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HA321: Rome before Avignon Bibliography



Papal patronage in Rome 1198 - 1330


                      The period extending from the election of the thirty-eight year-old Innocent III in January 1198 until the death of the Pope Boniface VIII, shortly after the abortive French-inspired kidnap attempt at Anagni, in October 1303 is one of the most important, turbulent and influential periods of Roman history. A resurgent papacy and its titanic struggle with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, together with the rise of the new religious orders, chief among them the Franciscans and the Dominicans, set the political and religious stage. The partial reconstruction and refurbishment of the great Early Christian basilicas of the Lateran, Saint Peters, San Paolo fuori le mura and Santa Maria Maggiore stimulated a revival of mosaic and wall-painting in Rome. Later in the century, under the influence of the Tuscan mason Arnolfo di Cambio, the papacy played a major rôle in the introduction of the effigial tomb to central Italy. The recent cleaning (1994) of the papal chapel of the old Lateran palace, the Sancta Sanctorum has transformed the history of Roman painting in the last quarter of the century, both within the city walls and, most crucially, its relationship to the decoration of the Franciscan mother-house, San Francesco at Assisi, which will be considered in detail. Other important discoveries have been made at SS. Quattro Coronati. The exile of the papacy at Lyons in the 1240s, the growingly cosmopolitan nature of the College of Cardinals, the election of three French popes Urban IV, Clement IV, and Martin IV, and the international links of the new religious orders were all responsible for the introduction of new artistic tastes and northern gothic influences into Rome and its region. Assisi, and the cities of Anagni, Orvieto and Viterbo, which formed the favourite summer residences of the papacy, will be studied. The aim of the course is to examine the multifarious nature of Roman art in this century, revealed by recent restorations and discoveries and by its reaction to external stimuli.



                          AB = Art Bulletin

                          BM = Burlington Magazine

                          CBCR = R.Krautheimer, Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae,

                              Vatican City 1937-1977

                              DOP = Dumbarton Oaks Papers

                              JWCI = Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes

                              MKHIF = Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes, Florenz

                              PBSR = Papers of the British School at Rome

                              PPS = J.Gardner, Patrons,Painters & Saints, Aldershot 1994.

                              PBSR = Papers of the British School at Rome

                              ZfKg = Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte

                              pb = paperback edition available

                              *particularly recommended

                              The University Library contains important databases and bibliographies in particular the Art Index and Dissertation Abstracts. Students should familiarize themselves with their use. Almost all the

                              items cited are in the Library.


                                  I. Reference Works

                                  II. Sources

                                  III. Topography

                                  IV. Historical Background

                                    i) Church History

                                    ii) Individual Popes

                                    V. Italy

                                    VI. Rome: General Works

                                    VII. Architecture

                                    VIII. Individual Churches

                                          a) Rome

                                          b) Outside Rome

                                          IX. Museum and Exhibition Catalogues

                                          X. Painting and Mosaic: General

                                          XI. Rome

                                          XII. Naples and Southern Italy

                                          XIII. Iconography

                                          XIV. Individual Painters

                                          XV. Classical Painting and Mosaic

                                          XVI. Sculpture

                                                i. The Cosmati

                                                ii.Arnolfo di Cambio

                                                XVII. Tomb Sculpture

                                                XVIII. Metalwork and Embroidery

                                                I. REFERENCE

                                                Cross F,Livingstone E. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church several eds.

                                                Kaftal G Iconography of the Saints in Tuscan Painting Florence 1952.

                                                Kelly J The Oxford Dictionary of Popes Oxford 1986 pb.

                                                Harper J The Forms and Orders of the Western Church Oxford 1991.

                                                Galbreath D Papal Heraldry 2nd.ed. London 1972.

                                                Ladner GB Die Päpstbildnisse des Altertums und Mittelalters Vatican City 1941-1984.

                                                II. SOURCES

                                                (i) Documentary

                                                Osborne J(ed) Master Gregorius The Marvels of Rome Toronto 1987.

                                                Bolton B Too important to neglect : the Gesta Innocentii PP III," I.Wood, G.A.Loud eds. Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages London 1991, 87-99.

                                                Bettarini R,Barocchi P(eds) Giorgio Vasari Le Vite de più eccellenti Pittori, Scultori e Architetti Florence

                                                        1966 - The only full & trustworthy English translation is by Vere, London 1912.

