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EN2F7/EN3F7 Literature and Empire: Britain and the Caribbean to c. 1900

This module is a Pathway Approved Option for the World Pathway and a Distributional Requirement for all other Pathways.

Course convenor: Dr John T. Gilmore


Seminars: Tuesdays 12:30-2:00, 5:00-6:30


This course examines the cultural significance of the Caribbean to Britain during the period when the “sugar colonies” enjoyed their greatest economic importance, as well as during their decline in the later nineteenth century, from the "rise of the planter class", the white, land-owning oligarchy which dominated the colonies during slavery and its aftermath, to the introduction of Asian indentured labour and the beginnings of Afro-Caribbean nationalism. Each week’s seminar will be based around a single text, or small group of texts, as indicated in the list below. Texts by both Caribbean and British authors, ranging from the mid-17th century to the late 19th century, will be used to approach themes such as those of the “noble savage,” the “West-India Georgic,” and the ideological battle over slavery, and to show how the cultural traffic between the imperial power and the colonies was far from being only in one direction. Most works are in English (a few short works in Latin will also be discussed, but English translations will be provided). A wide range of genres is included – travel narratives and memoirs, sermons, poetry, plays and novels – and our texts are definitely not all by dead white males.

Teaching and Assessment

This module is taught in weekly one-and-a-half-hour seminars - there are no lectures. Students will be expected to give short presentations in seminars, and to contribute regularly to seminar discussions. The module is 100% assessed. Students will be required to submit assignments as follows:

Intermediate Year: 1 x presentation during seminar (20%),1 x 2000 word close reading exercise - analysis of one of the primary texts listed for the module (30%),1 x 3000 word essay on a topic to be agreed with the module convenor to include use of a range of appropriate secondary material (50%)

Final Year: 1 x presentation during seminar (20%),1 x 2000 word essay (30%) on a topic to be agreed with the module convenor,1 x 4000 word essay on a topic to be agreed with the module convenor (50%).

Weekly programme:

Term 1

Week 1

Introduction to Britain’s former Caribbean colonies and their significance. We will look at one of the earliest British travel narratives, in which Ligon endeavoured to persuade his readers that cultivating sugar for export in Barbados by exploiting the labour of enslaved Africans was the way to make a fortune. The basic themes of sugar, slavery and racism are already here, but the presence of Amerindians and of European indentured servants suggests that we should look beyond the stereotypical binary opposites of black and white, master and slave.

Text for study: Richard Ligon, A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbados (1657).

Background reading: Gilmore, Faces of the Caribbean; Campbell, Some Early Barbadian History; Dunn, Sugar and Slaves.

Week 2

The enslaved African king who is the title-character of Aphra Behn’s short novel Oroonoko is, with his tragic love-story and heroic rebellion, one of the earliest representations of the “noble savage” in English literature. Behn claimed that this was “A True History” but is the narrative actually about Caribbean slavery at all, or about the politics of Stuart Britain?

Text for study: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko (1688). The Norton Critical Edition, ed. Joanna Lipking, is recommended.

Background reading: materials in Norton edition; Todd, Secret life of Aphra Behn.

Week 3

This session will look at the poems of Christopher Codrington (1668-1710), the earliest published writer demonstrably born in a British Caribbean colony, and his rôle as a literary patron in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Britain, as well as at poems by two other early Barbadian writers, John Alleyn (or Alleyne) and John Maynard, published in 1713, and at how their works demonstrate the close connections between British literary culture and the Caribbean colonies.

Texts for study: miscellaneous short poems by Codrington, Alleyn, and Maynard. Some of these poems are in Latin; texts and translations are provided.

For Codrington's poems, see here.

For the text and translation of Alleyn's poem, see here.

For the text and translation of Maynard's poem, see Gilmore's article (details and link immediately below, under Background reading).

Background reading: Gikandi, Slavery and the Culture of Taste; Gilmore,“ ‘Sub herili venditur Hasta’: An early eighteenth-century justification of the Slave Trade by a colonial poet” (copy available here).

