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Cutts, Robert L., An Empire of Schools: Japan’s Universities and the Molding of a National Power Elite (Armonk, NY, 1997)


Kataoka, Hiromitsu, ‘Japan: The Elite Legacies of Meija and World War II,’ in Dogan and Higley, eds., Elites, pp. 189-211.


Koh, Byung Chul, Japan’s Administrative Elite (Berkeley, 1989)


Pratt, Edward E., Japan’s Protoindustrial Elite: The Economic Foundations of the Gono (Cambridge, Mass., 1999)


Rothacher, Albrecht, The Japanese Power Elite (New York, 1993)


Takane, Masa’aki, The Political Elite in Japan: Continuity and Change in Modernization (Berkeley, 1981)