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135. S. Zhou, H. Bhukya, N. Malet, P. Harrison, D. Rea, M.J. Belousoff, H. Venugopal, P.K. Sydor, K.M. Styles, L. Song, M.J. Cryle, L.M. Alkhalaf, V. Fülöp, G.L. Challis and C. Corre. Molecular basis for control of antibiotic production by a bacterial hormone. Nature, 2021, 590, 463-467.

Recommended by Faculty Opinions (17 February 2021).

134. H.G. Smith, M.J. Beech, J.R. Lewandowski, G.L. Challis and M. Jenner. Docking Domain-Mediated Subunit Interactions in Natural Product Megasynth(et)ases. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021, accepted for publication.

133. C. Jones, G. Webster, A.J. Mullins, M. Jenner, M.J. Bull, Y. Dashti, T. Spilker, J. Parkhill, T.R. Connor, J.J. LiPuma, G.L. Challis and E. Mahenthiralingam. Kill and cure: genomic phylogeny and bioactivity of a diverse collection of Burkholderia gladioli bacteria capable of pathogenic and beneficial lifestyles. Microb. Genom. 2021, 7, 000515.



132. S. Zhou, N.R. Malet, L. Song, C. Corre and G.L. Challis. MmfL catalyses formation of a phosphorylated butenolide intermediate in methylenomycin furan biosynthesis. Chem. Commun. 2020, 56, 14443-14446.

131. A. J. Mullins, C. Jones, M.J. Bull, G. Webster, J. Parkhill, T.R. Connor, J.A.H. Murray, G.L. Challis and E. Mahenthiralingam. Genomic assemblies of members of Burkholderia and related genera as a resource for natural product discovery. Microbiol. Resour. Announc. 2020, 9, e00485-20.

130. I.T. Nakou, M. Jenner, Y. Dashti, I. Romero-Canelón, J. Masschelein, E. Mahenthiralingam and G.L. Challis. Genomics-driven discovery of a novel glutarimide antibiotic from Burkholderia gladioli reveals an unusual polyketide synthase chain release mechanism. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 23145-23153.

129. S. Louka, S.M. Barry, D.J. Heyes, M.Q.E. Mubarak, H.S. Ali, L.M. Alkhalaf, A.W. Munro, N.S. Scrutton, G.L. Challis and S.P. de Visser. The catalytic mechanism of aromatic nitration by cytochrome P450 TxtE: Involvement of a ferric-peroxynitrite intermediate J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 15764-15779.

128. Y. Dashti, I.T. Nakou, A.J. Mullins, G. Webster, X. Jian, E. Mahenthiralingam and G.L. Challis. Discovery and biosynthesis of bolagladins: unusual lipodepsipeptides from Burkholderia gladioli clinical isolates. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 21553-21561.

Highlighted as a "Very important paper" by the journal.

127. P.G. Becher, V. Verschut, M.J. Bibb, M.J. Bush, B.P. Molnár, E. Barane, M.M. Al-Bassam, G. Chandra, L. Song, G.L. Challis, M.J. Buttner, and K. Flärdh. Developmentally regulated volatiles geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol attract a soil arthropod to Streptomyces bacteria promoting spore dispersal. Nat. Microbiol. 2020, 5, 821-829.

Featured in New Scientist (6 April 2020) and The Times (8 April 2020).

126. D. Zabala, L. Song, Y. Dashti, G.L. Challis, J.A. Salas and C. Mendez. Heterologous reconstitution of the biosynthesis pathway for 4-demethyl-premithramycinone, the aglycon of antitumor polyketide mithramycin. Microb. Cell Fact. 2020, 19, 111.

125. A.M. Banks, L. Song, G.L. Challis, A.M. Bailey and G.D. Foster. Bovistol B, bovistol D and strossmayerin: Sesquiterpene metabolites from the culture filtrate of the basidiomycete Coprinopsis strossmayeri. PLOSone, 2020, 15, e0229925.



124. S. Kosol, A. Gallo, D. Griffiths, T.R. Valentic, J. Masschelein, M. Jenner, E.L. de los Santos, L. Manzi, P.K. Sydor, D. Rea, S. Zhou, V. Fülöp, N.J. Oldham, S.-C. Tsai, G.L. Challis, and J.R. Lewandowski. Structural basis for chain release from the enacyloxin polyketide synthase. Nat. Chem. 2019, 11, 913-923.

123. J. Masschelein, P.K. Sydor, C. Hobson, R. Howe, C. Jones, D.M. Roberts, Z.L. Yap, J. Parkhill, E. Mahenthiralingam and G.L. Challis. A dual transacylation mechanism for polyketide synthase chain release in enacyloxin antibiotic biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. 2019, 11, 906-912.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2019, 36, 1614 and Synfacts, 2020, 16, 0225.

122. S. Zhou, L. Song, J. Masschelein, F.A.M. Sumang, I.A. Papa, T.O. Zulaybar, A.B. Custodio, D. Zabala, E.P. Alcantara, E.L.C. de los Santos, and G.L. Challis. Pentamycin biosynthesis in Philippine Streptomyces sp. S816: Cytochrome P450-catalysed installation of the C-14 hydroxyl group. ACS Chem. Biol. 2019, 14, 1305-1309.

Highlighted in "Hot of the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2019, 36, 1039.

