Coronavirus (Covid-19): Latest updates and information
Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Project Findings

Introduction

These web resources complement the Assessment of workplace learning section in History Graduates with Impact (GWI). The site offers an opportunity to publish more of the information collected from the online survey of wpl modules leaders, interviews and module handbooks than it was possible to present in the Graduates With Impact publication.

The Examples

All the practices we have encountered have been developed by the module teams from their experiences and institutional customs and conventions. In citing particular practices, we want to illustrate the diverse range of the delivery workplace learning (wpl) modules are delivered.

 All the detailed information presented in these pages is taken from the individual institutions’ module handbooks.

Definition

For the Assessment of wpl project we adopted the QAA’s definition of wpl as ‘the learning achieved during an agreed and negotiated period of learning that takes place outside the institution at which the full or part-time student is enrolled or engaged in learning. As with work-based learning, the learning outcomes are intended as integral parts of a programme of study’ (Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education, Section 9: Work-based and placement learning - September 2007, paragraph 16). Some materials on the theoretical debates on work-based and workplace learning are given in Further Reading section of this site.

 The sections are:

Organisational matters

Preparation

Student support

Assessment design and methods

Assessors

Feedback

Providers/marketing

Respondents to the online survey

Ideas for further consideration

Appendix

Further Reading

 

Organisational matters

Compulsory or optional module

Only five institutions currently have wpl as a compulsory module (Huddersfield, Newman, Petroc, University Centre, Peterborough, and York St John). The University of Central Lancashire and Oxford Brookes University are among those departments that make it explicit that students will not necessarily accepted for the module.

Aims and outcomes of the wpl modules

The specific aims and outcomes of the wpl modules are set out below.

A common thread that runs through all the data is that wpl provides a double benefit:

For students, it widens opportunities

For institutions, it raises the institutional profile in the local and regional community.

 

Institution

Aims

Learning Outcomes

Chichester

The aim of the module is to introduce students to the ways in which their learning experiences in the discipline of history can be applied to the working environment. Thus students will be actively involved in a workplace situation in a manner commensurate with their academic objectives. The work placement experience will provide students with an understanding of the practical, ethical and technical issues involved in the collection, cataloguing and preservation or conservation of physical traces of the past, as well as their interpretation. Emphasis will be placed upon the development of vocational skills alongside the maintenance of a level of academic rigour deemed necessary for the preparation of a graduate career path in history.

 

At the conclusion of this module, students should be able to:

1) demonstrate understanding of the practical and ethical issues involved in museum and heritage practice;

2) provide a critical evaluation of professional working practices involved in the collection, cataloguing, preservation and interpretation of historical records and artifacts;

3) understand the application and uses of history as a discipline in relation to the work environment;

4) demonstrate a level of professionalism in undertaking tasks allocated to them within the workplace

5) demonstrate a range of identifiable generic and history-related transferable skills.

 

Greenwich

This is a level 6, 30-credit History course offered as one of two core courses for students on History and History Combination programmes of study. It follows the core level 5 course ‘Making History: Ideas & Practice’ where students will finish the year by identifying either a work placement and project or a dissertation to be undertaken at level 6. The employability of students and graduates continues to be a central focus in History at the University of Greenwich and this course provides opportunities for students to experience the workplace, encouraging them to further develop the skills that employers require in order to enhance students’ prospects for employment and/or further study after graduation. Specifically, this course aims to develop further understanding of the world of work and to provide opportunities to demonstrate skills in work relevant to the field of study. It will also contextualise the practical experience of work by enabling students to reflect on the politics of the work-place. Typical placements include working in archives (local and national), museums, schools (primary and secondary) and the heritage sector.

 

On successful completion of this course students should:

 

  • Have gained practical work experience in a subject-related environment
  • Developed the ability to monitor, review and evaluate their experience
  • Understand the role of history as a discipline within a workplace
  • Have knowledge and understanding of employer/employee relations
  • Enhance their awareness of the role played by workplace politics in wider society
  • Develop greater understanding and knowledge of their individual workplace
  • Critically assess the practical and theoretical issues/debates that are relevant to their individual workplace
  • Have successfully completed a research project on an agreed relevant topic

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated level 6 undergraduate-level ability in the generic skills, as described in section 3.3 of the QAA History benchmarking document (2007), in addition to the following:

  •   Working effectively and appropriately with others
  • Working as a self directed reflective learner
  • Ability to communicate ideas appropriately and effectively both verbally and in writing
  • Research and analytical skills
  • Managing information
  • Good time management skills

 

Hertfordshire

  • Develop an understanding of the forms and uses of history in non-academic settings
  • Gain practical experience of public history
  • Reflect on their experiences to develop an understanding of relevant practical and conceptual issues
  • Develop the subject-specific skills involved in the practice of history

 

 

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the forms and uses of history in non-academic settings
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of practical issues, particularly those encountered when making and sharing histories with local communities
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of relevant conceptual issues relating to the practise of history in specific non-academic contexts
  • Demonstrate an ability to engage critically with materials in diverse forms and aimed at a range of audiences
  • Demonstrate intellectual independence
  • Demonstrate an ability to engage imaginatively with history in specific social contexts.  

Huddersfield

Since 1989 students following History at the University of Huddersfield have done a compulsory work placement, which now amounts to six weeks (180 hours). One of the main reasons for this work placement is to provide a link between academic studies and the 'real' world of work. This is particularly important on a degree like History which, although it has more direct links to some careers, is not specifically tailored to any particular profession.

1. Understand and interpret instructions; carry out designated tasks.

2. Analyse problems, identify their cause and solve them.

3. To know when to use his/her initiative and when to ask for help

4. Clarify his/her career intentions and identify relevant skills that would be needed other than the purely academic

5. Learn more about the industry or area of work.

6. Build his/her self-confidence and self-assurance

7. Recognise operational problems within the work place.

8. Understand the role of administration in the organisation.

9. Develop skills of working with people in groups

10. Identify the 'characteristics' of the 'customer'/'client'/'pupils' and their needs

11. Identify management skills from observing role models.

12. Discover more about the routes into the profession (e.g. postgraduate qualifications) through discussion with other members of staff

 

MMU

To enable students to relate their University studies to the practical situations encountered in the working environment and to gain insight of the role history takes in the wider culture.

At the end of the unit the individual should have:

- a detailed knowledge of the public history sector in contemporary Britain.

- the ability to offer critical assessments of public history practice informed by the theoretical literature, and to reflect critically on their own historical practice;

- a capacity for autonomous work within a mentored context;

- the ability to work in teams to deliver an agreed output to brief and on time;

 

Newman

The work placement will give you an opportunity to develop your employability skills and apply and explore your subject knowledge whilst in the work place. The module has been developed in direct response to Government policy to ground higher education in the changing realities of the workplace.

 

A1. Evaluate features of the workplace setting (purpose, structure and values) and your role within it

A2. Select an aspect of subject knowledge to be explored in a work-place setting

A3. Synthesise correctly attributed subject knowledge, concepts and principles with knowledge obtained in the workplace

 

B1. Negotiate and undertake a specific role in a workplace setting

B2. Identify the skills required to manage new, unfamiliar and potentially unpredictable situations in the work place

B3. Critically reflect on the learning opportunities provided by the workplace experience and how that learning will benefit current and lifelong learning, values and future employabilityB1. Negotiate and undertake a specific role in a workplace setting

B4. Identify the skills required to manage new, unfamiliar and potentially unpredictable situations in the work place

B5. Critically reflect on the learning opportunities provided by the workplace experience and how that learning will benefit current and lifelong learning, values and future employability

C1. Communicate with a variety of people in a form appropriate to the workplace setting.

