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Loizos Heracleous

Loizos HeracleousLoizos Heracleous is Professor of Strategy and Organization at the Warwick Business School and an Associate Fellow of Green Templeton College and the Said Business School at Oxford University. He was previously Reader in Strategy at the Said Business School and an Official Fellow of Templeton College at Oxford. Prior to this he was Associate Professor of Business Policy at the National University of Singapore, where he spent 7 years. He conducts research on strategic management from an organizational perspective, organization change and development, and organizational discourse. More information about Loizos' work can be found on, and his Twitter handle is @Strategizing

Loizos earned his Ph.D. at the Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge. He has authored six books; Strategy and Organization: Realizing Strategic Management, (2003, Cambridge University Press); Business Strategy in Asia: A Casebook (2009, 3rd Edition, Cengage, with Singh, K. and Pangarkar, N.,); Discourse, Interpretation, Organization (2006, Cambridge University Press), Flying high in a competitive industry: Cost effective service excellence at Singapore Airlines (2009, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, with Wirtz, J. and Pangarkar, N.); Crafting Strategy: Embodied metaphors in practice (2011, Cambridge University Press, with Jacobs, C.), and Practicing strategy: Text and Cases (2013, Sage, with Paroutis, S. and Angwin, D.).

Loizos served as a Senior Editor of Organization Studies (2003-2006), and an editorial board member (2007-2013). He also served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2007-2010) after serving on the editorial board during 2004-2007, and currently serves on the editorial board. He also serves on the editorial board of Human Relations (2011-present), the Academy of Management Journal (2010-present), the Journal of Management Studies (2003-present) and the Asia Pacific Journal of Management (2000-present). His research has been published in over 60 research papers in international journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, MIS Quarterly, Harvard Business Review, MIT Sloan Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, Organization Studies, Human Relations, and Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. His research has been honored by three Best Paper Awards from the US Academy of Management; in 1999 (on globalization), 2004 (on organization development), and 2006 (on corporate governance); as well as 3 research awards from Emerald (2007, 2009, 2010). His case study "Strategic leadership and innovation at Apple Inc" won the Case Centre's overal case award for 2013, out of over 17,500 eligible cases.

In addition to Cyprus where he was born, Loizos has lived and worked in the UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, and Singapore. He has developed and delivered several executive development programs in areas such as strategic thinking and planning, leading transformational change, fostering strategic innovation, developing core competencies and strategic alignment, dealing with dilemmas of corporate governance, developing corporate social responsibility, diagnosing and managing organizational culture, and organizing for the future. He served as Director of the Strategic Management Executive Program at the National University of Singapore from 2001 to 2003 and has trained company directors on corporate governance on behalf of the Singapore Institute of Directors from 1999-2004. He has also delivered the strategy component of the Advanced Management Program offered at Oxford University. In recent years Loizos has trained or advised senior executives from several leading corporations including Total, O2, Standard Chartered, Bank of China, IBM, and Rolls Royce.

Research interests

· Strategic Management from an Organizational Perspective (innovative strategizing processes, strategic capabilities and innovation, organizational action view, corporate governance, strategic management case development, aviation sector)

· Organizational Discourse (discourse conceptualization and analysis, interpretive/hermeneutic approaches to theory and methodology, organizational analysis from a discourse perspective, Giddens’s structuration theory and continental social theory)

· Organization Change and Development (roles of organizational discourse, metaphor, dialogue, culture and learning in organization change and development processes)


Paroutis, S., Heracleous, L. & Angwin, D. 2013. Practicing Strategy: Text and Cases. London: Sage.

Pangarkar, N., Singh, K. & Heracleous, L. 2013. Business Strategy in Asia: A Casebook (4th ed). Cengage.

Heracleous, L. & Jacobs, C. 2011. Crafting Strategy: Embodied Metaphors in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heracleous, L., Wirtz, J. & Pangarkar, N. 2009. Flying High in a Competitive Industry: Secrets of the World's Leading Airline. McGraw-Hill.

Heracleous, L. 2006. Discourse, Interpretation, Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heracleous, L. 2003. Strategy and Organization: Realizing Strategic Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Heracleous, L. & Gonzalez, S.A. 2014. Two modest proposals to propel NASA forward. Forthcoming, Space Policy.