121. M. Jenner, X. Jian, Y. Dashti, J. Masschelein, C. Hobson, D. Roberts, C. Jones, S. Harris, J. Parkhill, H. Raja, N. Oberlies, C. Pearce, E. Mahenthiralingam and G.L. Challis. An unusual Burkholderia gladioli double chain-initiating nonribosomal peptide synthetase assembles ‘fungal’ icosalide antibiotics. Chem. Sci. 2019, 10, 5489-5494.

120. A.J. Mullins, J.A.H. Murray, M.J. Bull, M. Jenner, C. Jones, G. Webster, T.R. Connor, J. Parkhill, G.L. Challis and E. Mahenthiralingam. Genome mining identifies cepacin as a key plant-protective metabolite of the biopesticidal bacterium Burkholderia ambifaria. Nat. Microbiol. 2019, 4, 996-1005.

Highlighted in News & Views Nat. Microbiol. 2019, 4, 908-909. Recommended by F1000prime. Featured in The Independent (4 March 2019).

119. L.M. Alkhalaf, S.M. Barry, D. Rea, A. Gallo, D. Griffths, J.R. Lewandoswki, V. Fulop and G.L. Challis. Binding of distinct substrate conformations enables hydroxylation of remote sites in thaxtomin D by cytochrome P450 TxtC. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 216-222.

118. S. Heidarian, F. Mohammadipanah, A. Maghsoudlou, Y. Dashti and G.L. Challis. Anti-microfouling activity of Glycomyces sediminimaris UTMC 2460 on dominant fouling bacteria of Iran marine habitats. Front. Microbiol. 2019, 9, 3148.



117. G.L. Challis, J.S.L. Masschelein, C. Hobson and X. Jian. Antimicrobial Agents. Pct. Int. Appl. 2018, WO/2018/193273.

116. D.F. Ackerley, G.L. Challis and M.J. Cryle. Editorial: Understanding biosynthetic protein-protein interactions. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2018, 35, 1118-1119.

115. S. Kosol, M. Jenner, J.R. Lewandowski and G.L. Challis. Protein-protein interactions in trans-AT polyketide synthases. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2018, 35, 1097-1109.

114. C. Perry, J. Sargeant, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Relative stereochemical assignment of C-33 and C-35 in the antibiotic gladiolin. Tetrahedron, 2018, 74, 5150-5155 (invited contribution to Barton Centennial Symposium in Print).

113. C. Perry, E.L.C. de los Santos, L.M. Alkhalaf and G.L. Challis. Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases catalyse diverse reactions in natural product biosynthesis. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2018, 35, 622-632.

112. J.L. Ronan, N. Kadi, S.A. McMahon, J.H. Naismith, L.M. Alkhalaf and G.L. Challis. Desferrioxamine biosynthesis: diverse hydroxamate assembly by substrate tolerant acyl transferase DesC. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, 2018, 373, 20170068.

111. M. Jenner, S. Kosol , D. Griffiths, P. Prasongpholchai, L. Manzi, A.S. Barrow, J.E. Moses, N.J. Oldham, J.R. Lewandowski  and G.L. Challis. Mechanism of intersubunit ketosynthase–dehydratase interaction in polyketide synthases. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2018, 14, 270-275.



110. C.J. Schwalen, G.A. Hudson, S. Kosol, N. Mahanta, G.L. Challis and D.A. Mitchell. In vitro biosynthetic studies of bottromycin expand the enzymatic capabilities of the YcaO superfamily. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 18154-18157.

109. G.L. Challis, D.J. Griffiths and J.S.L. Masschelein. Antimicrobial Agents. PCT Int. Appl. 2017, WO/2017/182828. 

108. J. Masschelein, M. Jenner and G.L. Challis. Antibiotics from Gram-negative bacteria: a comprehensive overview and selected biosynthetic highlights. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2017, 34, 712-783.

107. L. Song, M. Jenner, J. Masschelein, C. Jones, M. Bull, S. Harris, R. Hartkoorn, A. Vocat, I. Romero-Canelón, P. Coupland, Paul, G. Webster, M. Dunn, R. Weiser, C. Paisey, S. Cole, J. Parkhill, E. Mahenthiralingam and G.L. Challis. Discovery and biosynthesis of gladiolin: a Burkholderia gladioli antibiotic with promising activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 7974-7981.

Featured in the Science and Technology section of The Economist (24 June 2017). Highlighted in an American Chemical Society press release (14 June 2017).

106. Y. Inahashi, S. Zhou, M.J. Bibb, L. Song, M.M. Al-Bassam, M.J. Bibb and G. L. Challis. Watasemycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: thiazoline C-methylation by a type B radical-SAM methylase homologue. Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 2823-2831.

Highlighted in "Hot off the Press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2017, 34, 566.

105. U.R. Awodi, J.L. Ronan, J. Masschelein, E.L.C. de los Santos and G. L. Challis. Thioester reduction and aldehyde transamination are universal steps in actinobacterial polyketide alkaloid biosynthesis. Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 411-415.



104. L. Ray, T.R. Valentic, T. Miyazawa, D.M. Withall, L. Song, J.C. Milligan, H. Osaka, S. Takahashi, S.-C. Tsai and G.L. Challis. A crotonyl-CoA reductase-carboxylase independent pathway for assembly of unusual alkylmalonyl-CoA polyketide synthase extender units. Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 13609.

103. G.L. Challis and B.O. Bachmann. Editorial Overview: The mechanistic magic of specialised metabolism. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2016, 35, A4-A6.

