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Arts, Community and Enterprise

The Core Module Culture in Development considers the global policy contexts of the arts and culture in International Development. In this module we will focus on practice and local realities. How does enterprise work? What is creativity in practice?

This module will involve considering the theory of small enterprise, entrepreneurship, creative problem-solving and markets, but also the way the arts and culture can solve problems identified by the big Development policy frameworks. We will therefore look at policy documents, but also consider case studies of actual projects and people around the world – from the UK to Africa to Far East. What kind of people make a difference within development situations? What kinds of skills, capabilities and strategies enable them to use creativity for social transformation? How can small business models generate changes in individual, community and localeconomies? How are they set up? Can we use business models for all arts and cultural projects? What about tradition and custom, or the usual ways of organizing?

Enterprise can involve the unexpected and sometimes the radical. It can upset people whether local officials or institutions. It requires leadership and negotiation skills. This module will intangle the issues and challenges of using creative enterprise in Development contexts. We will look at a range of projects -- involving questions about the agent or entrepreneur, the enterprise, the organisation, the community or marketm and the policy or political context. How can we know what enterprise or industry is suitable for what location, which village, town or city, and what people? How do we innovate enterprises that no only solve problems but are sustainable, or make a profit?

Illustrative Bibliography

Anholt, S. (2005) Brand new justice: How branding places and products can help the developing world (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Bagguley, P (1991) 'Post-Fordism and enterprise culture: Flexibility, autonomy and changes in economic organisation', in R. Keat and N. Abercrombie eds., Enterprise Culture, London: Routledge
Banda, F. (2010) ‘Citizen Journalism and Democracy in Africa’, Open Society Foundation for South Africa

Bilton, C. (2006) ‘From Individuals to Processes: Creative Teams and Innovation’ in Management and Creativity: from creative industries to creative management, Oxford: Blackwells: 23 – 44

Ellmeier, A. (2003) ‘Cultural Entrepreneurialism: on the changing relationship between arts, culture and employment’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 9(1): 3-16

Flew, T. (2012) The Creative Industries, London: Sage
Howkins, J. (2001) The Creative Economy: How People Make Money From Ideas, London: Penguin

Leadbeater, C.and Oakey, K. (1999) The Independents: Britain’s new cultural entrepreneurs, London: Demos

Porter, M. (1996): ‘What is Strategy?’ in Harvard Business Review (November - December 1996): 61 – 78

Rodríguez, C. (2011) Citizens' Media Against Armed Conflict: Disrupting Violence in Colombia, Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press
Roos, J. and von Krogh, G. (1996) Managing Strategy Processes in Emergent Industries: The Case of Media Firms, Basingstoke: Macmillan Business
Seo H, Kim JY, Yang S-U. (2009) 'Global activism and new media: a study of transnational NGOs' online public relations', Public Relations Review: 35:123–126

UNESCO (2013) Culture and Development Knowledge Management, New York: UNESCO MDG-F
UNESCO (2013) Culture and Development, Havana: UNESCO Regional Office
UNESCO/UNCTAD (2013) The Creative Economy Report: widening local development pathways, New York: United Nations