                                                        (ii) Visual

                                                        Waetzoldt S Die Kopien des 17. Jahrhunderts nach Mosaiken und Malereien in Rom Vienna/Munich 1964

                                                        Gardner J "Copies of Roman Mosaics in Edinburgh" BM 115 (1973) 583-591.

                                                        Osborne J, Claridge A Mosaics and Wall-Paintings in Roman Churches, London 1996

                                                                Other Mosaics, Paintings, Sarcophagi and small objects, London 1998

                                                                III. TOPOGRAPHY

                                                                Roma (Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano) Milan 1993.

                                                                Lazio (Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano) Milan 1981.

                                                                Umbria (Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano) Milan 1978.

                                                                Napoli (Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano) Milan 1976.

                                                                Romano S,Parlato E. Roma e il Lazio Milan 1992

                                                                IV. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

                                                                (i) Church History

                                                                Barraclough G The Medieval Papacy London 1968 pb.

                                                                Ullmann W A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages London 1972.

                                                                *Morris C The Papal Monarchy Oxford 1989 pb.

                                                                Partner P The Lands of Saint Peter London 1972.

                                                                Waley D The Papal State in the Thirteenth century London 1961.

                                                                *Southern RW Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages Harmondsworth 1970 pb.

                                                                Housley N The Italian Crusades Oxford 1982.

                                                                Lansing C Power and Purity Cathar Heresy in Medieval Italy, Oxford 1998 pb

                                                                *Brentano R Two Churches England and Italy, Princeton 1968

                                                                Gardner J "Legates, Cardinals and Kings. England and Italy in the thirteenth century", Seidel M. ed., L'Europa e l'arte italiana, Venice 2000, pp. 75-94

                                                                (ii) Individual Popes

                                                                Innocent III (1198-1216)

                                                                Sayers J Innocent III London 1994.

                                                                Tillman H Pope Innocent III Amsterdam 1980.

                                                                Nicholas IV (1288-1292)

                                                                Gardner, J "The artistic patronage of Pope Nicholas IV" in Annali della Scuola Normale di Pisa, Pisa 1997 pp 1-8 (Extract in Library)

                                                                Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

                                                                Boase TSR Boniface VIII London 1933.

                                                                Rash-Fabbri N "Boniface VIII and honorific portraiture observations on the half-length image in the Vatican" Gesta 26,i.(1987) 47-58.

                                                                Righetti M (ed) Bonifacio VIII e il suo tempo, Milan 2000 Exhibition Catalogue

                                                                V. ITALY

                                                                Waley D The Italian City Republics Various eds. pb

                                                                Kantorowicz E Frederick the Second 1194-1250 London 1931.

                                                                Romanini AM(ed) Federico II e l'Arte del Duecento Italiano Galatina 1980.

                                                                Runciman S The Sicilian Vespers Cambridge 1958.

                                                                Abulafia D Frederick II London 1988.

                                                                Tronzo W (ed) Intellectual Life at the Court of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen

                                                                Washington 1994

                                                                Dunbabin J Charles I of Anjou London 1998

                                                                Abulafia D "The state of research: Charles of Anjou reassessed", Journal of Modern History, 26, I, (2000) pp 93-114

                                                                VI. ROME: GENERAL WORKS

                                                                Dupré-Theseider E. Roma dal Comune del Popolo alla Signoria Pontificia (1252-1377) Rome 1952.

                                                                *Krautheimer R Rome Profile of a City 312-1308 Princeton 1980 (pb). An indispensable introduction.

                                                                *Brentano R Rome before Avignon Princeton 1974 (pb).

                                                                  Holmes G Florence, Rome & the origins of the Renaissance Oxford 1986 pb. Review by J.Gardner in Journal of Ecclesiastical History 39, (1988) 529-594.

                                                                  Davis C "Ptolemy of Lucca and the Roman Republic" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 118 (1974) 31-50.

                                                                  Gardner J "The French Connection : thoughts about French patrons and Italian Art c.1250-1300" C.M.Rosenberg ed, Art and Politics in Late Medieval & Renaissance Italy Notre Dame/London 1990 82-102.

                                                                  Romanini AM (ed) Roma nel Duecento, Turin 1991

                                                                  VII. ARCHITECTURE

                                                                  Shearer C The Renaissance of architecture in south Italy Cambridge 1935.

