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All Rare Earth Elements Education Resources

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University of Birmingham- ‘How can we secure a responsible supply of critical materials for the 21st century economy?’

Research being carried out on finding technological solutions to supply chain and sustainability challenges with REE production, notably through the development of technologies to recycle and reuse lithium-ion batteries or alternative kinds of batteries

China Dialogue- ‘The bottleneck of a low-carbon future’

Article highlights the supply constraints challenges associated with depleted rare earth reserves for developing the technologies needed for a low-carbon future with a focus on the context of China (looking at both domestic and global demand). Explains the background of the development of rare earth industry in China and its environmental consequences, using infographics and maps.

The PRI (Principles of Responsible Investment) Podcast- ‘Rare earth minerals’

A short podcast with Hongqiao Liu from China Water Risk on the environmental sustainability issues with the supply of REEs, including the technology used for the mining process

Kleinman Center for Energy Policy- ‘Rare Earth Elements: A Resource Constraint of the Energy Transition’

An explainer on the growing for REEs as a clean energy solution- including useful graphs such as REE demand by sector- but also the environmental costs of REE mining and policy solutions.

New Security Beat- ‘As China Adjusts for “True Cost” of Rare Earths, What Does It Mean for Decarbonization?’

A summary article based on the report, ‘Rare Earths: Shades of Grey,’ published by China Water Risk, a Hong Kong non-profit initiative, describing the regulatory plans and clean-up developments in China in response to the environmental and health costs caused by REE mining which are not captured in the current prices of REEs (hence, these are not the true costs).

Harvard International Review- ‘Not So “Green” Technology: The Complicated Legacy of Rare Earth Mining’

A summary article about the negative and health effects of rare earth mining, particularly groundwater contamination and toxic waste, drawing on examples from China.

Metals in a Low-Carbon Economy: Resource Scarcity, Climate Change and Business in a Finite World

A report produced by experts from the Stockholm Environment Institute and Leeds Uni about REE, provides an overview of REE industry through business perspective

PODCAST - Julie Klinger on China’s rare earth frontier

An interesting podcast talks about REE production in China.

21:30: How China’s near-monopoly on rare earths came to be

32:49: Mining and environmental degradation

45:32: China’s decision to slow down rare earth production and its consequences

Economic Extraction, Recovery, and Upgrading of Rare Earth Elements from Coal-Based Resources

A Powerpoint produced by researchers at the University of Utah and introduces the economic extraction, recovery, and upgrading of REE

The Rare Earth Elements by the British Geological Survey

A report produced by the Natural Environmental Research Council of Britain. It talks every aspects of REE, such as chemistry, extraction, trading in the UK

Rare Earth Element (Overview)

An encyclopedia about REE. This website includes the electronic structure and ionic radius, separation chemistry (Ion exchange, solvent extraction), the chemical process the prepare the REE metals, the properties of the metals (crystal structures, electrical properties...), compounds of REE, nuclear properties, and toxicity of REE

Recycling rare earths

A general review of REE recycling process- raise the question about existing REE recycling.

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