102. S. Zhou, L.M. Alkhalaf, E.L.C de los Santos and G.L. Challis. Mechanistic insights into class B radical-S-adenosylmethionine methylases: Ubiquitous tailoring enzymes in natural product biosynthesis. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2016, 35, 73-79.

101. A. Thanapipatsiria, J.P. Gomez-Escribano, L. Song, M.J. Bibb, M. Al-Bassam, G. Chandra, A. Thamchaipenet, G.L. Challis and M.J. Bibb. Discovery of unusual biaryl polyketides by activation of a silent Streptomyces venezuelae biosynthetic gene cluster. ChemBioChem, 2016, 17, 2189-2198.

Most accessed article in ChemBioChem in October 2016.

100. D. X. Hu, D. M. Withall, G. L. Challis and R. J. Thomson. The structure, chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of prodiginine natural products. Chem. Rev. 2016, 115, 7818-7853.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2016, 33, 1126.

99. D. Zabala, J.W. Cartwright, D.M. Roberts, B.J.C. Law, L. Song, M. Samborskyy, P.F. Leadlay, J. Micklefield, and G.L. Challis. A flavin-dependent decarboxylase-dehydrogenase-monooxygenase assembles the warhead of α, β-epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 4342-4345.

Highlighted in "Hot off the Press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2016, 33, 742.

98. G.L. Challis and B. Wilkinson. Editorial: Biosynthetic assembly lines themed issue. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2016, 33, 120-121.

97. W.-G. Wang, A. Li, B.-C. Yan, S.-B. Niu, J.-W. Tang, X.-N. Li, X. Du, G.L. Challis, Y. Che, H.-D. Sun and J.-X. Pu. LC-MS guided isolation of penicilfuranone A: a unique antifibrotic furancarboxylic acid from the plant endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. sh18. J. Nat. Prod. 2016, 79, 149-155.

96. N.Liu, L. Song, M. Liu, F. Shang, Z. Anderson, D.J. Fox, G.L. Challis and Y. Huang. Unique post-translational oxime formation in the biosynthesis of the azolemycin complex of novel ribosomal peptides from Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.264. Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 482-488. Correction: Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 810.

Highlighted in "Hot of the Press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2016, 33, 530.



95. G.L. Challis, E. Mahenthiralingam and L. Song. Antimicrobial agents. PCT Int. Appl. 2015, WO/2015/145152.

94. P.J. Rutledge and G.L. Challis. Discovery of microbial natural products by activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2015, 13, 509-523.

Featured on the cover.

93. D.M. Withall, S.W. Haynes and G.L. Challis. Stereochemistry and mechanism of undecylprodigiosin oxidative carbocyclization to streptorubin B by the Rieske oxygenase RedG. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 7889-7897.

92. M. Schäfer, T. B. K. Le, S. J. Hearnshaw, A. Maxwell, G.L. Challis, B. Wilkinson and M.J. Buttner. SimC7 is a novel NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase essential for the antibiotic activity of the DNA gyrase inhibitor simocyclinone. J. Mol. Biol. 2015, 427, 2192-2204.

91. J. Masschelein, C. Clauwers, U.R. Awodi, K. Stalmans, W. Vermaelen, E. Lescrinier, A. Aertsen, C. Michiels, G.L. Challis and R. Lavigne. A combination of polyunsaturated fatty acid, nonribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthetic machinery is used to assemble the zeamine antibiotics. Chem. Sci. 2015, 6, 923-929.



90. G.L. Challis and S.-C. Tsai. Editorial: Fungal natural products themed issue. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2014, 31, 1241.

89. J. Gubbens, H. Zhu, G. Girard, L. Song, B.I. Florea, P. Aston, K. Ichinose, D.V. Filippov, Y.H. Choi, H.S. Overkleeft, G.L. Challis, and G.P. van Wezel. A quantitative proteomics-based platform to link natural products to gene clusters and identification of a novel juglomycin-type antibiotic. Chem. Biol. 2014, 21, 707-718.

88. M. Jaspars and G. L. Challis. Microbiology: a talented genus. Nature, 2014, 506, 38-39.

87. G.L. Challis. Exploitation of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) genome sequence for discovery of new natural products and biosynthetic pathways. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 41, 219-232 (invited contribution to a special issue marking Prof Sir David Hopwood’s 80th birthday).

86. B. Aigle, S. Lautru, D. Spiteller, J.S. Dickschat, G.L. Challis, P. Leblond and J.-L. Pernodet. Genome mining of Streptomyces ambofaciens. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 41, 251-263 (invited contribution to a special issue marking Prof Sir David Hopwood’s 80th birthday).

85. L. Song, L. Laureti, C. Corre, P. Leblond, B. Aigle and G.L. Challis. Cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation is required for polyketide macrolactonisation in stambomycin biosynthesis. J. Antibiot. 2014, 67, 71-76 (invited contribution to a special issuing honouring Prof Christopher T. Walsh).

84. J.D. Sidda, L. Song, V. Poon, M. Al Bassam, O. Lazos, M.J. Buttner, G.L. Challis and C. Corre. Discovery of a family of gamma-aminobutyrate ureas via rational derepression of a silent bacterial gene cluster. Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 86-89.



83. S.M. Barry and G.L. Challis, Mechanism and catalytic diversity of Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases. ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 2362-2370.