Week 4

If, as the Trinidadian historian Eric Williams famously suggested, the enslavement of Africans in the Americas came about for purely economic reasons, it soon came to be supported by an explicitly racist ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. One of the most extreme, and also most influential, exponents of this in the eighteenth century was Edward Long, a self-appointed spokesman for the Jamaican plantation-owners. In the chapters on the inhabitants of the island in his History of Jamaica (1774), Long nevertheless reveals the intimacy – in several senses of the term – of the connections between black and white, free and unfree, and how these created what the twentieth-century Jamaican historian Elsa Goveia would call a “slave society”, in which all classes, regardless of power relationships, influenced each other’s culture. It is also instructive to examine Long’s attempt to deal with the case, decidedly awkward for his racist views, of the only black writer identifiable from the eighteenth-century British Caribbean, the Jamaican Francis Williams, who had achieved widespread fame as a practitioner of what was in many ways the defining pursuit of the educated gentleman – the composition of Latin verses.

Texts for study: Long, History of Jamaica (selections); Francis Williams, Latin poem addressed to Governor Haldane, 1759.

We will be looking at the following extracts from Long, History of Jamaica: Book II, Chapter XIII, "Of the Inhabitants"; Book III, Chapters I-III, "Negroes"; Book III, Chapter IV, "Francis Williams." These can be found in Volume II, pp. 260-485, and Long's History is available online through the Historical Texts database which can be accessed from the Warwick Library website. Long prints the Latin text of the poem by Francis Williams, but the translation which Long gives is more than a little tendentious -- please compare it with the more literal prose version here.

Background reading: Williams, Capitalism and Slavery; Goveia, Slave Society; Gilmore, “The British Empire and the Neo-Latin Tradition: The Case of Francis Williams.” For Gilmore's chapter on Francis Williams, see here.

Week 5

To what extent was it possible to aestheticise plantation slavery? The most grandiose attempt to do so was James Grainger’s The Sugar-Cane: A Poem (1764), but a careful reading of this shows not only the yawning gap between reality and representation where Caribbean slavery was concerned, but also how images of slavery reflected divisions of class and nation within the British Isles. At the same time, the self-consciously Scottish Grainger endeavoured to conceptualise a Britishness which would include Scots as well as English, and extend beyond the British Isles to include the Caribbean colonies, or at least their free, property-owning inhabitants. Grainger’s attempt to use the well-established conventions of georgic poetry to find a place for the enslaved within his idealised picture of Caribbean society gained him inclusion in the accepted canon of English poetry for over half a century.

Text for study: Grainger, The Sugar-Cane: A Poem. The 1764 edition is available on ECCO. The complete text is also available in both Gilmore, Poetics of Empire, and Krise, Caribbeana. Gilmore offers more detail in terms of introduction and annotation.

Background reading: As well as Gilmore, Poetics of Empire, see Plasa, Slaves to Sweetness, and Sandiford, Cultural Politics of Sugar.

Week 6 – Reading Week, no seminar

Week 7

The colonial empire allowed British writers to create fantasies about race and identity which often bore little resemblance to reality. An outstanding example of this was the popularity of the Inkle and Yarico story, a tale of a hapless “Indian maid” betrayed by her faithless English lover, with its origins in Ligon’s History of Barbados, which we looked at in Week 1. This went through many rewritings from the mid-seventeenth century onwards in which the unfortunate Yarico was sometimes Amerindian, sometimes African, sometimes both at once, and the different versions show a wide range of attitudes to race and gender. One of the most successful versions was a comic opera by George Colman the Younger (1787), which remained popular with audiences for half a century and was performed across the English-speaking world from New York to Calcutta.

Texts for study: short texts by various authors; Colman, Inkle and Yarico (available in Felsenstein, ed., English Trader, Indian Maid).

Background reading: editorial material in Felsenstein; Bhattacharya, “Family Jewels”; Daileader et al., ed., Women & Others.

Week 8

For eighteenth-century readers and audiences, the typical “West Indian” was not the enslaved African, but the plantation-owner who claimed ownership of his labour force as well. Though usually (but not invariably) of European descent, by this period many were “creoles”, that is, born in the Caribbean, and popular contemporary theories about the influence of climate led to their being stereotyped as inherently different from those born in Europe. The title character of Richard Cumberland’s play, The West Indian (first performed 1771), has all the ardour and impulsiveness of the stereotypical creole, together with a conviction that the great wealth he derives from his slave plantations will overcome every obstacle to the fulfilment of his desires, but he is also treated as a kind of noble savage, whose unfamiliarity with English customs is used by the dramatist for satirical ends.