C2. Use IT appropriately in the specific vocational context, and develop their IT skills further on the placement, where appropriate.

C3. Solve problems, in negotiation with the workplace tutor, at both micro (as they arise, operational) and macro (change management) levels, as appropriate.

C4. Work collaboratively, co-operatively and effectively as part of a workplace team.

C5. Manage time effectively and prioritise tasks appropriately.

 

OBU

This module offers students the opportunity to engage with professionals in organisations which have historical links or interests. Students will be able to evaluate and critically reflect upon this experience during this course.

 

On completion of the module students will have:  

  • Knowledge of historical development relevant to a work-place environment;
  • Developed skills in working with primary historical sources;
  • Gained an understanding of how History is used in a non-academic setting.  

On completion of the module students will have had the chance to:  

  • Select and apply the relevant skills acquired on the course in practical, task-related contexts;
  • Critically reflect on and evaluate the relevance of the work placement experience;
  • Analyse quantitative, narrative and other data forms;
  • Engage with narratives of ordinary people;
  • Develop independent research skills.  

On completion of the module students will have enhanced their ability to:  

  • Set objectives independently;
  • Organise their learning through time and self-management;
  • Express ideas clearly and argue effectively;
  • Find, select, synthesize and evaluate information from a wide range of sources;
  • Participate in small group and project work;
  • Clarify issues and make analytical responses;
  • Develop and successfully complete research projects;
  • Produce independent critical reflection on a specific topic;
  • Use Information Technology effectively.

 

UC Peterborough

The aim of the module is to further develop skills and understanding of the practice of archaeology and landscape history in the field, to give students practical experience of a variety of tasks involved in archaeology today, and to provide the opportunity to reflect upon the complexities of organisations managing and executing fieldwork activities.

 

On successful completion of this module the student will be expected to be able to:  

Have a fuller knowledge and understanding of specific examples of archaeological and landscape history fieldwork practice  

Reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of organisations engaged in fieldwork activities  

Evaluate the relative contribution of a variety of practical approaches to the study of archaeology and landscape history  

Demonstrate competence in a variety of field skills e.g. survey, field observation, excavation and recording

Petroc

To provide students with the opportunity of learning from work

To develop a range of communication skills

To provide students with the opportunity to reflect on how they work and how they can improve their own learning and performance

To encourage students to acquire work-based knowledge

To develop students’ employment skills so that they can enter, or progress within, the workplace more effectively  

 

 

Roehampton

This module gives students the opportunity to combine their academic learning with practical experience working either with artefacts and sites or teaching some aspects related to their degree programme. Students will normally work for three weeks in a block in their placement or the equivalent of three weeks according to the needs of the institution providing the placement. The placement can be in Britain or abroad. The module aims to enable students to develop skills in critical, historical and visual analysis and interpretation with the aim of transferring and applying those skills to their chosen area of employment. The module also aims to enable students to develop both written and oral communication skills, with the further aim of transferring and applying those skills to their chosen areas of professional practice. In the process of the module they should come to understand and critically evaluate the range of possible career opportunities associated with professional practice within arts organisations such as museums, galleries, archaeological sites and schools. They will learn to evaluate critically their own work as they develop an understanding of the historical, cultural, social and professional context of their chosen placement. The module further proposes to train students to use their communicative, analytical and critical skills in order to communicate their ideas effectively.

 

By the end of this module students will have:  

  • learned about their own contribution in a specialist work environment
  • developed confidence in their own abilities through practising their skills in a professional environment
  • developed their skills in time management, critical analysis and communication to a level which will enable them to transfer such skills to their chosen areas of employment.
  • used analytical, communicative and critical skills in order to communicate ideas in a work placement context.  

Particular learning outcomes for students working in a museum or on an archaeological excavation include: 

  • The appreciation of practical and theoretical issues of rescue, preservation, research and presentation of material or visual objects
  • A clear understanding of, and the ability to evaluate critically, the range of activities as practiced by museum, gallery or preservation professionals in differing contexts  

A particular learning outcome for students working in a school or college include:  

  • The appreciation of issues relating to teaching their subject in a modern educational environment.

 

Sheffield Hallam

…explor[ation of] themes in Community History, including: the popularity and practice of community and local history; oral history, theory and practice; the problems associated with the use of memory as a historical source; ‘heritage’; local history and history in schools; the relationship between academic and community and other public histories; history and urban regeneration.

[To] put knowledge into practice.

Staffordshire

…to provide students with the opportunity of working within a range of history related placements…

Communicate effectively information and arguments in a variety of forms to specialist and non-specialist audiences, and deploy key techniques of historical research and analysis. (Communication)  

Communicate findings and conclusions in self-reflective and succinct written reports. (Reflection)  

Demonstrate qualities and transferable skills necessary for employment or further training, including the development of existing skills and the acquisition of new competencies that will require the exercise of personal responsibilities in a time managed environment. (Application)  

Deploy accurately established techniques of historical research and analysis; for example carry out research projects as part of a team or analysis of some primary source material both written and oral. (Enquiry)  

Knowledge and critical understanding of the work and challenges of the issues and experiences of issues experienced by archivists curators, teachers and professionals in related areas of work. (Knowledge and understanding)

UC Suffolk

  • To provide experience of a work placement in an area related to the student’s academic studies and interests
  • To apply appropriate subject knowledge and skills in the analysis of the work placement
  • To analyse and reflect upon the knowledge and skills utilised and/or further developed in the workplace
  • To further develop advanced communication and research skills in the context of work placement activity and self-directed project work
  • To promote advanced time-management skills in organising and successfully completing self-directed study and work experience activity
  • To help students draw up a clear and achievable personal career plan
  • To help students develop an awareness of the skills and qualities they possess as individuals and as history students and the ability to communicate this to future employers effectively, through written communication and in person
  • To develop students personal communication, presentational and interview skills

 

By the end of this module students should have:  

  • Practical experience in a properly constituted and relevant work placement
  • A clear and achievable personal career plan and an effective curriculum vitae and employment strategy
  • The ability to analyse and reflect upon the working environment and professional practice
  • An awareness of the skills and qualities they have as individuals and as graduates in history and the ability to communicate this knowledge to future employers
  • The ability to demonstrate research skills through the location, evaluation and deployment of secondary and primary source evidence
  • Demonstrate effective time-management skills in organising self-directed study and work experience activity over an extended period
  • The ability to demonstrate the advanced skills associated with the academic study of History including advanced research, analytical and bibliographic skills.
  • Developed their personal communication, presentational and interview skills

 

UCLAN

1) To provide students with the opportunity of gaining workplace experience directly related to a possible future career path.

 

2) To experience, and thereby learn about, working practices required to achieve a set goal, making best use of limited time and resources.

 

3) To observe the transferability of skills and knowledge already acquired.

 

4) To realise what other skills need to be developed to make a success of real employment in the future.

 

On successful completion of this module a student will be able to:  

1) Formulate a realistic and manageable plan of work through negotiation, for completion in a workplace. This will involve any ‘placement specific outcomes’ identified in the Learning Agreement (see later).  

