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Economic benefits of guidance

Economic Benefits of Guidance

The question of whether guidance brings economic benefit has been widely researched. The studies and reports in this section provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the debate.
For a starting point on the current evidence relating to the economic benefits of career guidance look at: The Economic Benefits of Career Guidance: A Review of Current Evidence.

You will find additional information about texts cited in the review, as well as some additional resource materials, by clicking on the links below.

Allen et al 1999
Allen J., Hansbro J., Mooney P. (1999) Pathways to Employment: The Final Evaluation of ESF Objective 3 in Britain (1994-9). London: DfEE.

This report by the DfEE Financial and Analytical Services, considered the achievements, overall effectiveness and impact of the European Social Fund (ESF) Objective 3 programme between 1994-9 in helping young people and other unemployed integrate more effectively into the labour market.

Barham et al 2000
Barham, L., Hughes, D., and Morgan, S. (2000) New Start - Paving the way for the Learning Gateway: Final evaluation of the personal adviser pilot projects. London: DfEE.

Beinart and Smith 1997
Beinart, S. and Smith, P. (1997) National Adult Learning Survey. Research Report 49. London: DfEE.

Bosley et al 2001
Bosley, S., El-Sawad, A., Hughes, D., Jackson, C. and Watts, A. G. (2001) Guidance and Individual Learning Accounts. Report. Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.

This report is based on case studies of 3 pilot ILAs, an employee development scheme and a careers service with good links with the TEC and local businesses.

Brooks 1998
Brooks, R. (1998) Staying or leaving? A literature review of factors affecting the take-up of post-16 options. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.

UK literature published between 1988 and 1997 was reviewed in order to identify the impact of education and economic systems on young people’s post-16 choices.

Bysshe and Parson 1999
Bysshe, S. and Parson, D. (1999) Evaluation of Learning Direct. Research Brief 132. London: DfEE

Connor et al 2001
Connor, H., and Dewson, S., with Tyers, C., Eccles, J., Regan, J., and Aston, J. (2001) Social Class and Higher Education: Issues Affecting Decisions on Partcipation by Lower Social Class Groups: Sheffield. DFEE.

This study was commissioned by the Department for Education and Employment to explore the factors that influence the decisions of individuals from lower socioeconomic groups to participate in higher education.

Coopers and Lybrand 1995
Coopers and Lybrand (1995) National Evaluation of Skill Choice - Final Report. Employment Department.

The ‘Skill Choice’ programme was launched in 13 English, and subsequently 4 Scottish and Welsh LEC/TEC areas, in 1993. Its primary focus was on enabling people (mainly employed adults) to take stock of their existing skills, plan their future developments, and acquire qualifications.

Copeland 2001
Copeland, R. (2001) Student retention: problems and solutions. AUT Briefing Paper.

This briefing paper examines the issue of student retention and how it can be improved.

Davies and Irving 2000
Davies, V. and Irving, P. (2000) New Deal for Young People: Intensive Gateway Trailblazers. Research and Development Report ESR50. Sheffield: Employment Service.

This qualitative evaluation sets out to assess whether the Intensive Gateway Trailblazers (IGTs) were more effective in helping young people find work more quickly than existing Gateway provision.

Dearing (NCIHE) 1996
The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (NCIHE) Chaired by Lord Dearing. Higher Education in a Learning Society

The NCIHE was appointed in May 1996 to make recommendations on how the purposes, shape, structure, size and funding of higher education, including support for students, should develop to meet the needs of the United Kingdom over the next 20 years.

Gardiner 1997
Gardiner, K. (1997) Bridges from benefit to work: a review. York: York Publishing Services Ltd.

This research was funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. The aim of the research - coming as it did at the time of the advent of the incoming Labour Government - was to take stock of what had been learnt from prior experience of welfare to work programmes, and in particular to consider evidence arising from programme evaluation.

Harmon and Walker 2001
Harmon, C., and Walker, I., (2001) The Returns to Education: A Review of Issues and Deficiencies in the Literature. DfEE Research Briefing No. 254. Sheffield: DfEE

This study focuses on the individual and social returns of education.