Text for study: Cumberland, The West Indian (1771).

Background reading: For a slightly earlier (and less favourable) portrayal of a West Indian on the London stage, see the character of Sir Peter Pepperpot in Samuel Foote’s The Patron (1764). Compare also Sir Christopher Curry in Colman’s Inkle and Yarico. For the most famous real-life example, see Gauci’s biography of William Beckford.

Week 9

By the end of the eighteenth century, changes in public opinion in Britain were under way which would lead to the transformation of Caribbean colonial societies. The slave trade was under attack, and slavery itself was being questioned. The earliest published novel in English by a Caribbean-born writer is J. W. Orderson’s Creoleana. Not published until 1842, when the author was in his old age, this was based on Orderson’s own experience of the Barbados of the 1780s and 1790s,. While the conventional love story plays out among the white characters in a manner which suggests a nostalgia for the certainties of the “days of yore”, the misfortunes of the mixed-race Lucy and the manner in which the black hotel-owner Rachael Pringle gets the better of a visiting British prince show some awareness on the part of the author of the complexities and contradictions of the slave society.

Text for study: Orderson, Creoleana.

Background reading: editorial material in Gilmore’s edition of the novel; Orderson’s play, The Fair Barbadian and Faithful Black (reprinted in the same volume); Handler, Unappropriated People.

Week 10

The reality of plantation slavery was very different from Orderson’s somewhat rose-tinted view. Nearly half a century’s worth of the diaries of Thomas Thistlewood, an Englishman who arrived in Jamaica with little material wealth but acquired a modest prosperity as a plantation overseer and later small-scale landowner, demonstrate this in horrific detail.

Text for study: extracts from Thistlewood’s diaries, as published in Hall, In Miserable Slavery.

Background reading: Burnard, Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire; Walvin, The Trader, the Owner, the Slave.

Term 2

Week 1

For several decades, Olaudah Equiano’s Interesting Narrative has been one of the most famous accounts of slavery, not least because it offers the only detailed account of the Middle Passage from the point of view of one of its victims. But is the Narrative all it appears? Is it an unvarnished factual record, or a text carefully crafted for particular ends with considerable literary skill, the means by which Equiano, in the words of a modern critic, became “a self-made man”? How do we assess his comparisons of societies in Western Europe and the Americas, not only with a real or imagined Africa, but also with the Islamic world of the Ottoman Empire?

Text for study: Equiano, Interesting Narrative. The Penguin Classics edition, ed. Vincent Carretta, is particularly recommended.

Background reading: Carretta, Equiano, the African; Walvin, The Trader, the Owner, the Slave.

Week 2

First published in 1831, The History of Mary Prince offers a detailed account, highly unusual in the British Caribbean, of the life of an enslaved woman, who had experienced slavery in Bermuda, in Grand Turk, and in Antigua, before being brought to England by her owner. Published as part of an effort to secure Prince’s legal freedom, the History was of some significance in the campaign which eventually led to the formal ending of British colonial slavery in 1834. While Prince’s text offers an important first-hand view of the experience of enslavement, particularly from a gendered perspective, it also raises questions about the nature of autobiography and the role of her white male editor.

Text for study: Mary Prince, The History of Mary Prince. The Penguin Classics edition, ed. Sara Salih, is particularly recommended.

Background reading: Whitlock, Intimate Empire; Maxwell, “From Revolution to Rebellion”.

Week 3

For both Equiano and Prince, their Christian faith became an important part of their identity. But to what extent, and in what ways, was Christianity presented to the enslaved? In William Marshall Harte’s Lectures on the Gospel of St Matthew (1824), we have a series of sermons preached to a congregation of slaves in Barbados by a clergyman of the Church of England. Harte did not question slavery itself, but his sermons nevertheless led to Harte’s prosecution for preaching to slaves “doctrines of equality inconsistent with their obedience to their masters”.

