member and something more immediate from their own experience. This can then be explored in more detail to check/discuss the motivation. Genetic endowment – in a 1:1 appointment, taking into consideration the background of a student, in particular being aware of, although not setting stereotypes, their nationality, culture etc. From experience some nationalities have more demands from family for success, while others are more free to explore their options. Listening to what they say and the stories they attribute to their career choices can help determine if these, or other, cultural effects are influencing them. Environmental conditions – discussions in 1:1 appointments often fall to talk of the job market or visa requirements. The job market is seen quite negatively by some students, especially those with visa restrictions. A frank and honest conversation about the realities and back up plans is important here. Task approach skills – quite often in the case of a student who is undecided or has little work experience it is of benefit to get them talking or ask them to go away and write a list of their skills. Further to this, which is these skills are they good at using and which would they actually want to use in their day to day work. This helps them get to know themselves and gives them a list of skills they would be keen to use when conducting further information research. Learning experiences – expanding on the skills, job role, responsibilities, size of and type of company they would want to be involved with. This could be in a longer 1:1 appointment or through ‘homework’ which would be discussed in more depth in a future meeting. Self observation generalisation – in a presentation I would always invite students to ask themselves questions to assess what they would do in a particular situation. For example, when conducting a presentation on interview techniques I often include a list of common interview mistakes. At this point I would state ‘you may recognise this interview mistake in yourself’ before giving them a chance to think about this through the use of silence. World-view generalisations – student’s preconceptions are often challenged in a 1:1 appointment. If a student brings up the point that all their friends have had internships and they haven’t therefore they will be unable to get a job I would challenge this view and ask them to think about other ways they could gain experience, or suggest that we look at their current experience and see how they are ‘selling’ this to employers.
     
  19. Re: Exercises
    The task associated with the Holland reading. My first thought on this is that within a 15 minute careers appointment it is not possible to explore the student’s RIASEC personality type and see if this fits within their ideal work environment. However, within a longer appointment this could begin to be discussed. Within my own practice currently if a student came to me in a 15 minute 1:1 and said they didn’t know what to do career wise I would set them some tasks. One of which would be a personality test modelled on the MBTI test. The student would then be encouraged to come back for a 30 minute appointment, sending me their MBTI-esq report prior to the appointment. This would be a conversation piece about whether the agreed with their type indicator, whether they did or they didn’t this would generate further conversations allowing myself and the student to gain more of an idea about the type of work and environment that would suit them. The report also gives some suggested careers for the student, which would also be a discussion point and an initial point for research into job titles or careers that sounded of interest to the student. Having an idea of their RIASEC category from here would also be a good point to discuss congruence between their personality type and suited work environments. Joanne
     
  20. Re: Exercises
    Thoughts about the task associated with Super… Focusing mainly on growth and exploration as these are the stages most of the students I deal with are engaged in… Firstly it is important to gain an understanding of where a student currently is… do they have experience? Do they see some of their experience as worthless and should the benefits of their bar job be examined more closely? When they say they have no experience, or no idea of what they want to do, do they actually mean this?! In practical terms I see the growth phase as exploration into career ideas, so in similarity to my previous post, encouraging students to go away and write a list of their skills, interests, company ideals in order for them to start gaining an idea of who they are and what they want from the world of work. This is particularly important for undergraduate or postgraduate students who have little or no prior work experience, or career changers who are reflecting on what they want from work post-degree. In practical terms I see the exploration stage as students being self learners and discovering what a career might consist of, attributing these factors to their own ideals and personality traits. Suggestions during 1:1 appointments might examine informational interviews, using contacts (family, friends, alumni) to find out more or to give you work shadowing, internships, work experience, voluntary opportunities. Both areas will help with the crystallisation, specifying and implementation of their careers. I think it also brings about the interesting dimension of who else or what role other than student are the students currently engaged in that might have a positive or negative effect on their career choices. Joanne