Papachroni, A., Heracleous, L. & Paroutis, S. 2014. Organizational ambidexterity through the lens of paradox theory: Extending the research agenda. Forthcoming, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

Paroutis, S., Bennett, M. & Heracleous, L. 2014. Smart city technology as a strategic option in recessions: The case of IBM smarter cities. Forthcoming, Technological Forecasting & Social Change.

Heracleous, L. & Klaering, L. A. 2014. Charismatic leadership and rhetorical competence: An analysis of Steve Jobs' rhetoric. Group & Organization Management, 39: 131-161.

Heracleous, L. & Wirtz, J. 2014. Sustainable competitive advantage at Singapore Airlines: Dual strategy as mastering paradox. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50: 150-170.

Jacobs, C., Oliver, D. & Heracleous, L. 2013. Diagnosing organizational identity beliefs by eliciting complex, multimodal metaphors. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 49: 485-507.

Heracleous, L. 2013. The employment of structuration theory in organizational discourse: Exploring methodological challenges. Management Communication Quarterly, 27: 599-606.

Paroutis, S. & Heracleous, L. 2013. Discourse revisited: Dimensions and employment of first-order strategy discourse during institutional adoption. Strategic Management Journal, 34: 935-956.

Heracleous, L. 2013. Quantum strategy at Apple Inc. Organizational Dynamics, 42: 92-99.

Barrett, M., Heracleous, L., & Walsham, G. 2013. A rhetorical approach to IT diffusion: Reconceptualizing the ideology-framing relationship in computerization movements. MIS Quarterly, 37: 201-220.

Fischer, O. & Heracleous, L. 2012. A counter-intuitive view of the role of the role of the communication medium in leadership and change. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 20: 37-58.

Heracleous, L. & Lan, L. L. 2012. Agency theory, institutional sensitivity, and inductive reasoning: Towards a legal perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 49: 223-239.

Statler, M., Heracleous, L. & Jacobs, C. 2011. Serious play as a practice of paradox. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47: 236-256.

Heracleous, L. & Wirtz, J. 2010. Singapore Airlines' balancing act. Harvard Business Review, July-August: 145-149.

Heracleous, L. & Lan, L. L. 2010. The myth of shareholder capitalism. Harvard Business Review, April: 24.

Lan, L. L. & Heracleous, L. 2010. Rethinking agency theory: The view from law. Academy of Management Review, 35 (2): 294-314.

Heracleous, L. & Wirtz, J. 2009. Strategy and organization at Singapore Airlines: Achieving sustainable advantage through dual strategy. Journal of Air Transport Management, 15: 274-279.

Heracleous, L. & Johnston, R. 2009. Can business learn from the public sector? European Business Review, 21(4): 373-379.

Heracleous, L. and Jacobs, C. 2008. Crafting strategy: The role of embodied metaphors. Long Range Planning, 41 (3): 309-325.

Wirtz, J., Heracleous, L. and Pangarkar, N. 2008. Developing human resources for service excellence and cost effectiveness at Singapore Airlines. Managing Service Quality, 18 (1): 4-19.

Heracleous, L. and Jacobs, C. 2008. Understanding organizations through embodied metaphors. Organization Studies, 29 (1): 45-78.

Wirtz, J., Heracleous, L., Menkhoff, T. 2007. Value creation through strategic knowledge management: The case of Singapore Airlines. Journal of Asian Business, 23 (1).

Lan, L. and Heracleous, L. 2007. Negotiating the minefields of corporate vote-buying. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15 (5): 967-976.

Jacobs, C. and Heracleous, L. 2007. Strategizing through playful design. Journal of Business Strategy, 28 (4): 75-80.

Heracleous, L. 2006. A tale of three discourses: The dominant, the strategic and the marginalized. Journal of Management Studies, 43 (5): 1059-1087.

Jacobs, C. and Heracleous, L. 2006. Constructing shared understanding – the role of embodied metaphors in organization development. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 24 (2): 207-226.

Heracleous, L. and Wirtz, J. 2006. Biometrics: The next frontier in service excellence, productivity and security in the service sector. Managing Service Quality, 16 (1): 12-22.

Heracleous, L. and Jacobs, C. 2005. The serious business of play. MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall: 19-20.

Heracleous, L., Wirtz, J. and Johnston, B. 2005. Kung Fu service development at Singapore Airlines. Business Strategy Review, Winter: 26-31.

Jacobs, C. and Heracleous, L. 2005. Answers for questions to come: Reflective dialogue as an enabler of strategic innovation. Journal of Organization Change Management, 18 (4): 338-352.