Text for study: Harte, Lectures on the Gospel of St Matthew (selections).

Background reading: Gilmore, “The Rev. William Harte and attitudes to slavery”; Lambert, White Creole Culture; Lambert and Lester, ed., Colonial lives; Lampe, ed., Christianity in the Caribbean.

Week 4

Belief systems of African origin continued to offer an alternative to Christianity, something used to dramatic effect in the anonymous novel, Hamel, The Obeah Man (1827), in which the title-character is contrasted with an English non-conformist missionary. Very much in the Gothic tradition of M. G. Lewis’s The Monk (1796), Hamel’s themes of perverted faith, lust for power, and desire for an innocent and virtuous woman, are set against the background of slavery, black rebellion, and the claims of Jamaica’s white land-owning classes. Although the author is largely in favour of the status quo, in Hamel himself he has created a dignified and powerful advocate of the rights of the enslaved.

Text for study: Anon., Hamel, The Obeah Man; the Macmillan Caribbean edition (ed. Amon Saba Sakana, notes by John Gilmore) is recommended.

Background reading: additional material in the Broadview Press edition of Hamel by Ward and Watson (which attributes the novel to Cynric Williams). For a rather less melodramatic picture of plantation slavery in Jamaica a few years earlier, see Lewis, Journal of a West India Proprietor.

Week 5

By the early nineteenth century, the spectre haunting everyone with any connection to the propertied classes in the British Caribbean was the success of the Haitian Revolution, in which a decade of bloody struggle had seen the slaves of one of the largest sugar colonies defeat their masters and achieve freedom and independence. The contradictions of Matthew Chapman’s poem “Barbadoes” (1833), in which he simultaneously seeks to paint an idyllic picture of his native island whilst warning against the potential horrors of slave rebellion, are perhaps symbolised by the figure of the unfortunate Maria, who ends her days as a screaming maniac.

Text for study: Chapman, Barbadoes, and other poems.

Background reading: Lambert, White Creole Culture; Williamson, ed., Contrary Voices.

Week 6 – Reading Week, no seminar

Week 7

Was Mary Seacole really “the Black Florence Nightingale”, as a generation of British schoolchildren have now been taught? Or perhaps a figure who, while no less interesting, was a little more complicated? We will look at questions of authenticity and representation in Seacole’s Wonderful Adventures, and the issues raised by the lurking presence (as with Mary Prince) of the white male editor.

Text for study: Seacole, The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands. The Penguin Classics edition, ed. Sara Salih, is particularly recommended.

Background reading: Lambert and Lester, ed., Colonial lives; McDonald, Mary Seacole: The Making of the Myth; Poon, Enacting Englishness; Robinson, Mary Seacole; Whitlock, Intimate Empire.

Week 8

Frieda Cassin’s With Silent Tread is one of the first novels actually published in the British Caribbean, and shows the “sugar colonies” in decline after Emancipation. Against the background of the historical legacies of slavery and racial inequality, a sentimental tale of love and leprosy plays out to a grim conclusion.

Text for study: Cassin (ed. O’Callaghan), With Silent Tread.

Background reading: O'Callaghan, Woman Version; O'Callaghan, Women writing the West Indies.

Week 9

One consequence of the emancipation of enslaved Africans and their descendants was that landowners looked for alternative sources of labour. The most significant in terms of scale was the Indian sub-continent, and between 1838 and 1917 the British Caribbean, particularly Guyana and Trinidad, was transformed by the importation of over four hundred thousand Indians as indentured labourers. Their efforts to maintain their dignity and culture in the face of sometimes appalling conditions on the sugar plantations of the later nineteenth century are the subject of Lutchmee and Dilloo (1877), a novel by Edward Jenkins, a radical British politician who had himself been born in India and who had visited the Caribbean.

Text for study: Jenkins, Lutchmee and Dilloo. Other reprints are available, but the Macmillan Caribbean edition (ed. David Dabydeen) is recommended.

Background reading: Dabydeen and Samaroo, ed., Across the Dark Waters; Jenkins, The Coolie: His Rights and Wrongs.