Hasluck 2000a
Hasluck, C. (2000a) The New Deal for Young People: two years on. Research and Development Report ESR41. Sheffield: Employment Service.

This report provides an overview of the NDYP evaluation programme and covers the Pathfinder period (January 1998 to April 1998) and national programme from April 1998 to November 1999.

Hasluck 2000b
Hasluck,C.(2000b) The New Deal for Lone Parent: A review of evaluation evidence. Sheffield: Employment Service.

Hawthorn and Watts 1992
Hawthorn, R., and Watts, A.G., (1992) Careers Education and the Curriculum in Higher Education. Cambridge: Hobsons Publishing PLC on behalf of CRAC.

This report is based on a two-year NICEC project on guidance aspects of the Enterprise in Higher Education Programme (EHE). The EHE Programme was concerned with the ways in which teaching departments in higher education institutions could integrate careers education into the curriculum.

HE Quality Council 1994
Higher Education Quality Council (HEQC), (1994), Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education. London : HEQC.

The project aimed to assist higher education institutions in their response to changes in the student population by the development of co-ordinated guidance provision for both students and potential students, including a staff development function and the development of feedback mechanisms.

Hirsh et al 2001
Hirsh W., Jackson C., Kidd J. (2001) Straight Talking: Effective Career Discussions at Work. Cambridge: National Institute of Career Education and Counselling.

The project set out to examine good experiences of career discussion at work as a means of discerning how more employees might receive effective career support.

Jackson et al 2001
Jackson, C. Watts, A. G., Hughes, D., Bosley, S. and El-Sawad, A. (2001) Careers service work with adults: a survey. Occasional Paper. Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.

Based on a postal survey of careers service companies (CSCs) in England, this report suggests that clients of adult guidance services are seeking employment, or more appropriate or improved employment prospects.

James 2001
James, K. (2001) Prescriptions for Learning: evaluation report. Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education.

For the “Prescriptions for Learning“ project a learning adviser was based in health care centres to help patients identify learning opportunities and to provide on-going support during any learning they undertook.

Killeen 1996b
Killeen, J. (1996b) Does guidance work? An evaluation of the intermediate outcomes of Gateways to Learning. London: Department for Education and Employment.

Guidance services were provided through the Learning Gateway to help unemployed adults find suitable education and training as a step towards gaining work.

Killeen et al 1992
Killeen, J., White, M. and Watts, A. G. (1992) The economic value of careers guidance. London: Policy Studies Institute.

Killeen and White 2000
Killeen, J. and White M. (2000) The Impact of Careers Guidance on Adult Employed People, DfEE, Research Report RR226: Sheffield.

The aim of the study was to provide a rigorous evaluation of the net impacts of guidance on adult employed people, with particular emphasis on economic outcomes.

La Valle and Finch 1999
La Valle, I. and Finch, S. (1999) Pathways in Adult Learning Survey. Research Brief 137. London: DfEE

Mayston 2001
Mayston, D. (2001) Developing a Framework Theory for Assessing the Benefits of Careers Guidance. York: Centre for Performance Evaluation and Resource Management. University of York.

This research report seeks to provide an analytical framework for identifying the benefits which careers guidance can achieve.

Mayston 2002
Mayston, D. (2002), Assessing the Benefits of Careers Guidance. iCeGS Occasional Paper, Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby

This paper concludes that the search for evidence-based policymaking and resourcing decisions, and for value for money in public services, increases the pressures for career guidance to be able to demonstrate its economic and social benefits.

McGivney 1996
McGivney, V. (1996) Staying or leaving the course: retention and non-completion of mature students in further and higher education. Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education.

McLeman and Smith 1998
McLeman, P., and Smith, P., The Career Management Initiative at Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, in Yorke, M., and Stephenson, J., (1998) Capability and Quality in Higher Education London:Kogan Page

The Career Management Initiative was introduced to help graduates maximise their chances of success in the employment market.

MORI 1996
MORI (1996) Evaluation of ESF Vocational Guidance and Counselling Schemes. Sheffield: DFEE.