2) Demonstrate a capacity to carry out specified tasks of a professional nature arising from the plan, within a workplace environment, to the satisfaction of the host institution  

3) Demonstrate the application of historical knowledge and skills to a task(s) or problems completed in a workplace context.  

4) Critically evaluate and reflect on their personal learning experience and skills development gained through the work placement and its applicability to future employment opportunities  

Westminster

Archives and repositories are central to the work of historians and this module aims to promote the student's use and understanding of London archives, through the development of knowledge and appreciation of the work which archives do. It aims to achieve this by providing the opportunity for practical work experience (internship) in an archive or historical repository in London. In addition, the module aims to equip the student with transferable skills of value in future work contexts. Finally, it offers the student the challenge of writing a detailed report on the work of the archive and the achievements of his or her internship.

 

By the end of the module, students are expected to be able to:  

  • show appreciation of the centrality of historical archives and repositories to the work of contemporary historians;
  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the history, current work and future plans of the archive or repository in which the internship took place, and of its value to the work of contemporary historians;

show evidence of the acquisition of transferable skills

 

Winchester

(a) To facilitate a particular form of student-centred learning in a workplace environment

(b) To provide a bridge between the academy and the workplace by demonstrating transferable skills

(c) To provide a work experience in which History-based skills can be applied and developed and new ones acquired.

(d) To provide a forum in the shape of a final summative discussion within which students can share and profit from each other’s workplace experience.  

By the conclusion of this module, a student will be expected to be able to :

(a) Assess critically the contribution they have made to the chosen workplace.

(b) Demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the employability and life skills developed during their placement.

Demonstrate a greater appreciation of skills transferable between the academy and the workplace.

Wolverhampton

This module aims to provide an opportunity for students to gain work experience in careers in which historical skills and knowledge are essential.

 

On the successful completion of the module you should be able to:  

  • Organise your placement and keep systematic records in a work situation;
  • Apply in a work situation subject specific and transferable skills acquired or developed through your degree studies in History;
  • Structure and present a reflective appraisal of their work experience.  

York St John

[Wpl is embedded in a contemporary British History module.]

 

The object [of the module] is to foster an appreciation of contemporary society and enable students to exploit its opportunities both within and beyond the world of work so that they are better prepared to take up their places within the community.

Upon successful completion of this module you will be able to:  

1. Critically appreciate the relationship of history to some of the major trends in contemporary society.  

2. Evaluate the organisational, professional and personal learning that has taken place during the experiential learning component. 

3. Apply subject expertise in a practical context related to the community and the world of work.

 

 Who finds placements?

Students and staff 9

(Greenwich, Hertfordshire, Petroc, Sheffield Hallam, Staffordshire, UCLAN, UC Peterborough, UC Suffolk, Winchester)

Students 6

(Huddersfield, Keele, Newman, Westminster, Wolverhampton, York St John)

 Staff 3

(Chichester, Manchester Met, Oxford Brookes)

Huddersfield and Newman are among the departments that have produced lea.flets to tell potential providers about the benefits of wpl to their organisations

 Length of placements

Comparing the length of placements has been difficult because some departments specify the length in the number of hours to be completed; others in the number of weeks.

Institutions who measure placements in weeks generally expect students to spend an 8-hour working day in placement. To allow institutions to benchmark their practice against the institutions that responded to our survey, we have converted all the placements to hours students are required to attend the placement.  

 

Hours

Mean

95

Median

102

Mode

108

Maximum

150

Minimum

30

  Although students usually work a day a week, many institutions vary the pattern to meet students’ needs.

 Types of placements

In addition to schools, museums and a range of heritage and archaeological sites, Hertfordshire and Sheffield Hallam are among those who use community groups Chichester, Huddersfield and Wolverhampton, for example, place students in the University itself. Huddersfield also place students commercial and other private sector organisations and is exploring how self-employment could be integrated in its placement scheme. Newman and Wolverhampton have used the archives of local newspapers. Broadcast media organisations might also provide suitable placements.

Newman is an example of an institution that uses overseas placements.

Preparation

Students

Workshops

Several institutions, including Huddersfield and the University of Central Lancashire, hold introductory workshops Universities of are held by. Huddersfield and University Campus Suffolk include CV writing as part of their preparatory activities; Roehampton incorporates exemplar letters of application in its Module Handbook.

Module Handbooks

Module Handbooks are the most pervasive form of preparation for and support of wpl. The decision of what to include in a Module Handbook may be governed by procedures outside a module leader’s control and, thus, all sorts of information may be provided for students in separate documentation that supplements the Module Handbook. The following table indicates the range of material contained in the Handbooks we have seen.

 

Topic

Core content

Examples of additional items

Module leader’s (contact) details

Y

 

Aims

Y

 

Learning outcomes

Y

 

Module content/weekly programme

Y

 

Learning/teaching strategy/methods

Y

 

Assessment methods and weightings

Y

 

Assessment/Performance criteria

Y

 

Learning Agreement /Contract

Y

 

WPL Bibliography

Y

 

Applying for/finding a placement

 

Roehampton, Huddersfield

Attendance at workplace requirements

 

Chichester, Hertfordshire

Breakdown of placement/managing placement relationships

 

UCLAN, Newman

Code of conduct/responsibilities, including dress code

 

Staffordshire

Disability & DDA

 

Newman

Description of placements/projects

 

Manchester Metropolitan Chichester

End of placement student self- assessment

 

Oxford Brookes

Guidelines on feedback

 

York St John

Health and safety guidance, including CRB arrangements

 

UCLAN, Winchester

Insurance arrangements

 

Roehampton, Oxford Brookes

Placement checklists (preparatory, induction, on placement, end of placement)

 

Newman, OBU

Placement tutor visit checklist

 

Newman

Provider report form on student (New, Staffs, West)

 

Staffordshire, Westminster

Schedule of key dates

 

UC Peterborough, Sheffield Hallam

Student feedback on previous year’s placements

 

Chichester

Style sheet

 

Manchester Metropolitan, UC Peterborough, York St John

Submission of assignments and extensions

 

Huddersfield, York St John

Travel expenses payments

 

 

Manchester Met, UCLAN

Tutor’s report on previous year’s placements

 

 

Chichester

What is reflection?

 

 

Newman, Petroc, Staffordshire


Key

Core content: information included in all or nearly all Handbooks

Additional items: information included in a subset of the Handbooks. These items are listed alphabetically.  

Providers

Visits

Some module leaders, including Chichester and Manchester Metropolitan, visit providers before the start of a placement. Several produce a Provider Handbook or send a copy of the Student Guide, for example Newman and Central Lancashire. Oxford Brookes incorporates its Provider Handbook into the Student Handbook.  

Chichester and UCLAN are examples of departments that write a follow up letter to providers who have agreed to take students.  

Provider Handbooks

The following alphabetical list of contents is drawn from the Universities of Central Lancashire, Chichester, Greenwich, Huddersfield, Oxford Brookes and Winchester, and Newman University College.  