Week 10

By the second half of the nineteenth century, there were growing demands in the Caribbean colonies for a greater political rôle for black electors. Nevertheless, across the region, the level of direct rule from London actually increased, and a travel book (1888) by J. A. Froude, one of the best known British public intellectuals of the day, argued the imperialist case by painting a lurid picture of the potential consequences of allowing the colonies to come under majority black rule. An Afro-Trinidadian schoolteacher and civil servant, J. J. Thomas, denounced the factual errors and fallacious arguments of Froude’s book in his Froudacity (1889), which became an important text in the development of modern Caribbean nationalism.

Texts for study: Froude, The English in the West Indies; Thomas, Froudacity.

Background reading: Cudjoe, Beyond Boundaries; Davis, Mr. Froude's Negrophobia; Smith, Creole Recitations. For somewhat similar travel narratives by prominent British literary figures, see Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main (first published 1859), and Kingsley, At Last: A Christmas in the West Indies (first published 1871).

Texts for study

Anon. (ed. Amon Saba Sakana, notes by John Gilmore), Hamel, The Obeah Man (Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean, 2008).

Behn, Aphra, Oroonoko (London, 1688). Norton Critical Edition, ed. Joanna Lipking (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1997). PR 3317

Chapman, Matthew James, Barbadoes, and other poems (London, 1833). (Reprint available).

Cassin, Frieda, With Silent Tread: A West Indian Novel (Antigua, n.d. [c. 1890]). Macmillan Caribbean Classics edition, ed. Evelyn O’Callaghan (Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean, 2002). PR 9329.C4196

Codrington, Christopher, miscellaneous poems (copies to be supplied)

Cumberland, Richard, The West Indian (London, 1771). Text in John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera and other Eighteenth-century Plays, selected and introduced by John Hampden (London: Everyman’s Library, 1928, 1970). PR 1269. Original edition available on ECCO.

Equiano, Olaudah, The interesting narrative and other writings, ed. Vincent Carretta. rev. ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2003). HT869.E6 A3

Felsenstein, Frank, ed., English Trader, Indian Maid: Representing Gender, Race and Slavery in the New World – An Inkle and Yarico Reader (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999). PR 1140.W6

Froude, James Anthony, The English in the West Indies: Or, The bow of Ulysses (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1888). Digitalised version available at 

Grainger, James, The Sugar-Cane: A Poem (1764). Available in Gilmore, Poetics of Empire, and in Krise.

Hall, Douglas, In miserable slavery: Thomas Thistlewood in Jamaica, 1750-86 (Macmillan, 1989). F 1884.T4

Harte, William Marshall, Lectures on the Gospel of St Matthew (2 vols., London, 1824). Both volumes available on Google Books, at Harte, Vol 1 and Harte Vol 2

Jenkins, Edward (ed. David Dabydeen), Lutchmee and Dilloo: A Study of West Indian Life (Caribbean Classics) (Caribbean Classics (Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean, 2003)

Ligon, Richard, A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbados, ed. Karen Ordahl Kupperman (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2011) (first pub. 1657)

Long, Edward, The History of Jamaica (3 vols., London : printed for T. Lowndes, 1774). (Available on ECCO)

Maynard, John, Latin poem on the Asiento (1713); text and translation available in Gilmore, “Sub Herili Venditur Hasta”.

Orderson, J. W. [Isaac Williamson], Creoleana: or, Social and Domestic Scenes and Incidents in Barbados in Days of Yore (London, 1842). Macmillan Caribbean Classics edition, ed. John [T.] Gilmore (Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean, 2002). PR 9349.O73

Prince, Mary, The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave (Penguin Classics ed., 2000; ed. Sara Salih) HT869.P6 A3

Seacole, Mary, The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (Penguin Classics ed., 2005; ed. Sara Salih)

Thomas, J. J. (John Jacob), Froudacity: West Indian fables by James Anthony Froude explained by J.J. Thomas (intro. C.L.R. James; biographical note by Donald Wood; London: New Beacon, 1969). F 2131.T4 First published 1889. Text of original edition available online in Digital Library of the Caribbean, here: Froudacity 

Williams, Francis, Latin poem addressed to Governor Haldane of Jamaica (1759); text and translations to be supplied.