                                                                  Wagner-Rieger R Die italienische Baukunst zu Beginn der Gotik Graz/Cologne 1956

                                                                  Bruzelius C "Ad modum Franciae: Charles of Anjou and gothic architecture in the Kingdom of Sicily" J.Soc. of Architectural Historians 50, 4 (1991) 402-420.

                                                                  Pace V,Bagnoli M(eds). Il Gotico europeo in Italia Naples 1995.

                                                                  Priester A "Bell-towers and building workshops in medieval Rome" J.Soc.of Architectural Historians 52 (1993) 199-220.

                                                                  de Blaauw S Cultus et Decor Rome 1994 Review by J Gardner, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 55, (1996) pp. 482-484

                                                                  Krautheimer R CBCR Rome 1937 - 1977 (see also entries for individual churches)

                                                                  Bruzelius C "Charles of Anjou and the religious architecture of the French in Italy. Some preliminary observations on the Labour force" Seidel M ed, L'Europa e l'arte italiana, Venice 2000, pp 95-108.

                                                                  Radke G "Form and Function in thirteenth-century papal palaces", J Guillaume ed., Architecture et vie sociale. L'organisation intérieure des grandes demeures à la fin du Moyen Age et à la Renaissance, Paris 1994, pp 11-24

                                                                  VIII. INDIVIDUAL CHURCHES

                                                                  (a) Rome

                                                                  San Giovanni in Laterano (CBCR V).

                                                                  Mitchell C "The Lateran fresco of Boniface VIII" JWCI 14 (1951) 1-6.

                                                                  Dickson G "The crowd at the feet of Boniface VII: pilgrimage, crusade and the first Roman Jubilee (1300)" Journal of Medieval History, 25 (1999), pp 279-307

                                                                  Santa Maria in Aracoeli

                                                                  Malmstrom R S.Maria in Aracoeli at Rome Ph.D. New York Univ. 1973.

                                                                  Santa Maria in Trastevere

                                                                  Kinney D S.Maria in Trastevere from its founding to 1215. Ph.D New York Univ. 1975.

                                                                  Tronzo W(ed) "Apse decoration, the liturgy and the perception of art in medieval Rome: S.Maria in Trastevere & S.Maria Maggiore" Italian Church Decoration of the Middle Ages & Early Renaissance Bologna (1989) 167-193.

                                                                  Santa Maria Maggiore (CBCR III)

                                                                  Karpp H Die Mosaiken in Santa Maria Maggiore zu Rom Baden Baden 1966. (Plates)

                                                                  Gardner J "Pope Nicholas IV and the decoration of Santa Maria Maggiore" ZfKg 36 (1973)1 - 50 PPS

                                                                  San Paolo fuori le mura (CBCR V)

                                                                  Gardner J "San Paolo fuori le mura, Nicholas III & Pietro Cavallini" ZfKg 34 (1971) 240-248 PPS.

                                                                  Pace V "Committenza benedettina a Roma : il caso di San Paolo fuori le mura" ZfKg 54 (1991) 181-189.

                                                                  San Pietro in Vaticano (CBCR V)

                                                                  Krautheimer R St. Peters and Medieval Rome Rome 1985.

                                                                  Tronzo W "The prestige of Saint Peter's: observations on the function of monumental narrative cycles in Italy" H.Kessler & M.S.Simpson eds: Pictorial Narrative in Antiquity & the Middle Ages (Studies in the History of Art, 16) Washington (1985) 93-112.

                                                                  Hueck I "Die Maler der Apostelszenen im Atrium von Alt.-St. Peter" MKHIF 25 (1981) 279-323.

                                                                  Kessler H "Caput et Speculum Omnium Ecclesiarum: Old St. Peter's and church decoration in medieval Latium" in W.Tronzo ed: Church Decoration 119-146.

                                                                  Harding C "Dissent, Dissatisfaction and Papal self-fashioning : Pope Gregory IX's response to the thirteenth-century reform movement in the façade mosaic of San Pietro di in Vaticano,"RACAR,22,i-ii,(1995),pp.29 - 39

                                                                  SS. Quattro Coronati (CBCR IV)

                                                                  Mitchell J "St.Silvester & Constantine at the SS. Quattro Coronati" Federico II II pp.15-32 (see Section V)

                                                                  Draghi A "Il ciclo di affreschi rinvenuto nel convento dei SS. Quattro Coronati a Roma: un capitolo inedito della pittura romana del Duecento", Rivista dell' Istituto Nazionale d'Archeologia e Storia dell'Arte, 54 (1999) pp 115-166