Aims

Assessment methods

Breakdown of placement

Clarification of provider expectations

Code of conduct

Complaints against student

CRB check arrangements

Disability and DDA

Employer’s role in assessment

Equal opportunities

Health and safety (+checklist)

Insurance arrangements/declaration

Learning Agreement/Contract (+ agreement template)

Learning outcomes

Length of placement

On placement briefing activities

Payment policy

Placement activities

Placement induction checklist

Post-placement briefing

Pre-placement briefing

Pre-placement meeting topics

Provider feedback on student

Provider questionnaire

Roles and responsibilities of institution

Roles and responsibilities of provider

Skills developed by students

Students’ responsibilities

Supervision requirements

Travel expenses

Types of placement

Whistleblowing

WPL Bibliography

 

Student support

All departments provide email and telephone support throughout the placement.

 Examples of other types of support are:

Placement visits (Huddersfield, Keele, UC Peterborough)

Tutorials (Chichester, Greenwich, Sheffield Hallam)

VLE/Skype (Newman)  

Assessment methods

The following table describes the methods currently being used to assess the wpl modules.

 

Institution

Component 1

Component 2

Component 3

Notes

Chichester

Essay (3500): 100%

 

 

Formative:

Journal/log book; tutorial, including review of journal.

 

Provider submits interim and final reports - do not contribute to module grade.

Greenwich

Reflective log

30%

Provider’s formal report

10%

Project

60%

Project:

On an agreed topic demonstrating critical engagement with primary and secondary sources.

Hertfordshire

Log

Reflective essay (1500)

 

 

Huddersfield

Presentation

40%

Written reflective report (2000)

 

 

 

Formative:

Log

 

Provider feedback does not contribute to grade.

MMU

Essay (1500)

25%

Reflective portfolio (1500)

25%

Group project

50%

Essay: choice of 3 titles on relationship of History, Public History and Heritage.

 

Portfolio: includes log.

Newman

Reflective account (2000)

60%

Essay (1000)

40%

 

Essay: assess application of subject knowledge to workplace.

OBU

Reflective journal (3000)

80%

CV and covering letter 10%

4 reflective tutorials

10%

Formative:

Portfolio

UC Peterborough

Reflective log (1500)

50%

Reflective placement report (1500)

50%

 

75% attendance requirement

Petroc

Reflective journal

40%

Reflective presentation – 20 minutes + Q&A

60%

 

 

Roehampton

E-portfolio

20%

Essay (2000)

80%

 

 

 

Portfolio:

Pre-placement CV, 500 word description, reflective diary, post-placement CV, reference from provider.  

Essay:

Critical analysis on an academic debate related to placement.

Sheffield Hallam

Project (2500 if written)

50%

Portfolio

50%

 

Alternatives to written project include education packs, booklet.  

Portfolio:

15 minute presentation (20%),

1000 word peer review of another project (10%)

Weekly online diary or blog (20%)

Staffordshire

Provider report

20%

Self-reflective written report (2500)

80%

 

Provider report: template

UC Suffolk

Essay (2500)

45%

Reflective placement review (2500)

45%

CV & 20 minute Presentation

10%

Essay:

Choice of title on a Heritage-related question

UCLAN

Preliminary report (1000)

20%

Log

40%

Confidential reflective essay

40%

Preliminary report:

Survey task and set goals.  

Log:

Record of work + outputs.

Provider report – does not contribute to grade but could raise (but not lower) a borderline.

Westminster

Log

20%

Provider report

20%

Reflective report (3000)

60%

Provider report – template.

Winchester

Journal

50%

Reflective report (2000)

50%

 

 

Wolverhampton

i) Submission of documentation

ii) Log book including risk assessment form (1500)

40%

 

Reflective essay

(2000)

60%

 

Documentation:

submission compulsory to continue on module.

Provider’s report – does not formally contribute to grade but may be taken into account.

York St John

Take home exam (2000 words)

40%

Placement report (3000)

60%

 

Take home exam: based on content of the contemporary British history module in which the placement embedded. Preparation and writing should take up to one working day

Other methods that could be used to assess wpl.

Audio- and/or video-recording of workplace practices, with analytical commentary

Briefing papers

Contributions to group blogs, wikis, online forums, bulletin boards

Critical incident or other reflective practice exercises

Digital stories

Evaluative guide to work placement for the next year’s cohort

Funding bid or proposal

Objective Structured Practical Examinations (OSPEs) hyperlink to OSCPEs below

Orals and interviews

Patchwork text hyperlink to patchwork below

Poster sessions

Reports (written and in other formats)

 

OSPEs in their clinical form are extensively used in medical education to assess students’ skills, competency and knowledge.

 The University of Liverpool’s Clinical Resource Centre notes that

‘OSCEs consist of a series of stations around which candidates rotate. At each station the candidate must perform a predefined task within a set time limit’. 

http://www.liv.ac.uk/csrc/osces/index.htm, accessed 1 August 2010

(R C Arnold and A.D Walmsley (2008, 126) provided a fuller account of the process:

‘The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was developed by Harden and Gleeson in Dundee in 1975 as a reliable way of assessing clinical skills. It has since been used increasingly to evaluate student performance, mainly at undergraduate level, but increasingly in postgraduate medical assessment. It was developed as a means of assessing clinical competency based on objective testing through direct observation in a formal setting. Candidates are expected to perform several tasks related to different aspects of their area of study, in a given time, against criteria formulated to the skill or attitude being tested. These can include the ability to interpret data, solve problems, obtain information from a patient, establish rapport or communicate. ‘Standardised patients’, usually actors, can be used to provide simulated clinical encounters.’

Arnold, R. C. and Walmsley, A. D. (2008) ‘The use of the OSCE in postgraduate education’, European Journal of Dental Education, 12, 126–130.

 Although the patchwork text had its origins in professional development programmes in the 1990s, the technique has been used more widely in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Peter Ovens (2003, 546) described the approach as:

‘…students writ[ing] several short pieces, the ‘patches’, at intervals throughout the module and then at the end, the patches are ‘stitched together’ to make a Patchwork Text.’

Lydia Arnold et al (2009, 151,152) explained that the Patchwork Text is:

‘made up of a gradually assembled set of writing tasks (patches) that are further engaged with, through a reflective commentary known as stitching.

‘Students have to complete intermediate tasks and are expected to share these drafts with groups of peers. Peers reciprocally undertake reviews and give formative feedback about each other’s work.

‘The final task of a Patchwork text seeks to unify the ‘fragments’ of the learning, (the patches) through a critical and personal reflection on the learning process of the module as whole….’

Assessors

Providers contribute to students’ overall module grade at Greenwich, Manchester Met, Staffordshire and Westminster. The proportion of the provider’s contribution ranges from 10 to 20 to 25%.  

Feedback

In addition to the written commentaries on assignments and/or on a standard feedback sheet and face-to-face tutorials adopted by all the institutions, Huddersfield and Westminster are among those who return their feedback by email, and Newman uses podcasts.  

Ideas for further consideration

This section is based on some of the themes that have emerged from our research.  

Addressing whistleblowing

Many departments include guidance to students on professional codes of ethics and codes of practice. However, not all include references to whistleblowing. Though unlikely to be needed, it would be useful to consider how students, tutors and providers might deal with whistleblowing during a placement.  

Developing student reflection

Leijen et al offer the following approach to helping students to understand reflective thinking in terms of Levels of reflection  

‘Four levels of reflection were distinguished ...

First, mere descriptions of actions and thoughts were assigned to be on the level of description.  

Second, if students provided a rationale or logic for an action or viewpoint, the fragments were assigned to be on the level of justification.