82. S. Kodani, J. Bicz, L. Song, R.J. Deeth, M. Ohnishi-Kameyama, M. Yoshida, K. Ochi and G.L. Challis. Structure and biosynthesis of scabichelin, a novel tris-hydroxamate siderophore produced by the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87.22. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 4686-4694.

81. P.G. Arnison, M.J. Bibb, G. Bierbaum, A.A. Bowers, T.S. Bugni, G. Bulaj, J.A. Camarero, D.J. Campopiano, G.L. Challis, J. Clardy, P.D. Cotter, D.J. Craik, M. Dawson, E. Dittmann, S. Donadio, P.C. Dorrestein, K.-D. Entian, M.A. Fischbach, J.S. Garavelli, U. Göransson, C.W. Gruber, D.H. Haft, T.K. Hemscheidt, C. Hertweck, C. Hill, A.R. Horswill, M. Jaspars, W.L. Kelly, J.P. Klinman, O.P. Kuipers, A.J. Link, W. Liu, M.A. Marahiel, D.A. Mitchell, G.N. Moll, B.S. Moore, R. Müller, S.K. Nair, I.F. Nes, G.E. Norris, B.M. Olivera, H. Onaka, M.L. Patchett, J. Piel, M.J.T. Reaney, S. Rebuffat, R.P. Ross, H.-G. Sahl, E.W. Schmidt, M.E. Selsted, K. Severinov, B. Shen, K. Sivonen, L. Smith, T. Stein, R.E. Süssmuth, J.R. Tagg, Gong-Li Tang, A.W. Truman, J.C. Vederas, C.T. Walsh, J.D. Walton, S.C. Wenzel, J.M. Willey and W.A. van der Donk. Ribosomally Synthesized and Post-translationally Modified Peptide Natural Products: Overview and Recommendations for a Universal Nomenclature. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2013, 30, 108-160.

Recommended by F1000prime


80. S.M. Barry and G.L. Challis. Tailoring Reactions Catalyzed by Heme-Dependent Enzymes: Spectroscopic Characterization of the L-Tryptophan-Nitrating Cytochrome P450 TxtE. Methods Enzymol. 2012, 516, 171-194.

79. P.K. Sydor and G.L. Challis. Oxidative Tailoring Reactions Catalyzed by Nonheme Iron-Dependent Enzymes: Streptorubin B Biosynthesis as an Example. Methods Enzymol. 2012, 516, 195-218.

78. J.-P. Gomez-Escribano, L. Song, M. J. Bibb and G. L. Challis. Posttranslational ß-methylation and macrolactamidination in the biosynthesis of the bottromycin complex of ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Chem. Sci. 2012, 3, 3522-3525.

Highlighted in "Hot off the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2013, 30, 213-217.

77. A.J. Gerc, L. Song, G.L. Challis, N.R. Stanley-Wall and S.J. Coulthurst. The insect pathogen Serratia marcescens Db10 uses a hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase to produce the antibiotic althiomycin. PLoS ONE, 2012, 7, e44673.

76. S.M. Barry, J.A. Kers, E.G. Johnson, L. Song, P.R. Aston, B. Patel, S.B. Krasnoff, B.R. Crane, D.M. Gibson, R. Loria and G.L. Challis. Cytochrome P450–catalyzed L-tryptophan nitration in thaxtomin phytotoxin biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2012, 8, 814-816.

Highlighted on the cover. Highlighted in Chemistry & Industry, 2012, 76, 11. Recommended by F1000prime.

75. S. Lautru, L. Song, L. Demange, T. Lombes, H. Galons, G.L. Challis and J.-L. Pernodet. A sweet origin for the key congocidine precursor 4-acetamidopyrrole-2-carboxylate. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 7454-7458.

Featured in ChemViews magazine (21 July 2012).

74. J.-P. Gomez-Escribano, L. Song, D. J. Fox, V. Yeo, M. J. Bibb and G. L. Challis. Structure and biosynthesis of the unusual polyketide alkaloid coelimycin P1, a metabolic product of the cpk gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Chem. Sci. 2012, 3, 2716-2720.

Highlighted in "Hot of the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2012, 29, 1033-1037.

73. D. Oves-Costales and G.L. Challis. Mining microbial genomes for metabolic products of cryptic pathways. In Drug Discovery from Natural Products, Genilloud O., Vicente, F., Eds.; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2012; 140-158.

72. J.W. Lewis, N.J. Morley, M. Ahmad, G.L. Challis, R. Wright, R. Bicker, D. Morritt. Structural changes in freshwater fish and chironomids exposed to bacterial exotoxins. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe. 2012, 80, 37-44.

71. T.D. Nusca, Y. Kim, N. Maltseva, J.P. Lee, W. Eschenfeldt, L. Stols, J.L. Scaglione, M. Schofield, S.D. Dixon, B.F. Pfleger, D. Oves-Costales, G.L. Challis, P.C. Hanna, A. Joachimiak and D.H. Sherman. Functional and structural analysis of the siderophore synthetase AsbB through reconstitution of the petrobactin biosynthetic pathway from Bacillus anthracis. J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 16058-16072.



70. S. Schmelz, C.H. Botting, L. Song, N. Kadi, G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith. Structural basis for acyl acceptor specificity in the achrombactin biosynthetic enzyme AcsD. J. Mol. Biol. 2011, 412, 495-504.