                                                                  Sohn A "Bilder als Zeichen der Herrschaft. Die Silvesterkapelle in SS. Quattro Coronati (Rom)", Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 35 (1997) pp 7-47

                                                                  Sancta Sanctorum

                                                                    Gardner J "Nicholas III,s oratory of the Sancta Sanctorum and its decoration" BM 115 (1973)


                                                                          *Pietrangeli C(ed). Sancta Sanctorum Milan 1995. Essays by Gardner, Romano, Andolor

                                                                          (b) Outside Rome


                                                                          Smith MQ "Anagni: an example of medieval typological decoration" PBSR 33 (1965) 1-47.

                                                                          G.Giammaria ed., Un Universo di simboli Gli Affreschi della Cripta nella Cattedrale di Anagni,

                                                                          Rome 2001

                                                                          San Francesco Assisi

                                                                          (i) Architecture

                                                                          Hertlein E Die Basilika von San Francesco in Assisi Gestaltung, Bedeutung, Herkunft, Florence 1974

                                                                          Scarpellini P(ed) Ludovico da Pietralunga La Basilica di San Francesco d'Assisi Treviso 1982.

                                                                          Nessi S La Basilica di San Francesco in Assisi e la sua documentazione storica Assisi 1982

                                                                          Schenkluhn W San Francesco in Assisi Darmstadt 1989. Review by I.Hueck Kunstchronik 45 (1992) 296-306.

                                                                          Wiener J Die Bauskulptur von San Francesco in Assisi Werl 1991.

                                                                          (ii) Decoration

                                                                            Belting H Die Oberkirche von San Francesco in Assisi Berlin 1977 See review by J.Gardner Kunstchronik 32 (1979) 63-84. An English version of this review is available in the Library.

                                                                            Poeschke J Die Kirche San Francesco in Assisi und ihre Wandmalereien Munich 1985.

                                                                            *Tintori L,Meiss M. The Painting of the Life of Saint Francis in Assisi New York 1962.

                                                                            Cannon J "Dating the frescoes by the Maestro di San Francesco at Assisi" BM 124 (1982) 65-69.

                                                                            White J "The date of the Legend of St.Francis at Assisi" BM 98 (1956) 344-350.

                                                                            Stubblebine J Assisi and the Rise of Vernacular Art New York 9 (1985). See the important review by J.White BM 128 (1986) p 828-830.

                                                                            Martin F Die Apsisverglasung der Oberkirche von S. Francesco in Assisi, Worms 1993

                                                                            Romano S La Basilica di San Francesco ad Assisi Pittori, botteghe, strategie narrative,

                                                                            Rome 2001. Review by J. Gardner, BM, 144, (2002) 295-296.


                                                                            Matthiae G Gli affreschi di Grottaferrata e un'ipotesi cavalliniana Rome 1970.

                                                                            IX. MUSEUM AND EXHIBITION CATALOGUES

                                                                            Pittura Italiana del Duecento e Trecento Mostra Giottesca Florence 1937.

                                                                            *Fragmenta Picta Rome 1989. Review by H.Toubert Bulletin Monumental 149 (1991) 77-81.

                                                                            Volbach W I Dipinti dal X Secolo fino a Giotto (Catalogo della Pinacoteca Vaticana I) Vatican City 1979.

                                                                            The Glory of Byzantium. Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era AD 843 - 1261 New York 1997

                                                                            The Treasury of San Francesco in Assisi, New York 1999

                                                                            Opus Anglicanum, London 1963

                                                                            X. PAINTING AND MOSAIC: GENERAL


                                                                            *Nordhagen PJ,L'Orange HP. Mosaics London 1966.

                                                                            Oakeshott W The Mosaics of Rome London 1967.

                                                                            Matthiae G Mosaici medievali delle chiese di Roma, Rome 1967

                                                                            Harding C "The production of mediaeval mosaics : the Orvieto evidence" DOP 43 (1989) 73-102.


                                                                            Toesca P Il Medioevo Turin 1927.

                                                                            Garrison EB Studies in the History of Mediaeval Italian Painting Florence 1953-1962.

                                                                            Garrison EB Italian Romanesque Panel Painting an Illustrated Index Florence 1949.

                                                                            *Demus O Romanesque Mural Painting London 1970.

                                                                            *White J The Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space London 1987 pb.