Additional reading

Amussen, Susan Dwyer, Caribbean Exchanges: Slavery and the Transformation of English Society, 1640-1700 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).

Bhattacharya, Nandini, “Family Jewels: George Colman's Inkle and Yarico and Connoisseurship,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, Volume 34, Number 2 (Winter 2001), pp. 207-226.

Bolland, O. Nigel, ed., The Birth of Caribbean Civilisation: A Century of Ideas about Culture and Identity, Nation and Society (Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 2004). F 1609.5.B4

Burnard, Trevor, Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire: Thomas Thistlewood and His Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World (University of North Carolina Press, 2004). F 1884.T4

Brathwaite, Edward, The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 1770-1820 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). HC 7166.B7

Brathwaite, Kamau, Roots (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993). PR 9339.B7

Campbell, P. F., Some Early Barbadian History (Barbados, 1993). F 2041.C26

Carretta, Vincent, Equiano, the African: Biography of a self-made man (New York, N.Y.; London: Penguin Books, 2006). HT869.E68 C37

Cudjoe, Selwyn R., Beyond Boundaries: The Intellectual Tradition of Trinidad and Tobago in the Nineteenth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002).

Dabydeen, David, ed., The Black Presence in English Literature (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985). PR 151.N3

Dabydeen, David, and John Gilmore, Cecily Jones, ed., The Oxford Companion to Black British History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). DA 125.N4

Dabydeen, David, and Brinsley Samaroo, ed., Across the Dark Waters: Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean (Basingstoke: Macmillan Caribbean, 1996). F 2191.A1

Daileader, Celia R., and Rhoda E. Johnson and Amilcar Shabazz, ed., Women & Others: Perspectives on Race, Gender and Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007). HQ1075.W66

Davis, N. Darnell, Mr. Froude's Negrophobia, Or, Don Quixote as a Cooke's Tourist (Demerara : Argosy Press, 1888). Available online through Warwick library catalogue.

Dunn, Richard S., Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, (1972). F 1621.D8

Foote, Samuel, The Patron (London: G. Kearsley, 1764). Available on ECCO.

Gauci, Perry, William Beckford: First Prime Minister of the London Empire (Yale University Press, 2013).

Gikandi, Simon, Slavery and the Culture of Taste (Princeton University Press, 2011).

Gilmore, J[ohn] T., “The Rev. William Harte and attitudes to slavery in early nineteenth-century Barbados,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 30, No. 4 (October 1979), pp. 461-474.

Gilmore, John [T.], Faces of the Caribbean (London: Latin America Bureau, 2000). F2169.G4

Gilmore, John [T.], The Poetics of Empire: A Study of James Grainger’s The Sugar Cane (London: The Athlone Press, 2000). PR 3499.A7

Gilmore, John [T.], “The British Empire and the Neo-Latin Tradition: The Case of Francis Williams,” in Barbara Goff, ed., Classics and Colonialism (London: Duckworth, 2005), pp. 92-106. PA 3011.C5

Gilmore, John T., “ ‘Sub herili venditur Hasta’: An early eighteenth-century justification of the Slave Trade by a colonial poet”, in Yasmin Haskell and Juanita Feros Ruys, ed., Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, Volume 360 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2010), pp. 221-239.

Goveia, Elsa V., Slave society in the British Leeward Islands at the end of the eighteenth century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965). F 2006.G6

Hall, Douglas, In Miserable Slavery: Thomas Thistlewood in Jamaica, 1750-86 (London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989). F1884.T4

Handler, Jerome S., The Unappropriated People: Freedmen in the Slave Society of Barbados (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974). HT1105.B3 H35

Hulme, Peter, Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797 (London: Methuen, 1986). F 2177.H8

Jenkins, Edward (intro. Letizia Gramaglia), The Coolie: His Rights and Wrongs (Caribbean Press for the Government of Guyana, 2010). F 2391.C5

Joseph, E. L., Warner Arundell: The Adventures of a Creole (London, 1838). New edition, ed. Lise Winer et al. (Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2001). PR 9329.J68

Kingsley, Charles, At Last: A Christmas in the West Indies (new ed., London : Macmillan, 1889). F 2121.K4 (First published 1871.)