69. R.F. Seipke, L. Song, J. Bicz, P. Laskaris, A. Yaxley, G.L. Challis and R. Loria. The plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 has a functional pyochelin biosynthetic pathway that is regulated by TetR- and AfsR- family proteins. Microbiology, 2011, 157, 2681-2693.

68. K. Papireddy, M. Smilkstein, J.X. Kelly, Shweta, S.M. Salem, M. Alhamadsheh, S.W. Haynes, G.L. Challis, and K.A. Reynolds. Antimalarial Activity of Natural and Synthetic Prodiginines. J. Med. Chem. 2011, 54, 5296-5306.

67. J.R. Whicher, G. Florova, P.K. Sydor, R. Singh, M. Alhamadsheh, G.L. Challis, K.A. Reynolds and J.L. Smith. Structure and Function of RedJ, a thioesterase from the prodiginine biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 22558-22569.

66. E. Mahenthiralingam, L. Song, A. Sass, J. White, C. Wilmot, A. Marchbank, O. Boaisha, J. Paine, D. Knight and G. L. Challis. Enacyloxins are the products of an unusual hybrid polyketide synthase encoded by a cryptic Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD gene cluster. Chem. Biol. 2011, 18, 665-677.

Featured on the cover. Among the top 25 hottest Chemistry & Biology articles in April-June 2011.

65. C. Davis, S. Carberry, M. Schrettl, I. Singh, J.C. Stephens, S.M. Barry, K. Kavanagh, G.L. Challis, D. Brougham and S. Doyle. The Role of Glutathione S-Transferase GliG in Gliotoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. Chem. Biol. 2011, 18, 542-552.

Among the top 25 hottest Chemistry & Biology articles in April-June 2011.

64. B. Aigle, R. Bunet, C. Corre, A. Garenaux, L. Hotel, S. Huang, L. Laureti, S. Lautru, V.M. Mendes, S. Nezbedová, H.C. Nguyen, L. Song, G.L. Challis, P. Leblond and J-L. Pernodet. Genome-guided exploration of Streptomyces ambofaciens secondary metabolism. In Streptomyces: molecular biology and biotechnology, Dyson P.J., Ed.; Caister Academic Press: Norwich, 2011; 179-194.

63. P.K. Sydor, S. M. Barry, O.M. Odulate, F. Barona-Gomez, S.W. Haynes, C. Corre, L. Song, and G.L. Challis. Regio- and stereodivergent antibiotic oxidative carbocyclizations catalyzed by Rieske oxygenase-like enzymes. Nat. Chem. 2011, 3, 388-392.

Featured in "News & Views" Nat. Chem., 2011, 3, 342-343. Highlighted on the cover. Highlighted in Synfacts, 2011, 7, 780. Highlighted in Org. Chem. Highlights 2012, January 30. Recommended by F1000Prime. Featured in Chemistry World (24 September 2013).

62. L. Laureti, L. Song, S. Huang, C. Corre, P. Leblond, G.L. Challis and B. Aigle. Identification of a bioactive 51-membered macrolide complex by activation of a silent polyketide synthase in Streptomyces ambofaciens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2011, 108, 6258-6263.

Highlighted as “of outstanding interest” in Curr. Opin. Chem . Biol. 2012, 16, 117-123.

61. R. Bunet, L. Song, M.V. Mendes, C. Corre, L. Hotel, N. Rouhier, X. Framboisier, P. Leblond, G.L. Challis and B. Aigle. Characterization and manipulation of the pathway-specific late regulator AlpW reveals Streptomyces ambofaciens as a new producer of kinamycins. J. Bacteriol. 2011, 193, 1142-1153.

60. S.W. Haynes, P.K. Sydor, C. Corre, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Stereochemical elucidation of streptorubin B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 1793-1798.

Featured on the cover.

59. D. Oves-Costales and G.L. Challis. Studies on the biosynthesis of the anthrax siderophore petrobactin. In Functional molecules from natural sources, Wrigley S. K., Thomas, R., Nicholson, N., Bedford, C., Eds.; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2011; pp 184-194

58. S.W. Haynes, P.K. Sydor, C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Elucidation of pathways for antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). In Functional molecules from natural sources, Wrigley S.K., Thomas, R., Nicholson, N., Bedford, C., Eds.; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2011; pp 149-160.

57. B. Aigle, G.L. Challis, L. Laureti, L. Song, P. Leblond. Polyketide antibiotic stambomycin and derivatives of Streptomyces ambofaciens and their production and therapeutic use. PCT Int. Appl. 2011, WO/2011/009938.



56. P. Patel, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Distinct extracytoplasmic siderophore binding proteins recognize ferrioxamines and ferri-coelichelin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Biochemistry, 2010, 49, 8033-8042.

55. M. Oke, L.G. Carter, K.A. Johnson, H. Liu, S.A. McMahon, X. Yan, M. Kerou, N.D. Weikart, N. Kadi, M.A. Sheikh, S. Schmelz, M. Dorward, M. Zawadzki, C. Cozens, H. Falconer, H. Powers, I.M. Overton, C.A.J. van Niekerk, X. Peng, P. Patel, R. A. Garrett, D. Prangishvili, C.H. Botting, P.J. Coote, D.T.F. Dryden, G.J. Barton, U. Schwarz-Linek, G.L. Challis, G.L.Taylor, M.F. White and J.H. Naismith. The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility: targets, methods and outputs. J. Struct. Funct. Genomics, 2010, 11, 167-180.

