Matching approaches to career development have a long history in our field.
- The work of John Holland has been selected as it provides a detailed example of the person-environment fit approach with its hexagonal map of personality and occupations. Please now click on the play arrow below.
- This online lecture is also provided in Powerpoint Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments
- Following this, read the chapters by Spokane, Luchetta & Richwine (2002) and Nauta (2013) provided in the core reading.
Once you have engaged with the core materials, here are some suggestions for optional further reading:
- Parsons (1909) for an early version of person-environment fit vocational guidance based on self awarenesss, opportunity awareness and decision-making.
- Schein's (1978) work (and subsequent refinements) on career anchors for an alternative matching approach. He identifies 8 types of career anchor: Technical/functional competence; General managerial competence; Autonomy/independence; Security/stability; Entrepreneurial creativity; Sense of service/dedication to a cause; Pure challenge; and Lifestyle.
- Kolb (1984) developed an eightfold matching approach to career development using an octagon linked to learning styles.
- There is also a large number of career studies that propose various 'career types'. Although not strictly matching career development theories, they are nonetheless interesting for a contrast to Holland. For examples, see Summary section.