Third, if students provided an evaluation for an aspect and explained why this explanation was given, then the fragment was interpreted as being on the level of critique.  

Finally, if students moved beyond the evaluation and explanation of what is, and why they think that is, and pointed out what could be done to initiate changes, and why changes are needed in the first place, then the fragments were interpreted as being on the level of discussion.’ 

 

Level

Characteristics

Description

‘Mere descriptions of actions and thoughts’

Justification

‘A rationale or logic for an action or viewpoint provided’

Critique

‘An evaluation [of an action or thought] … and [an explanation for the evaluation] … given’

Discussion

‘Mov[ing] beyond the evaluation and explanation of what is, and why they…that is, and [to] point out what could be done to initiate changes, and why changes are needed in the first place

Leijen, Ali, et al. (2011), 'How to determine the quality of students' reflections?', Studies in Higher Education, 7.  

SCAMPER (http://litemind.com/scamper/) offers a model for ‘creative problem solving’  

Resources on reflective learning can be found, for example, on the University of Exeter’s Academic services webpages, http://tinyurl.com/3dv2ufr, on the University of Manchester’s Faculty of Humanities Study Skills website at http://tinyurl.com/4xznevv and the University of Portsmouth’s Academic services Unit at http://tinyurl.com/432bbrv 

For ways of linking reflective learning to Personal Development Planning (PDP), see the Higher Education Academy’s PDP webpages at http://tinyurl.com/3hc7qwo  

Establishing WPL co-operatives

Dr Pauline Elkes (Staffordshire) has proposed the establishment of West Midlands wpl network. In a separate initiative Drs Steve Caunce (UCLAN), Craig Horner and Faye Simpson (Manchester Met), and Robert Poole (Cumbria) have established the North West student placement network. Steve Caunce believes that significant economies of scale could be achieved in wpl if institutions pool their expertise and resources while also enhancing the choice and delivery of placements for students. He argues cooperation is an alternative to the competitive market model underpinning current higher education policy.  

Exploring internships

Despite Ross Perlin’s strictures about internships, it would be worthwhile exploring how these differ from the work placements and whether these types of internships could more widely adopted across the sector.

 Researching Wpl and graduate employment

Some module leaders have conducted informal studies of the use to which students have put their wpl experience. Though difficult, it would be valuable for more systematic research to be undertaken on the value of wpl. Wilton and Moores and Reddy have investigated Business and Psychology placements respectively. Little and Harvey have examined the perceptions of students from various disciplines.

 

 Appendix

We thought it would be helpful to bring the QAA’s History Subject Benchmark Statement together with the Tuning History Subject Specific Competencies, the Australian Learning and Teaching Council’s Draft History Standards, the History, and Doreen Rorrison’s suggestions for guiding principles for teacher education adapted to wpl more generally as a framework for further thinking about the role of wpl in History programmes.

QAA History Subject Benchmark Statement

Summary of learning outcomes  

  1. Command of a substantial body of historical knowledge  
  2. The ability to develop and sustain historical arguments in a variety of literary forms, formulating appropriate questions and utilising evidence  
  3. An ability to read, analyse and reflect critically and contextually upon contemporary texts and other primary sources, including visual and material sources like paintings, coins, medals, cartoons, photographs and films  
  4. An ability to read, analyse and reflect critically and contextually upon secondary evidence, including historical writings and the interpretations of historians  
  5. An appreciation of the complexity of reconstructing the past, the problematic and varied nature of historical evidence  
  6. An understanding of the varieties of approaches to understanding, constructing, and interpreting the past; and, where relevant, a knowledge of concepts and theories derived from the humanities and social sciences  
  7. The ability to gather and deploy evidence and data to find, retrieve, sort and exchange new information  
  8. A command of comparative perspectives, which may include the ability to compare the histories of different countries, societies, or cultures  
  9. Awareness of continuity and change over extended time spans  
  10. An understanding of the development of history as a discipline and the awareness of different historical methodologies  
  11. An ability to design, research, and present a sustained and independently-conceived piece of historical writing  
  12. The ability to address historical problems in depth, involving the use of contemporary sources and advanced secondary literature  
  13. Clarity, fluency, and coherence in written expression  
  14. Clarity, fluency, and coherence in oral expression  
  15. The ability to work collaboratively and to participate in group discussion  
  16. Competence in specialist skills which are necessary for some areas of historical analysis and understanding, as appropriate

QAA (2007) History Benchmark Statement, paragraph 7.5

Tuning History Specific Competences

(Available at http://tinyurl.com/6454rv5)  

1. A critical awareness of the relationship between current events and processes and the past.

2. Ability to comment, annotate or edit texts and documents correctly according to the critical canons of the discipline

3. Ability to communicate orally in foreign languages using the terminology and techniques accepted in the historiographical profession.

4. Ability to communicate orally in one's own language using the terminology and techniques accepted in the historiographical profession.

5. Ability to define research topics suitable to contribute to historiographical knowledge and debate

6. Ability to give narrative form to research results according to the canons of the discipline

7. Ability to identify and utilise appropriately sources of information (bibliography, documents, oral testimony etc.) for research project

8. Ability to organise complex historical information in coherent form

9. Ability to read historiographical texts or original documents in one's own language; to summarise or transcribe and catalogue information as appropriate.

10. Ability to read historiographical texts or original documents in other languages; to summarise or transcribe and catalogue information as appropriate

11. Ability to use computer and internet resources and techniques elaborating historical or related data (using statistical, cartographic methods, or creating databases, etc.)

12. Ability to write in one's own language using correctly the various types of historiographical writing

13. Ability to write in other languages using correctly the various types of historiographical writing

14. Awareness of and ability to use tools of other human sciences (e.g., literary criticism, and history of language, art history, archaeology, anthropology, law, sociology, philosophy etc.)

15. Awareness of and respect for points of view deriving from other national or cultural backgrounds.

16. Awareness of methods and issues of different branches of historical research (economic, social, political, gender related, etc.)

17. Awareness of the differences in historiographical outlooks in various periods and contexts.

18. Awareness of the issues and themes of present day historiographical debate.

19. A wareness of the on-going nature of historical research and debate.

20. Detailed knowledge of one or more specific periods of the human past.

21. Knowledge of ancient languages

22. Knowledge of and ability to use information retrieval tools, such as bibliographical repertoires, archival inventories, e- references

23. Knowledge of and ability to use the specific tools necessary to study documents of particular periods (e.g. palaeography, epigraphy).

24. Knowledge of didactics of history

25. Knowledge of European history in a comparative perspective

26. Knowledge of local history

27. Knowledge of one's own national history

28. Knowledge of the general diachronic framework of the past.

29. Knowledge of the history of European integration

30. Knowledge of world history

Australian Learning and Teaching Council

Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities

Draft History Standards Statement Consultation Paper July 2010

Available at http://www.afterstandards.org/

Threshold Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of a Bachelor degree with a major in History, graduates will be able to:

1. Demonstrate knowledge of one or more periods of the past.  

2. Identify, analyse, contextualise, and synthesise a wide variety of primary and secondary materials.  

3. Identify, analyse, contextualise, synthesise and reflect critically upon historical scholarship.  

4. Formulate historical problems and propose and review means for their resolution in a timely fashion.

5. Construct and support an argument in oral and written form, according to the methodological and ethical conventions of the discipline.  