54. C. Corre, S.W. Haynes, N. Malet, L. Song and G.L. Challis. A butenolide intermediate in methylenomycin furan biosynthesis is implied by incorporation of stereospecifically 13C-labelled glycerols. Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 4079-4081.

Highlighted in "Hot of the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2010, 27, 1110-1113.

53. C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Exploiting genomics for new natural product discovery in prokaryotes. In Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology; Mander, L., Liu, H.-W., Eds.; Elsevier: Oxford, 2010; volume 2, pp 429-453.

52. K. Nieselt, F. Battke, A. Herbig, P. Bruheim, A. Wentzel, O.M. Jakobsen, H. Sletta, M.T. Alam, M.E. Merlo, J. Moore, W.A.M. Omara, E.R Morrisey, M.A. Juarez-Hermosillo, Antonio Rodriguez-Garcia, M. Nentwich, L. Thomas, M. Iqbal, R. Legaie, W.H. Gaze, G.L. Challis, R.C. Jansen, L. Dijkhuizen, D.A. Rand, D.L. Wild, M. Bonin, J. Reuther, W. Wohlleben, M.C.M. Smith, N.J. Burroughs, J.F. Martin, D.A. Hodgson, E. Takano, R. Breitling , T.E. Ellingsen and E.M.H. Wellington. The dynamic architecture of the metabolic switch in Streptomyces coelicolor. BMC Genomics, 2010, 11, 10.



51. D. Oves-Costales, N. Kadi and G.L. Challis. The long-overlooked enzymology of a nonribosomal-peptide synthetase independent pathway for virulence-conferring siderophore biosynthesis. Chem. Commun. 2009, 6530-6541.

Highlighted in "Hot of the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2010, 27, 149-152.

50. C. Corre and G.L. Challis. New natural product biosynthetic chemistry discovered by genome mining. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2009, 26, 977-986.

Featured in Chemistry World (24 September 2013).

49. M.W. Silby, A.M. Cerdeño-Tárraga, G. Vernikos, S.R. Giddens, R.W. Jackson, G.M. Preston, X-X. Zhang, C.D. Moon, S.M. Gehrig, S.A.C. Godfrey, C.G. Knight, J.G. Malone, Z. Robinson, A.J. Spiers, S. Harris, G.L. Challis, A.M. Yaxley, D. Harris, K. Seeger, L. Murphy, S. Rutter, R. Squares, M.A. Quail, E. Saunders, K. Mavrommatis, T.S. Brettin, S. Bentley, J. Hothersall, E. Stephens, C.M. Thomas, J. Parkhill, S.B. Levy, P.B. Rainey, N. R. Thomson. Genomic and genetic analyses of diversity and plant interactions of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Genome Biol. 2009, 10, R51.

48. S.M. Barry and G.L. Challis. Recent advances in siderophore biosynthesis. Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 2009, 13, 205-213.

47. N. Kadi and G.L. Challis. Siderophore biosynthesis: a substrate specificity assay for nonribosomal peptide synthetase-independent siderophore synthetases involving trapping of acyl-adenylate intermediates with hydroxylamine. Methods in Enzymol. 2009, 458, 431-457.

46. D. Oves-Costales, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Enantioselective desymmetrisation of citric acid catalysed by the substrate-tolerant petrobactin biosynthetic enzyme AsbA. Chem. Commun. 2009, 1389-1391.

Featured on "Science in Action"BBC World Service 27/02/09. Highlighted in The Planstman, 2009, 8, 77.

45. S. Schmelz, N. Kadi, S.A. McMahon, L. Song, D. Oves-Costales, M. Oke, H. Liu, K.A. Johnson, L.G. Carter, C.H. Botting, M.F. White, G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith, AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2009, 5, 174-182.

"Research Highlight" in Nature 2009, 457, 638. Featured in "News & Views" Nat. Chem. Biol., 2009, 5, 143-144. Featured on "Science in Action"BBC World Service 27/02/09. Highlighted in The Planstman, 2009, 8, 77.

44. M. Zerikly and G.L. Challis. Strategies for the discovery of new natural products by genome mining. ChemBioChem, 2009, 10, 625-633.

Among the 25 most-cited articles published in ChemBioChem in 2008/2009.

43. S. O’Rourke, A. Wietzorrek, K. Fowler, C. Corre, G.L. Challis and K.F. Chater. Extracellular signalling, translational control, two repressors and an activator all contribute to the regulation of methylenomycin production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Mol. Microbiol. 2009, 71, 763-778.



42. K. Chan, N.S. Rannulu, Y. Cai, P. Lane, A.L. Liebl, B.B. Rees, C. Corre, G.L. Challis and R.B. Cole. Unsual odd-electron fragments from even-electron protonated prodiginine precursors using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 19, 1856-1866.

41. Z. Mitchell, M.T.G. Holden, J. Parkhill, L. Song, G.L. Challis, C. Robinson, N. Davis-Poynter and A.S. Waller. A novel streptococcal integrative conjugative element involved in iron acquisition. Mol. Microbiol. 2008, 70, 1274-1292.

40. C. Corre, L. Song, S. O'Rourke, K.F. Chater and G.L. Challis. 2-Alkyl-4-hydroxymethylfuran-3-carboxylic acids, antibiotic production inducers discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 17510-17515.

"Research Highlight" in Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008, 6, 874.