                                                                            Tronzo W(ed) Italian Church Decoration of the Middle Ages & Early Renaissance Bologna 1989.

                                                                            White J Painting and Architecture in Italy Harmondsworth 1987, pb. The best general guide available in English.

                                                                              Blume D Wandmalerei als Ordenspropaganda Worms 1983. Review by J.Cannon BM 127 (1985) 234-235.

                                                                              *Demus O Byzantine Art and the West London 1970.

                                                                              Marques L La Peinture du Duecento en Italie centrale Paris 1987.

                                                                              Gardner J "Altars, altarpieces and art history: legislation and usage" E.Borsook,F.Superbi

                                                                                    eds: Italian Altarpieces 1250-1530 Oxford (1994) 5-39.

                                                                                    Andaloro M Arte e Iconografia a Roma da Costantino a Cola di Rienzo, Milan 2000 Several

                                                                                    Romano S (eds.) useful essays

                                                                                    XI. ROME

                                                                                    Garber J Wirkungen der frühchristlichen Gemäldezyklen der alten Peters - und Paulsbasiliken in Rom Berlin 1918.

                                                                                    Matthiae G Pittura Romana nel Medioevo Rome 1966.

                                                                                    Romano S Eclissi di Roma Rome 1992. Review by J.Gardner in BM 135 (1993) 631-632.

                                                                                    Kessler H "L'antica basilica di San Pietro come fonte e ispirazione per la decorazione delle chiese medievali" Fragmenta Picta 45-64.

                                                                                    Borsook E The Mural Painters of Tuscany 2nd ed. Oxford 1980.

                                                                                    Bolton B "Advertise the Message: images in Rome at the turn of the twelfth century" D.Wood ed: The Church and the Arts (Studies in Church History 28) Oxford (1993) 117-130.

                                                                                    Belting H Likeness and Presence. A history of the image in the era before art, Chicago 1994 pb

                                                                                    XII. NAPLES AND SOUTHERN ITALY

                                                                                    Bertaux E L'Art dans l'Italie méridionale Paris 1904.

                                                                                    Bologna F I Pittori alla Corte angioina di Napoli 1266-1414 Rome 1969.

                                                                                    Leone de Castris PL. Arte di Corte nella Napoli Angioina Florence 1986.

                                                                                    XIII. ICONOGRAPHY

                                                                                    Ihm C Die Programme der christlichen Apsismalerei von vierten Jahrhundert bis zur Mitte des achten Jahrhunderts 2nd ed, Wiesbaden 1992. (On earlier churches but important for later reflections).

                                                                                    Bruyne L de L'antica serie di ritratti papali della basilica di San Paolo fuori le mura Rome 1934.

                                                                                    Schiller G Iconography of Christian Art London 1977 ff.

                                                                                    Sullivan RW "Saints Peter and Paul: some ironic aspects of their imaging" Art History 17 (1994) 59-80.

                                                                                    Verdier P Le Couronnement de la Vierge Paris 1980.

                                                                                    Baschet J Les Justices de Au-Delà, Les reprêsentations de l'Enfer en France et en Italie (XIIe - XV siècle), Rome 1993

                                                                                    Paravicini Bagliani A Le chiavi e la tiara, Rome 1998

                                                                                            Il corpo del Papa, Turin 1994

                                                                                            XIV. INDIVIDUAL PAINTERS

                                                                                            Pietro Cavallini

                                                                                            Toesca P Pietro Cavallini London 1960.

                                                                                            White J "Pietro Cavallini and the lost frescoes of San Paolo" JWCI 19 (1956) 84-95.

                                                                                            Matthiae G Pietro Cavallini Rome 1972.

                                                                                            Hetherington P Pietro Cavallini London 1979. See review by J.Gardner BM 122 (1980) 255-258.

                                                                                            Hetherington P "The mosaics by Pietro Cavallini in Santa Maria in Trastevere" JWCI 33 (1970) 84-106.

                                                                                            Hetherington P "A Cavallinesque Panel Painting in Grenoble" Gazette de Beaux-Arts 103 (1984) 95-98.

                                                                                            Barbero A "Un documento inedito su Pietro Cavallini" Paragone 40 (1989) 84-88.

                                                                                            Guglielmi Faldi C. "Cavallini Pietro" Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani 22 (1979) 775-784.

                                                                                            Restauri agli Affreschi del Cavallini a Roma (Quaderni di Palazzo Venezia 4) Rome 1987.

