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Planning and methods

Included in this section are resources which go through particular stages in the action research process.


‘Planning your Action Research Project’ (2001) by Ian Hughes and Ray William

This article goes through planning of initial reflection, literature survey, action aim and research question, data collection and analysis and writing an action research plan.




How to Keep a Research Diary

This is a short article which describes what a research diary is, the main reasons for keeping one, how to write it and what it should contain.


This article gives a short introduction to as to when focus groups are most appropriately used, conducting one, preparing for one, moderating, and other relevant factors.


Visual images in research

Image based research is the topic covered by the Image and Identity Research Collective (IIRC) on this website. It has a delightful front page with links to articles which give a comprehensive background to using visual images in research and analysing visual qualitative data. The first is a 10 page booklet (excluding references) which gives some helpful arguments around the value of images to research (p3); 10 reasons for using arts-related images in research and how to use them (p7).It is a helpful site to give a different perspective on research and especially useful for visual learners

Media and Artifacts

The University of Westminster Artlab website has an experiential approach to research which involves asking people to make their own media or artistic artefacts. The choices made (and not made) are subsequently analysed and discussed and the research 'data' consists not simply of the creative product, but also observation, discussion and analysis of the process of its production and the choices made. It is interesting to show a creative approach to research and helpful for kinaesthetic learners.


Convergent interviewing: a technique for qualitative data collection

This is an interesting article on how to use convergent interviewing techniques to ensure validity of questioning in research or to establish survey questions.