Skip to main content Skip to navigation

'The New Machiavellians'

‘The New Machiavellians’: Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), Gaetano Mosca (1858-1941), Robert Michels (1876-1936)


Albertoni, Ettore A., Mosca and the Theory of Elitism (Oxford, 1987)


Bobbio, Norberto, On Mosca and Pareto (Geneva, 1972)


Finocchiaro, Maurice A., Beyond Right and Left: Democratic Elitism in Mosca and Gramsci (New Haven, 1999)


Michels, Robert, Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy, translated by Eden and Cedar Paul (1915; rept. New York, 1959) [Originally published as Zur Soziologie der Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie (Leipzig, 1911] [For ‘The Iron Law of Oligarchy’]


Mosca, Gaetano, The Ruling Class, edited and revised by Arthur Livingston, translated by Hannah D. Kahn (New York, 1939) [Originally published as Elementi di scienza politica (Turin, 1896)]


Pareto, Vilfredo, The Rise and Fall of the Elites, with an introduction by Hans L. Zetterberg (Totowa, NJ, 1968) [Originally published as Un’applicazione di teorie sociologiche in 1901]


Pareto, Vilfredo, Sociological Writings, selected and introduced by S.E. Finer, translated by Derick Mirfin (London, 1966)


Powers, Charles H., Vilfredo Pareto (Beverly Hills, 1987)


Zeitlin, Irving M., Ideology and the Development of Sociological Theory, 5th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994) [Chapters 16-18]