Lan, L. L. and Heracleous, L. 2005. Shareholder votes for sale. Harvard Business Review, June, “Forethought” section: 20-24.

Heracleous, L. and Singh, K. 2005. Singapore Telecom: Venturing to the region. Asian Case Research Journal, 9 (1): 1-24.

Wirtz, J. & Heracleous, L. 2005. Biometrics meets services. Harvard Business Review (HBR List of breakthrough ideas) February: 48.

Marshak, R. J. and Heracleous, L. 2005. A discursive approach to organization development. Action Research, 3 (1): 69-88.

Heracleous, L. and Marshak, R. 2004. Conceptualizing organizational discourse as situated symbolic action. Human Relations, 57 (10): 1285-1312.

Heracleous, L., Wirtz, J. and Johnston, R. 2004. Cost effective service excellence: Lessons from Singapore Airlines. Business Strategy Review, 15 (1): 33-38.

Heracleous, L. 2003. A comment on the role of metaphor in knowledge generation. Academy of Management Review, 28 (2): 190-191.

Dwyer, G., Heracleous, L. and Doyle, C. 2003. Grounding strategic change practice in theory: The case of Avaya Ireland, 1992-2000. Strategic Change, 12 (3): 123-135.

Heracleous, L. and Lan, L. L. 2002. Who wants to be a competent director? An evaluation tool of directors’ knowledge of governance principles and legal duties. Corporate Governance, 2 (4): 17-23.

Heracleous, L. 2002. The contribution of discourse in understanding and managing organizational change. Strategic Change, 11: 253-261.

Heracleous, L. 2001. When local beat global: The Chinese beer industry. Business Strategy Review, 12 (3): 37-45.

Heracleous, L. 2001. An ethnographic study of culture in the context of organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37 (4): 426-446.

Jacobs, C. and Heracleous, L. 2001. Seeing without being seen: Towards an Archaeology of Controlling Science. International Studies of Management and Organization, 31 (3): 113-135.

Heracleous, L. and Barrett, M. 2001. Organizational change as discourse: Communicative actions and deep structures in the context of IT Implementation. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (4): 755-778.

Tan, T. K. and Heracleous, L. 2001. Teaching old dogs new tricks: Implementing organizational learning at an Asian national police force. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37 (3): 361-380.

Heracleous, L. and Murray, J. 2001. Network types, interlocking directors and strategy: Toward a theoretical framework. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 18 (2): 137-160.

Heracleous, L. 2001. State ownership, privatization and performance: An exploratory study from a strategic management perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 18 (1): 69-81.

Heracleous, L. and Murray, J. 2001. The urge to merge in the Pharmaceutical industry. European Management Journal, 19 (3): 430-437.

Heracleous, L. 2001. What is the impact of corporate governance on organizational performance? Corporate Governance: An International Review, 9 (3): 165-173.

Heracleous, L. 2000. The role of strategy implementation in organization development. Organization Development Journal, 18 (3): 75-86.

Heracleous, L. and Hendry, J. 2000. Discourse and the study of organization: Towards a structurational perspective. Human Relations, 53 (10): 1251-1286. 

Heracleous, L. and Singh, K. 2000. Singapore Telecom: Strategic challenges in a turbulent environment. Asian Case Research Journal, 4 (1): 49-77.

Heracleous, L. 1999. Privatization: Global trends and implications of the Singapore experience. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 12 (5): 432-444.

Heracleous, L. 1999. Does Singapore need a code of best practices in corporate governance? Singapore Management Review, 21 (2): 53-67.

Heracleous, L. 1999. Boards of directors as leaders of the organization. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 7 (3): 256-265.

Heracleous, L. and DeVoge, S. 1998. Bridging the gap of relevance: Strategic management and organizational development. Long Range Planning, 31(5): 732-744.

Heracleous, L. 1998. Strategic thinking or strategic planning? Long Range Planning, 31 (3): 481-487.

Heracleous, L. and Langham, B. 1996. Strategic change and organizational culture at Hay Management Consultants. Long Range Planning, 29 (4): 485-494.

Heracleous, L. 1995. Spinning a brand new cultural web. People Management, November: 24-27.

Heracleous, L. 1994. Rational decision making: Myth or reality? Management Development Review, 7 (4): 16-23

Commentaries and book reviews

Heracleous, L. 2004. Boundaries in the study of organization. Human Relations, 57 (1): 95-103.