Krise, Thomas W., Caribbeana: An Anthology of English Literature of the West Indies, 1657-1777 (Chicago and London, Chicago University Press, 1999). PR 9325.C2

Lambert, David, White Creole culture, politics and identity during the age of abolition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005). F 2041.L36

Lambert, David and Alan Lester, ed., Colonial lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). DA 16.8.C64 (Includes chapter on William Shrewsbury, missionary in Barbados and elsewhere – useful for comparison with Harte – and one on Mary Seacole)

Lampe, Armando, ed., Christianity in the Caribbean: Essays on Church History (Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 2001). BR 640.C4

Lewis, Gordon K., Main Currents in Caribbean Thought, 1492-1900 (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983). F 2169.L3

Lewis, Matthew [Gregory], Journal of a West India Proprietor (London, 1834). Oxford World’s Classics edition, ed. Judith Terry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). F 1871.L3

McDonald, Lynn, Mary Seacole: The Making of the Myth (Toronto: Iguana Books, 2014).

Maxwell, Clarence Vincent Henry, “From Revolution to Rebellion: Changing approaches to resistance by persons of African descent in Bermuda, 1700-1834” (Warwick PhD thesis, 1998). res DIS 1998 104

O'Callaghan, Evelyn, Woman Version: Theoretical Approaches to West Indian Fiction by Women (London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1993). PR 9324.O2

O'Callaghan, Evelyn, Women writing the West Indies, 1804-1939: "A hot place, belonging to us" (London; New York: Routledge, 2004). PR 9320.5.O2

Plasa, Carl, Textual Politics from Slavery to Postcolonialism: Race and Identification (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000). PN 605.P3 (Includes chapter on Equiano)

Plasa, Carl, Slaves to Sweetness: British and Caribbean Literatures of Sugar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009). PR 9325.P52 (Includes chapters on Grainger and M. G. Lewis)

Plasa Carl, and Betty J. Ring, ed., The Discourse of Slavery: Aphra Behn to Toni Morrison (London; New York: Routledge, 1994). PR 408.S5 (Includes chapter on Behn and Oroonoko)

Poon, Angelia, Enacting Englishness in the Victorian Period: Colonialism and the Politics of Performance (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008). PR 871.P6 (Includes chapter on Mary Seacole)

Roberts, Peter A., From oral to literate culture: Colonial experience in the English West Indies (Kingston, Jamaica: The Press, University of the West Indies, 1997). PE 3301.R6

Robinson, Jane, Mary Seacole: The Charismatic Black Nurse who became a Heroine of the Crimea (London: Constable, 2005). RT37.S43 R63

Sandiford, Keith A., The Cultural Politics of Sugar: Caribbean Slavery and Narratives of Colonialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) HD9114.W42 S26

Schwartz, Stuart B., ed., Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004). HD9100.5.T76 (Especially final chapter on Barbados.)

Smith, Faith, Creole Recitations: John Jacob Thomas and Colonial Formation in the Late Nineteenth-century Caribbean (University of Virginia Press, 2002).

Todd, Janet, The secret life of Aphra Behn (new ed., London: Pandora, 2000). PR 3317.T6

Trollope, Anthony, The West Indies and the Spanish Main (London: Cass, 1968). F1611.T7 (First published 1859.)

Walvin, James, The Trader, the Owner, the Slave: Parallel Lives in the Age of Slavery (London: Jonathan Cape, 2007). HT1322.W35 (On Equiano and Thistlewood.)

Whitlock, Gillian, The Intimate Empire: Reading Women's Autobiography (London; New York: Cassell, 2000). PR 9080.5.W47 (Includes chapters on Mary Prince and Mary Seacole.)

Williams, Cynric R. (ed. Candace Ward and Tim Watson; foreword by Kamau Brathwaite), Hamel, The Obeah Man (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2010). PR5834.W55

Williams, Eric [Eustace], Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944). HC 7311.C6

Williamson, Karina, ed., Contrary Voices: Representations of West Indian Slavery, 1657-1834 (Kingston, Jamaica: The Press, University of the West Indies, 2008).

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