39. S.A. McMahon, M. Oke, H. Liu, K.A. Johnson, L. Carter, N. Kadi, M.F. White, G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith, Purification, crystallization and data collection of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi AcsD, a type A siderophore synthetase, Acta Cryst. 2008, F64, 1052–1055.

38. N. Kadi, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Bisucaberin biosynthesis: An adenylating domain of the BibC multi-enzyme catalyzes cyclodimerization of N-hydroxy-N-succinylcadaverine. Chem. Commun. 2008, 5119-5121.

37. D. Oves-Costales, N. Kadi, M.J. Fogg, L. Song, K.S. Wilson and G.L. Challis. Petrobactin biosynthesis: AsbB catalyses ATP-dependent condensation of spermidine with N8-citryl-spermidine and its N1-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl) derivative. Chem. Commun. 2008, 4034-4036.

Featured as a "hot article" in Chem. Commun. Featured as a "research highlight" in Chemical Biology, 2008, 3, B74.

36. N. Kadi, S. Arbache, L. Song, D. Oves-Costales and G.L. Challis. Identification of a gene cluster that directs putrebactin biosynthesis in Shewanella species: PubC catalyzes ATP-dependent cyclodimerization of N-hydroxy-N-succinyl-putrescine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10458-10459.

Highlighted in "Hot off the press" Nat. Prod. Rep. 2008, 25, 841-844.

35. L.J. Montgomery and G.L. Challis. Concise Synthesis of Key 3-Polyenoyl-5-methylenefuran-2,4-dione Putative Intermediates in Quartromicin Biosynthesis. Synlett, 2008, 2164-2158.

34. G.L. Challis. Mining microbial genomes for new natural products and biosynthetic pathways (SGM special lecture: Fleming Prize Lecture 2007). Microbiology, 2008, 154, 1555-1569.

Featured in the June 2008 Society of General Microbiology "Microbe Talk: Cutting Edge Research Uncovered" podcast. Subject of a 2 June 2008 press release by the Society of General Microbiology.

33. G.L. Challis. Genome mining for novel natural product discovery. J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 2618-2628.

32. S.W. Haynes, P.K. Sydor, A.E. Stanley, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Role and substrate specificity of the Streptomyces coelicolor RedH enzyme in undecylprodiginine biosynthesis. Chem. Commun. 2008, 1865-1867.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2008, 25, 647-650.

31. S.J. Mo, P.K. Sydor, C. Corre, M.M. Alhamadsheh, A.E. Stanley, S.W. Haynes, L. Song, K.A. Reynolds and G.L. Challis. Elucidation of the Streptomyces coelicolor pathway to 2-undecylpyrrole, a key intermediate in undecylprodiginine and streptorubin B biosynthesis. Chem. Biol. 2008, 15, 137-148.



30. G.L. Challis and D.A. Hopwood. Chemical Biotechnology: Bioactive Small Molecules – Targets and Discovery Technologies. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 2007, 18, 475-477.

29. N. Kadi, D. Oves-Costales, F. Barona-Gomez and G.L. Challis. A new family of ATP-dependent oligomerization-macrocyclization biocatalysts. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2007, 3, 652-656. 50. Correction: Nat. Chem. Biol. 2009, 5, 266.

Featured in the August / September 2007 Nature Chemistry Podcast. Highlighted in Horticulture Week, 30 August 2007, the Coventry Telegraph, 21 August 2007, and the Nuneaton Weekly Tribune, 20 August 2007.

28. D. Oves-Costales, N. Kadi, M.J. Fogg, K.S. Wilson, L. Song and G.L. Challis. Enzymatic logic of anthrax stealth siderophore biosynthesis: AsbA catalyzes ATP-dependent condensation of citric acid and spermidine. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 8416-8417.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2007, 24, 927-930.

27. S. Lautru, D. Oves-Costales, J.-L. Pernodet and G.L. Challis. MbtH-like protein-mediated cross-talk between nonribosomal peptide antibiotic and siderophore biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Microbiology, 2007, 153, 1405-1412.

26. S.W. Haynes and G.L. Challis. Non-linear enzymatic logic in natural product modular mega-synthases and synthetases. Curr. Opin. Drug Discov. Devel. 2007, 10, 203-218.

25. C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Heavy tools for genome mining. Chem. Biol. 2007, 14, 7-9.



24. N.R. Thomson, S. Howard, B. Wren, M.T.G. Holden, L. Crossman, G.L. Challis et al. The complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of the high pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica strain 8081. PLoS Genetics, 2006, 2, 2039-2051.

Recommended by F1000prime.

23. L. Song, F. Barona-Gomez, C. Corre, L. Xiang, D.W. Udwary, M.B. Austin, J.P. Noel, B.S. Moore and G.L. Challis. Type III polyketide synthase beta-ketoacyl-ACP starter unit and ethyl-malonyl-CoA extender unit specificity discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14754-14755.

22. A.E. Stanley, L.J. Walton, M. Kourdi-Zerikly, C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Elucidation of the Streptomyces coelicolor pathway to 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carboxaldehyde, an intermediate in prodiginine biosynthesis. Chem. Commun., 2006, 3981-3983.

Featured as a 'Hot Article' in Chem. Commun. Highlighted in Chem. Sci. 2006, 3, C89. Featured as a "Newsdesk" item in The Lancet Oncology, 2006, 7, 969. Highlighted in “Hot of the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2006, 23, 841-844. Highlighted in "Bulletin Board" Future Microbiology 2006, 1, 357.