Heracleous, L. 2004. Strategy and Organization: A response. Organization Studies, 25 (7): 1261-1267.

Heracleous, L. 2001. Expert commentary on case study “The urge to merge in the Pharmaceutical industry”. European Management Journal, 19 (3): 439.

Heracleous, L. 2001. Review of Cohen, S. and Boyd, G., Eds., “Corporate governance and globalization”, 2000, Edward Elgar. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 18: 265-267.

Selected conference proceedings

Jacobs, C., Oliver, D. & Heracleous, L. 2008. Constructing organizational identity through embodied metaphors. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, Organization Development and Change Division.

Jacobs, C. and Heracleous, L. 2005. Constructing shared understanding: The role of embodied metaphors in organization development. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, ODC, B1-B6.

Heracleous, L. and Marshak, R. J. 2004. Organizational discourse as situated symbolic action: Application through an OD intervention. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, ODC: D1-D6. Winner of Best Action Research Paper Award, ODC Division. 

Barrett, M. and Heracleous, L. 1999. Understanding globalization as a structurational process in the context of the London Insurance Market. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, OCIS: A1-A6. Winner of Best Paper Award, OCIS Division.

Book chapters and encyclopedia contributions

Morrell, K. & Heracleous, L. 2015. Is shareholder empowerment a "good thing"? In Goranova, M. & Ryan, L. V. (Eds.) Shareholder Empowerment. Palgrave-Macmillan.

Oliver, D., Heracleous, L. & Jacobs, C. 2013. Balancing divergence and convergence: Stimulating creativity through hybrid thinking. In Bilton, C. & Cummings, S., (Eds.) The Handbook of Management and Creativity. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar: 325-345.

Heracleous, L. & Wirtz, J. 2012. Strategy and organization at Singapore Airlines: Sustainable advantage through dual strategy. In Inderwildi, O. & King, D. (Eds.) Energy, Transport & the Environment. London: Springer-Verlag: 479-493.

Heracleous, L. 2011. Four propositions toward an interpretive theory of the process of discursive reality construction. In Aritz, J. & Walker, R., (Eds.) Discourse perspectives on organizational communication. Madison: Farleigh Dickinson: 9-31. (During 2012, this book won the Distinguished Publication on Business Communication award from the Association for Business Communication).

Heracleous, L. 2008. Globalization. In Gabriel, Y. Organizing words: A creative thesaurus of key words in social and organization theories. Oxford University Press: 118-120.

Heracleous, L. and Jacobs, C. 2008. Developing strategy: The serious business of play. In Gallos, J. (Ed.) Business Leadership: A Reader. Jossey-Bass, chapter 25: 324-335.

Wirtz, J., Heracleous, L., and Pangarkar, N. 2007, Managing HR for Service Excellence and Cost Effectiveness at Singapore Airlines. In Service Excellence als Impulsgeber - Strategies - Management - Innovationen - Branchen (Service Excellence as Driver - Strategies - Management - Innovations - Sectors), Gouthier, H.J.M., Coenen, C., Schulze, H. S. and Wegman, C., (Eds.). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag: 307-328.

Heracleous, L. 2007. Interpretive Theory. In International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Vol. 2, Clegg, S. R. & Bailey, J. R. (Eds.), Beverly Hills: Sage: 720-723.

Heracleous, L. 2007. Hermeneutics. In International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Vol. 2, Clegg, S. R. & Bailey, J. R. (Eds.), Beverly Hills: Sage: 582-585.

Marshak, R. J. and Heracleous, L. 2007. Organization Development. In International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Vol. 3, Clegg, S. R. & Bailey, J. R. (Eds.), Beverly Hills: Sage: 1047-1052.

Heracleous, L. and Fellenz, M. 2005. On the applicability of “alien” concepts to organizational analysis: Some criteria for inter-domain conceptual transfer. In Linstead, S. and Linstead, A. (Eds.) Thinking Organization. London and New York: Routledge: 97-111.

Heracleous, L. 2004. Interpretivist approaches to organizational discourse. In Grant, D., Phillips, N., Hardy, C., Putnam, L. and Oswick, C. Handbook of Organizational Discourse. Beverly Hills: Sage: 175-192.

Heracleous, L. 2000. Singapore. In Privatization Experience of Asian Countries. Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo: 157-170.