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Referencing Guidelines

When using sources in writing, the basic principles are:

  • any idea used in an essay which came from another source should be acknowledged
  • the reader should be given enough information to locate the exact text used/referred to if desired.

The guidelines on the pages listed below are based on the Harvard or Author / Date referencing system which is the system generally used in academic writing in the Arts and Social Sciences in Britain. There are also websites available which can help you to format a source in Harvard style (e.g.;

For information on other referencing guidelines, such as APA, you may like to do an online search to try to find useful websites online which provide guidance (e.g. the APA wesbite:

For help with the various referencing styles, you might also like to check out the following easy to use app developed by the Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick: MasterCite

mastercite 3

Using Harvard style referencing

Click on the links to learn different kinds of referencing using Harvard style:

Different kinds of referencing