6. Demonstrate knowledge of the varieties of approaches to understanding, constructing and interpreting the past.  

7. Demonstrate understanding of how historical phenomena – and historians – inform the present.  

8. Identify, and reflect critically upon, capabilities developed in the study of history. 

 

Student Employability Profile for History (developed by the HEA and History Subject Centre)  

STUDENT EMPLOYABILITY PROFILE TEMPLATE – HISTORY

GENERIC EMPLOYABILITY COMPETENCIES  

 

Subject Benchmark Indicators

 

© The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education

 

Cognitive Skills The ability to identify, and solve problems, work with information and handle a mass of diverse data, assess risk and draw conclusions.

 

Generic Competencies High level and transferable key skills such as the ability to work with others in a team, communicate, persuade and have interpersonal sensitivity.

 

Personal Capabilities The ability and desire to learn for oneself and improve ones self-awareness, emotional intelligence and performance. To be a self-starter (creativity, decisiveness, initiative) and to finish the job (flexibility, adaptability, tolerance to stress).

 

Technical Ability For example, having the knowledge and experience of working with relevant modern technology.

 

Business and / or Organisation Awareness An appreciation of how businesses operate through having had (preferably relevant) work experience. Appreciation of organisational culture, policies and processes

 

Practical and Professional Elements Critical evaluation of the outcomes of professional practice, reflect and review own practice participate in and review quality control processes and risk management

Develop the ability to understand how people have existed, acted and thought in the always different context of the past. History involves the cultural shock of encountering and sensing the past's otherness and of learning to understand unfamiliar structures, cultures and belief systems. These forms of understanding also shed important light on the influence which the past has on the present

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Initiative

Achievement orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop the ability to read and use texts and other source materials, both critically and empathetically, while addressing questions of genre, content, perspective and purpose

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Display an appreciation of the complexity and diversity of situations, events and past mentalities. This emphasis is central to History's character as an anti-reductionist discipline fostering intellectual maturity

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Interpersonal Sensitivity

 

 

Organisation Understanding

Professional Expertise

Understand the problems inherent in the historical record itself and develop an awareness of a range of viewpoints and the way to cope with this

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Interpersonal Sensitivity

 

 

Organisation Understanding

Professional Expertise

Display appreciation of the range of problems involved in the interpretation of complex, ambiguous, conflicting and often incomplete material

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Adaptability/Flexibility

 

 

Professional Expertise

Exhibit a feeling for the limitations of knowledge and the dangers of simplistic explanations

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

 

Develop basic critical skills and a recognition that statements are not all of equal validity, that there are ways of testing them, and that historians operate by rules of evidence which, though themselves subject to critical evaluation, are also a component of intellectual integrity and maturity

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Adaptability/Flexibility

Listening

Questioning

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop the ability to set tasks and solve problems

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Gather, sift, select, organise and synthesise large quantities of evidence

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Planning and Organising

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Formulate appropriate questions and provide answers to them using valid and relevant evidence and argument

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Listening

Questioning

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of the discipline including what questions are asked by historians, and why

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Listening

Questioning

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop reflexivity, i.e. the marshalling of argument - in written and oral form drawing on and presenting all the above skills

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Written Communication

Listening

Questioning

Creativity

 

 

Professional Expertise

Write in clear, lucid and coherent prose that has structure and is relevant and concise

 

Planning and Organising

Written Communication

 

 

 

 

Develop the capacity to sustain a reasoned line of argument in the face of others, to listen, to engage in sustained debate, and amend views as necessary in the light of evidence and argument.

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Written Communication

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Listening

Questioning

Adaptability/Flexibility

Initiative

Influencing

Creativity

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate self-discipline

 

 

Tolerance for Stress

 

 

 

Demonstrate self-direction

 

 

Achievement Orientation

 

 

 

Demonstrate independence of mind, and initiative

 

 

Initiative

Decisiveness

 

 

 

Display the ability to work with others, and have respect for others' reasoned views

 

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Working with Others

Teamwork

Listening

Questioning

 

 

 

Gather, organise and deploy evidence, data and information and be familiar with appropriate means of identifying, finding, retrieving, sorting and exchanging information

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Planning and Organising

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate analytical ability, and the capacity to consider and solve problems, including complex problems

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Achievement Orientation

Initiative

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate team working and collaborative activity such as group projects, fact-finding, evidence- processing work, etc

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Planning and Organising

Working with Others

Teamwork

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Exhibit competence in shorter written tasks, including historical literature reviews and reports

 

Written Communication

 

 

 

 

Able to use information technology to answer questions about historical data, including statistical and/or graphical analysis of historical data sets and to present findings in a variety of appropriate forms (bar graphs, pie charts, etc

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Planning and Organising

 

Technical Application

 

Professional Expertise

Ability to use information technology for bibliographic and archive searches

 

 

 

Technical Application

 

 

Exhibit practical experience in the use of archival material

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Planning and Organising

 

Technical Application

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate command of a substantial body of historical knowledge

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop and sustain historical arguments in a variety of literary forms, formulating appropriate questions and utilising evidence

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Questioning

Listening

Initiative

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Display an ability to read, analyse, and reflect critically and contextually upon historical texts

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Questioning

Listening

Initiative

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop an appreciation of the complexity of reconstructing the past, the problematic and varied nature of historical evidence

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Understand approaches to constructing, and interpreting the past and display a knowledge of concepts and theories derived from the humanities and social sciences

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Questioning

Listening

Initiative

Achievement Orientation

 

Organisation Understanding

Professional Expertise

Read, analyse, and reflect critically and contextually upon historical texts and other source materials

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Questioning

Listening

Initiative

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Gather and deploy evidence and data to find, retrieve, sort and exchange new information

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Questioning

Listening

Initiative

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Develop a command of comparative perspectives, including the ability to compare the histories of different countries, societies, or cultures

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate awareness of continuity and change over extended time spans

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate an understanding of the development of history as a discipline and the awareness of different historical methodologies

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Design, research, and present a sustained and independently-conceived piece of historical writing

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Written Communication

Planning and Organising

Listening

Questioning

Achievement Orientation

 

 

Professional Expertise

Address historical problems in depth, involving the use of contemporary sources and advanced secondary literature

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate clarity, fluency, and coherence in written expression

 

Written Communication

 

 

 

 

Demonstrate clarity, fluency, and coherence in oral expression

 

 

Listening

Questioning

 

 

 

Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively and to participate in group discussion

 

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Working with others

Teamwork

Listening

Questioning

 

 

 

Develop competence in specialist skills which are necessary for some areas of historical analysis and understanding, as appropriate

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Display an appreciation of the complexity and diversity of situations, events and mentalities in the past and of the surviving evidence about them

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Read, analyse, and reflect critically and contextually upon, a wide range of source materials

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate awareness of the varieties of approaches to understanding, constructing and interpreting the past

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate an understanding of history as a discipline and of different historical methodologies

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate an awareness of continuity and change over time

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

Adaptability/Flexibility

 

 

Professional Expertise

Demonstrate an ability to gather evidence to develop and sustain historical arguments

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

Professional Expertise

Employ cognate skills such as languages, computing and quantitative methods

and seek to develop the generic or transferable skills of self-discipline, self direction and, independence of mind, empathy and imaginative insight

Analysis

Judgement

Attention to Detail

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Planning and Organising

Creativity

Initiative

Tolerance for Stress

Personal Development

Achievement Orientation

Adaptability/Flexibility

 