21. F. Barona-Gomez, S. Lautru, F-X. Francou, J.-L. Pernodet, P. Leblond, and G.L. Challis. Multiple biosynthetic and uptake systems mediate siderophore-dependent iron acquisition in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces ambofaciens. Microbiology, 2006, 152, 3355-3366.

20. G.L. Challis. Engineering Escherichia coli to produce nonribosomal peptide antibiotics. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2006, 2, 398-400.

19. L.J. Walton, C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Mechanisms for the incorporation of glycerol-derived precursors into polyketide metabolites. J. Industrial Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2006, 33, 105-120.



18. C. Corre and G.L. Challis. Evidence for the unusual condensation of a diketide with a pentulose in the methylenomycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). ChemBioChem, 2005, 6, 2166-2170.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2006, 23, 11-14.

17. S. Lautru, R.J. Deeth, L.M. Bailey, and G.L. Challis. Discovery of a new peptide natural product by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2005, 1, 265-269.

Featured on the cover. Research Highlight in Nature 2005, 437, 298. News of the Week in Chem. Eng. News, 2005, 83, 11. Subject of News & Views article in Nature Chem. Biol. 2005, 1, 244-245. Featured in Drug Discovery News, 2005, isuue 10. Featured in Industrial Bioprocessing 2005, 27, issue 10, pages 8-9. Highlighted as ‘of outstanding interest’ in Curr. Op. Microbiol. 2006, 9, 252-260. Featured in Chem. Eng. News, 2013, 91, 17-24 (cover story).

16. G.L. Challis. A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. ChemBioChem, 2005, 6, 601-611. 27. Erratum: ChemBioChem, 2007, 8, 1477.

Among the 20 most-cited articles published in ChemBioChem in 2005/2006.



15. G.L. Challis and J.H. Naismith. Structural aspects of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2004, 14, 748-756.

14. F. Barona-Gomez, U. Wong, A. Giannakopulos, P.J. Derrick, and G.L. Challis. Identification of a cluster of genes that directs desferrioxamine biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor M145. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 16282-16283.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2005, 22, 141-143.

13. M.G.W. Holden et al. Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2004, 101, 14240-14245.

Highlighted on the cover. Recommended by F1000prime.

12. S. Lautru and G.L. Challis. Substrate recognition by nonribosomal peptide synthetase multienzymes. Microbiology, 2004, 150, 1629-1636.

11. M. Gunsior, J. Ravel, G.L. Challis and C.A. Townsend. Engineering p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase to a p-hydroxymandelate synthase and evidence for the proposed benzene oxide intermediate in homogentisate formation. Biochemistry, 2004, 43, 663-674.



10. G.L. Challis and D.A. Hopwood. Synergy and contingency as driving forces for the evolution of multiple secondary metabolite production in Streptomyces species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003, 100, 14555-14561.

9. B. Gust, G.L. Challis, K. Fowler, T. Kieser and K.F. Chater. PCR-targeted Streptomyces gene replacement identifies a protein domain needed for biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene soil odor geosmin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003, 100, 1541-1546.

Recommended by F1000prime.



8. S.D. Bentley, K.F. Chater, A.-M. Cerdeno-Tarraga, G.L. Challis et al. Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Nature, 2002, 417, 141-147.

Featured on the cover. Highlighted in numerous press articles. Recommended by F1000prime. Featured in Chem. Eng. News, 2013, 91, 17-24 (cover story).

7. R.A. Carter, P.S. Worsley, G. Sawers, G.L. Challis, M.J. Dilworth, K.C. Carson, J.A. Lawrence, M. Wexler, A.W.B. Johnston and K.H. Yeoman. The vbs genes that direct synthesis of the siderophore vicibactin in Rhizobium leguminosarum: their expression in other genera requires ECF s factor RpoI. Mol. Microbiol. 2002, 44, 1153-1166.



6. A.M. Cerdeño, M.J. Bibb and G.L. Challis. Analysis of the prodiginine biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): New mechanisms for chain initiation and termination in modular multienzymes. Chem. Biol. 2001, 8, 817-829.

5. G.L. Challis and K.F. Chater. Incorporation of [U-13C]glycerol defines plausible early steps for the biosynthesis of methylenomycin A in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Chem. Commun. 2001, 935-936.

Highlighted in “Hot off the press” Nat. Prod. Rep. 2001, 18, issue 4, pages iii-v.



4. G.L. Challis and J. Ravel. Coelichelin, a new peptide siderophore encoded by the Streptomyces coelicolor genome: structure prediction from the sequence of its non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2000, 187, 111-114.

Featured in Chem. Eng. News, 2013, 91, 17-24 (cover story)

3. G.L. Challis, J. Ravel and C.A. Townsend. Predictive, structure-based model of amino acid recognition by non-ribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domains. Chem. Biol. 2000, 7, 211-224.

2. R.M. Adlington, J.E. Baldwin, G.L. Challis, R.J. Cox and G.J. Pritchard. Towards a biomimetic synthesis of the marine alkaloids papuamine and haliclonadiamine: model studies. Tetrahedron, 2000, 56, 623-8.



1. R.M. Adlington, J.E. Baldwin and G.L. Challis. Rate enhancement in the reduction of (2,3)-alpha- and (2,3)-beta-methylenepenam beta-sulfoxides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 8537-8540.