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Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is an X-ray technique which allows the non-destructive investigation of nanoscale particle size, distribution and morphology. At Warwick we have a Xenocs Xeuss 2.0 SAXS with a wide range of sample stages.

cogsHow does it work?

In SAXS experiments the transmitted x-ray intensity is measured which includes scattering from particles within the sample. If the electron density of these particles is sufficiently different to that of their surroundings (air for powders or the buffer for particles in solution) their scattering profile can be isolated. This profile is solely dependent on the size, shape and distribution of the particles within the sample, allowing this information to be determined by fitting models to it.


Typical measurements include particle size, distribution and morphology determination, tensile strain and temperature variation measurements.

Typical applications include polymers, nanocomposites and magnetic nanoparticles, powders, fibres, pastes, liquid dispersed particles and thin-films (Grazing-Incidence SAXS). Other stages will enable non-ambient experiments such as heating and cooling, as well as tensile strain measurements.

Warwick Capability

The Xeuss 2.0 SAXS system is equipped with two microfocus sources; Cu for standard measurements and Mo for more absorbing samples. It has a q range of 0.025 to 30 nm-1, giving a maximum measurable particle diameter up to roughly 250 nm. For particles in solution a minimum concentration of 1 mg/ml is required. We have a Linkam HFSX350, TS700 and TST250V stages for measurements as a function of temperature and/or strain. This gives us a temperature range of -196 to 700°C and -196 to 250°C with the strain stage.

Complementary Techniques







Enquire here


Claire Gerard: c dot gerard at warwick dot ac dot uk / 07385 145064

Enquire here



Dr Ian Hancox, 024 76 150 380

email i dot hancox at warwick dot ac dot uk.

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