Technical Application

Technical Knowledge

 

 

Develop ability to work with others and to have respect for the reasoned view of others

 

Working with Others

Teamwork

Interpersonal Sensitivity

Listening

Questioning

 

 

 

  

Workplace learning

 Some guiding principles

 

Rorrison’s principles WPL modules
Practicum Learning Principle 1 Productive and transformative pedagogies linked to transparent and robust theories of learning should be clearly constructed, and the related teaching experiences carefully scaffolded, for preservice teacher learning during the practicum.   Principle 1 a) There should be a clear, educational, academic and pedagogic rationale for the workplace learning, including ‘preparing students for a future of change, challenge and lifelong learning’.   b) The placement should be organized in ways that allow students to meet all the placement module outcomes.  
Practicum Learning Principle 2 Collaborative relationships between schools and university schools of education should be underpinned by a shared understanding of how theory and practice intersect to inform preservice teachers about engaging students in quality learning that will prepare them for a future of change, challenge and lifelong learning.   Principle 2 Placement employers/mentors should have a common understanding of the purposes (rationale) of the placement.
Practicum Learning Principle 3 The different learning needs of preservice teachers must be recognised and they should be given the space at university and in the schools to learn about teachers’ work in ways that are empowering and transformative for their practice.   Principle 3 The variety of students’ learning needs should be recognized and allowed for in the placement.  
Practicum Learning Principle 4 Worthwhile outcomes must be established and clearly articulated for any observation and teaching experience during the practicum. The diverse cultural, socio-political and learning contexts of practicum settings should be transparent, valued and shared in collegiate ways as part of learning about teaching.   Principle 4 a) The diversity of placement settings should be recognized when designing the placement assessment.   b) Mechanisms should be developed to encourage students to share their placement experiences and to reflect on their shared experiences.  
Practicum Learning Principle 5 It is the responsibility of teacher educators, as committed and informed teachers, to support classroom teachers to mentor the preservice teacher learning while maintaining a receptive and involved interest. Timely guidance and support will foster successful learning relationships while conversations with peers will aid reflection and transformation of the sense of “self” as a teacher within a learning community.   Principle 5 University tutors should make explicit the ways in which they will support employers/mentors and the expectations tutors have of employers/mentors in students’ learning.
Practicum Learning Principle 6 Conversations about the practicum learning experience can prepare preservice teachers to look with a fresh lens on contentious and previously silenced issues. Narrative grounded in “truly conceivable experience” can provide examples of quality mentoring and pedagogy as a valuable teacher education resource.   Principle 6 Students should be fully prepared to undertake their placement, in particular tutors should clarify what they understand by critical and reflective thinking.
Practicum Learning Principle 7 Increased collaboration between universities at a national and international level is necessary if we are to develop a conceptual framework to articulate the important understandings of practicum learning.   Principle 7 N/A

 

Rorrison, Doreen (2010) 'Assessment of the practicum in teacher education: advocating for the student teacher and questioning the gatekeepers', Educational Studies, 36: 5, 519.

Respondents to the online survey 

Dr Ian Atherton Keele i.j.atherton@his.keele.ac.uk
Dr June Balshaw Greenwich bj61@gre.ac.uk
Dr Helen Boak Hertfordshire h.boak@herts.ac.uk
Dr Louise Carter University Campus Suffolk louise.carter@ucs.ac.uk
Dr Stephen Caunce Central Lancashire sacaunce@uclan.ac.uk
Dr Ian Cawood Newman University College i.cawood@newman.ac.uk
Dr Tony Craig Staffordshire t.craig@staffs.ac.uk
Dr Patricia Cullum Huddersfield p.c.cullum@hud.ac.uk
Dr Neil Curtin Winchester Neil.Curtin@winchester.ac.uk
Dr Martin Doherty Westminster M.A.Doherty@westminster.ac.uk
Dr Pauline Elkes Staffordshire p.elkes@staffs.ac.uk
Dr Rebecca Gill Huddersfield r.gill@hud.ac.uk
Dr Ian Horwood York St. John University I.HORWOOD@yorksj.ac.uk
Abigail Hunt University Centre Peterborough abigail.hunt@peterborough.ac.uk
Dr Wayne Johnson York St. John University w.johnson@yorksj.ac.uk
Dr Sarah Lloyd Hertfordshire s.v.lloyd@herts.ac.uk
Dr Tim McHugh Oxford Brookes tmchugh@brookes.ac.uk
Dr Margaret Ponsonby Wolverhampton M.Ponsonby@wlv.ac.uk
Dr Amanda Richardson Chichester a.richardson@chi.ac.uk
Harriet Richmond Newman University College H.Richmond@newman.ac.uk
Dr Faye Simpson Manchester Metropolitan F.Simpson@mmu.ac.uk
Catherine Slaughter Petroc/Plymouth cslaughter@petroc.ac.uk
Dr Alison Twells Sheffield Hallam A.Twells@shu.ac.uk
Dr Ted Vallance Roehampton Edward.Vallance@roehampton.ac.uk

 Further Reading

Arnold, Lydia, Williams, Tim & Thompson, Kevin, 'Advancing the Patchwork Text: The Development of Patchwork Media Approaches', International Journal of Learning, 16, no. 5 (2009), pp.151-66. 

Australian Learning and Teaching Council, http://www.altc.edu.au/. 

Bailey, Richard and Garner, Mark, 'Is the Feedback in Higher Education Assessment Worth the Paper It Is Written On? Teachers' Reflections on Their Practices', Teaching in Higher Education, 15, no. 2 (2010), pp.187-98. 

Blackwell, Alison et al, 'Transforming Work Experience in Higher Education', British Educational Research Journal, 27, no. 3 (2001), pp.269-85. 

Boud, David, ‘Assessment and learning – unlearning bad habits of assessment’, Effective Assessment at University, Conference held at the University of Queensland, 4-5 November 1998 available at http://tinyurl.com/6zm8ztp. 

Brennan, L., Investigating work-based learning in higher education: A guide to good practice: Report for UVAC/LCCI Commercial Education Trust (Bolton: UVAC, 2005).

Brett, Paul, 'Students' Experiences and Engagement with Sms for Learning in Higher Education', Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 48, no. 2 (2011), pp.137-47. 

Brodie, Pandy and Irving, Kate 'Assessment in Work-Based Learning: Investigating a Pedagogical Approach to Enhance Student Learning', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32, no. 1 (2007), pp.11-19. 

Boud, David and Solomon, Nicky, Work-based learning: a new higher education (Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, 2001). 

Brown, George, Assessment: A Guide for Lecturers (York: LTSN, 2001) available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk. 

Burke, Deirdre and Pietrick, Jackie, Giving Students effective Written Feedback (Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2010).

Crisp, Beth R, 'Is It Worth the Effort? How Feedback Influences Students' Subsequent Submission of Assessable Work', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32, no. 5 (2007), pp.571-81. 

Curtis, Steven et al, 'Placement Blogging: The Benefits and Limitations of Online Journaling', Enhancing Learning and Teaching in the Social Sciences (ELiSS), 1, no. 3,1-17 (2009) available at http://tinyurl.com/6yvhg28. 

Dalrymple, Roger and Smith, Patrick, 'The Patchwork Text: Enabling Discursive Writing and Reflective Practice on a Foundation Module in Work-Based Learning', Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45, no. 1 (2008), pp.47-54. 