This research project undertook evaluation research with 300 providers of ‘Choices and Access’ Schemes which were co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) in 1994.

MORI 2001
MORI (2001) Demand for Information, Advice and Guidance. The Guidance Council: Winchester.

This research was commissioned by the Guidance Council to explore the expectations of, and demand for, information, advice and guidance (IAG) about opportunities for learning and work.

Morris et al 1999
Morris, M., Nelson, J., Rickinson, M., and Stoney, S.M., with Benefield A. (1999) A literature review of young people’s attitudes towards education, employment and training. London: Department for Education and Employment.

Documents, most of which were published after 1993, are reviewed and the resultant report includes some coverage of the role of guidance in influencing young people’s attitudes.

NATFHE (2001) Higher Education: Student Retention. Paper Submitted to the Education and Employment Select Committee Inquiry. London: HMSO.

This submission to the Education and Employment Select Committee considers the evidence in relation to the retention of students in higher education and the reasons why students drop out.

Park 1994
Park, A. (1994) Individual Commitment to Learning: Individuals’ Attitudes. Report on the quantitative survey. Research Series No. 32. Employment Department.

The report contains the findings of the SCPR ‘Survey of Individual Attitudes to Lifetime Learning’, which sought to increase understanding of different attitudes towards learning, to identify barriers to learning, and to examine the impact which the removal of these barriers would have upon take up of learning.

Quality and Performance 2001
Quality and Performance Improvement Dissemination (2001) Training Older People, Sheffield: DfEE

This QPID study aimed to investigate the use and experience of Work Based Learning for Adults (WBLA), Programme Centres and Work Trials by people aged over 50, and the factors associated with participation, achievement and successful placement.

Quality Assurance Agency 2000
Quality Assurance Agency (2000) Code of Practice for the Assurance of Academic Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Career Education, Information and Guidance. London: QAA

The Code of Practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education: career education, information and guidance (CEIG) is intended to help higher education institutions ensure that they are meeting students' expectations of their preparedness for their future career, and that they are producing graduates equipped to meet the demands of current and future employment markets.

Rivis 1996
Rivis, V., Assuring the Quality of Guidance and Learner Support in Higher Education in Wisker, G., and Brown, S., (1996) Enabling Student Learning: Systems and Strategies. London : Kogan Page

Sargant 2000
Sargant, N. (2000) The learning divide revisited. A report on the findings of a UK-wide survey on adult participation in education and learning. Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education.

This quantitative study is based on data collected by interviewing over 5,000 adults (aged 17+). Taught and non-taught learning in vocational and non-vocational subjects is covered.

Sims et al 2001
Sims, D. Nelson, J., Golden, S. and Spielhofer, T. (2001) Young people’s experiences of the Learning Gateway. Research Report RR277. London: Department for Education and Skills.

This study investigated young people’s experiences of the Learning Gateway.

Strategies for Widening Participation in HE 2001
Strategies for Widening Participation in Higher Education: A guide to good practice. HEFCE Report 01/36 June 2001

This report suggests that guidance has a particularly significant role in supporting students as they move through their course and make decisions about option choice and the consequences of their choices.

Widening Participation in HE 1999
Widening Participation in Higher Education: Funding Decisions HEFCE Report 99/24 April 1999

SWA Consulting 1999a
SWA Consulting (1999a) Evaluation of early Individual Learning Account development activity. Research Report 123. London: DfEE.

SWA Consulting 1999b
SWA Consulting (1999b) Individual Learning Accounts: early lessons from the development projects. A briefing for TECS/CCTEs to assist with planning for 1999/2000. London: DfEE

Tremlett, Thomas and Taylor 1995
Tremlett, N., Thomas, A. and Taylor, S. (1995) Individual commitment to learning: providers’ attitudes. Research Series 47. Sheffield: Employment Department.

Tremlett, Park and Dundon-Smith 1995
Tremlett, N., Park, A. and Dundon-Smith, D. (1995) Individual commitment to learning: further findings from the individual surveys. Research Series 54. Social and Community Planning Research. Sheffield: Employment Department.