Equality Challenge Unit, Work placements in the creative industries: good placements for all students (ECU, nd) available at http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/diversity-equality-and-access-toolkits. 

Eraut, Michael, ‘Improving the Quality of Work Placements’ in Learning to be Professional through a Higher Education e-book, edited by Norman Jackson (Guildford: University of Surrey (SCEPTrE), 2011) available at http://tinyurl.com/6fx8njl. 

Fantholme, Christine, Work Placements – A Survival Guide for Students (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004). 

Franklin, Penny, ’OSCEs as a means of assessment for the practice of nurse prescribing’, Nurse Prescribing, 3:1 (2005), pp.14-23. 

Frost, Jennifer, de Pont, Genevieve, and Brailsford, Ian, 'Expanding Assessment Methods and Moments in History', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, (iFirst, 2011), pp.1-12. 

Hejmadi, Momna V, Bullock, Kate , Gould, Virginia and Lock, Gary D., 'Is Choosing to Go on Placement a Gamble? Perspectives from Bioscience Undergraduates', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (IFirst 2011), pp.1-14. 

Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40 no. 2 (2003) devoted the whole of issue 2 of volume 40 of the journal to the Patchwork Text.  

Jackson, N (ed.), Learning to be Professional through a Higher Education e-book (Guildford: University of Surrey, 2009-) available at http://tinyurl.com/6fx8njl. 

Joughin, Gordon (ed.), Assessment, Learning and Judgement in Higher Education (Berlin: Springer, 2009). 

Lester, Stan and Costley, Carol, 'Work-Based Learning at Higher Education Level: Value, Practice and Critique', Studies in Higher Education, 35, no. 5 (2010), pp.561-75. 

Litchfield, Andrew et al, 'Contextualising and Integrating into the Curriculum the Learning and Teaching of Work-Ready Professional Graduate Attributes', Higher Education Research & Development, 29, no. 5 (2010), pp.519-34. 

Little, Brenda and Harvey, Lee, Learning through work placements and beyond (York: HEA, 2006) available at http://tinyurl.com/6gppazd.

Lucas, Ursula, and Tan, Phaik Leng, Developing a Reflective Capacity within Undergraduate Education: The Role of Work-Based Placement Learning (York: HEA, 2007).

 

Lunt, Tom and Curran, John, '''Are You Listening Please?" The Advantages of Electronic Audio Feedback Compared to Written Feedback', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35, no. 7 (2010), pp.759-69.

 

Martin, Ian, 'Academic Freedom and Grading: The Role of Placement Providers', Quality in Higher Education, 17, no. 1 (2011), pp.131-34.

 

Moores, Elisabeth, and Peter Reddy, 'No Regrets? Measuring the Career Benefits of a Psychology Placement Year', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (IFirst 2011), pp.1-20.

 

Nicholls David, ‘Making history students enterprising: Independent study at Manchester Polytechnic’, Studies in Higher Education 17, no.1 (1992), pp. 67–80.

 

Ovens, Peter, 'A Patchwork Text Approach to Assessment in Teacher Education', Teaching in Higher Education, 8, no. 4 (2003), pp.545-62.

 

Perlin, Ross, Intern Nation (London: Verso, 2011).

 

Price, Margaret et al, ‘If I was going there I wouldn’t start from here: a critical commentary on current assessment practice’, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 36, no 4 (2011), pp.479-492.

Pusateri, Thomas et al, The Assessment CyberGuide for Learning Goals and Outcomes, 2nd ed (Washington, DC: APA, 2009).

 

QAA, Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education. Section 9: Work-based and placement learning (Gloucester: QAA, 2007). 

QAA Code of practice: Section 9: Work-based and placement learning (Gloucester: QAA, 2007) available at http://www.qaa.ac.uk/. 

QAA, History Subject benchmark Statement (Gloucester: QAA, 2007) available at http://www.qaa.ac.uk/. 

QAA, Outcomes from institutional audit: Assessment of students, Second series (QAA: Gloucester, 2008). 

QAA, Outcomes from institutional audit: Work-based and placement learning, and employability, Second series (QAA: Gloucester, 2008). 

QAA, Employer-responsive provision survey: A reflective report (Gloucester: QAA, 2010). 

Rorrison, Doreen 'Assessment of the practicum in teacher education: advocating for the student teacher and questioning the gatekeepers', Educational Studies, 36: 5 (2010), pp.505-519.

Smith, Erica, ' Learning to Work: Students' Experiences During Work Placements', Studies in Continuing Education, 31, no. 3 (2009), pp.320-22.

 

Smith, Karen, Sue Clegg, Elizabeth Lawrence, and Malcolm Todd, 'The Challenges of Reflection: Students Learning from Work Placements', Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44, no. 2 (2007), pp.131-41.

 

Trevelyan, Rose, and Ann Wilson, 'Using Patchwork Texts in Assessment: Clarifying and Categorising Choices in Their Use', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (IFrist 2011), pp.1-12.

 

Tuning, History Specific Competences

available at http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/competences/specific/history.html.

 

Walsh, Anita, ‘An Exploration of Biggs' Constructive Alignment in the Context of Work-Based Learning', Assessment & Evaluation in Higher, 32, no. 1 (2007), pp.79–87. 

Wells, Paul, The assessment of work-based learning in foundation degrees: a literature search, (Lichflied: fdf, 2010) available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/fdf. 

Willis, Jenny, Sahama, Tony & Hargreaves, Megan. ‘Assessing Performance and Capability in Work Placements: A Collaborative Study Involving Queensland University of Technology Australia and the University of Surrey England’ in Learning to be Professional through a Higher Education e-book, edited by Norman Jackson (Guildford: University of Surrey (SCEPTrE), 2010) available at http://tinyurl.com/6fx8njl.

 

Wilton, Nick. 'The Impact of Work Placements on Skills Development and Career Outcomes for Business and Management Graduates', Studies in Higher Education (iFirst, 2011), pp.1-18.

 

Winter, Richard, 'Contextualizing the Patchwork Text: Addressing Problems of Coursework Assessment in Higher Education', Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40, no. 2 (2003), pp.112-22.

 

Wolf, Katharina, 'Bridging the Distance: The Use of Blogs as Reflective Learning Tools for Placement Students', Higher Education Research & Development, 29, no. 5 (2010), pp.589-602.

 

Woolf, Harvey, Developing work-based access to Higher Education courses, (Lichfield: fdf, 2008) available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/fdf.

 

Woolf, Harvey and Yorke, Mantz, Guidance for the assessment of work-based learning in Foundation degrees, (Lichfiled: fdf 2010) available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/fdf.

 

Yorke, Mantz (ed.), Learning and Employability Series 1and 2 (York: HEA, 2005 & 2006) available at http://tinyurl.com/6a8obel and htttp://tinyurl.com/699r6gl.

 

Yorke, Mantz, Grading Student Achievement (London: Routledge, 2008).

 

Yorke, Mantz, 'Work-Engaged Learning: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Assessment', Quality in Higher Education, 17, no. 1 (2011), pp.117-30

 

Zaidi, Fawzia, ‘Developing and running an OSCE: a personal reflection’, British Journal of Midwifery, 14, no. 12 (2006), pp.725-9.

 

You Tube, OSCEs in practice available at http://tinyurl.com/3sr3ohj.