                                                                                            Tomei A Pietro Cavallini, Rome 2000

                                                                                            Gardner J "Gian Paolo Panini,San Paolo fuori le mura and Pietro di Vavallini. Some notes on colour and setting,"O. Francisci Osti ed., Mosaics of Friendship Studies in Art and History for Eve Borsook, Florence 1999,pp.245 - 254


                                                                                            Aubert A Zur Lösung der Cimabue Frage Leipzig 1907.

                                                                                            Nicholson A Cimabue Princeton 1932.

                                                                                            Battisti E Cimabue Milan 1963.

                                                                                            Sindona E Cimabue e il momento figurativo pregiottesco Milan 1975.

                                                                                            Hueck I "Cimabue und das Bildprogrammen des Oberkirche von San Francesco in Assisi" MKHIF (1981) 279-324.

                                                                                            Bellosi L Cimabue Milan 1998

                                                                                            Filippo Rusuti

                                                                                            Gardner J "Bizuti, Rusuti, Nicolaus and Johannes : some neglected documents concerning Roma artists in France" BM 129 (1987) 381-383.

                                                                                            Jacopo Torriti

                                                                                            Coor-Achenbach G. "The earliest Italian representation of the Coronation of the Virgin" BM 99 (1957)


                                                                                                    Tomei A Jacobus Torriti Pictor Rome 1990

                                                                                                    Giotto di Bondone (?1267-1337)

                                                                                                    Giotto e il suo tempo Rome 1971 (Congress Acts).

                                                                                                    Murray P "Notes on some early Giotto sources" JWCI 16 (1952), 58-80.

                                                                                                    *Meiss M Giotto and Assisi New York 1960 pb.

                                                                                                    Previtali G Giotto e la sua bottega Milan 1967.

                                                                                                    Gardner J "The Stefaneschi altarpiece : a reconsideration" JWCI 37 (1974) 72-96 (PPS).

                                                                                                    Gardner J "The Louvre Stigmatization and the problem of the narrative altarpiece" ZfKg 45 (1982) 217-247 (PPS).

                                                                                                      Smart A The Assisi Problem and the Art of Giotto Oxford 1971. Review by V.Pace Bollettino d'Arte 59 (1974) 94-96.

                                                                                                      Bellosi L La Pecora di Giotto Turin 1985. Review by J Cannon, BM 180, (1988), p 701-702

                                                                                                      Gardner J "Giotto,First of the Moderns or last of the Ancients?" Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 44 (1991) 63-78. (Offprint in Library).

                                                                                                      Maginnis H "Giotto's world through Vasari's eyes" ZfKg 56 (1993) 385-408.

                                                                                                      Maginnis H Painting in the Age of Giotto University Park 1997

                                                                                                      Ladis A Giotto and the World of Italian Art An Anthology of Literature, New York 1988

                                                                                                      Giotto Bilancio critico di sessant'anni di studi e ricerche, Florence 2000

                                                                                                      Giotto La Croce di Santa Maria Novella, Florence 2001

                                                                                                      XV. CLASSICAL PAINTING AND MOSAIC

                                                                                                      Sear F Roman Wall and Vault Mosaics Heidelberg 1977.

                                                                                                      Ling R Roman Painting Cambridge 1991 pb.

                                                                                                      Blanckenhagen PH von,Alexander C. The Paintings from Boscotrecase Heidelberg 1962.

                                                                                                      Benton JR Influences of Ancient Roman Wall-Painting on Late Thirteenth Century Painting PhD, Brown University 1983.

                                                                                                      Benton JR "Some ancient mural motifs in Italian painting around 1300"ZfKg 48 (1985) 151-176.

                                                                                                      Dunbabin K Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World Cambridge 1999

                                                                                                      XVI. SCULPTURE

                                                                                                      Pope-Hennessy J Italian Gothic sculpture ed.2, London 1971.

                                                                                                      Garms J et al Die mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium vom 13 bis 15. Jahrhundert II, Vienna 1994.

                                                                                                      Garms J,Romanini AM(eds). Skulptur und Grabmal des Spätmittelalters in Italien Vienna 1990.

                                                                                                      Poeschke J Die Skulptur des Mittelalters in Italian, Romanik Munich 1998

                                                                                                      A.Moskowitz, Italian Gothic Sculpture, Cambridge 2000

                                                                                                      (i) The Cosmati

                                                                                                      Hutton E The Cosmati London 1950.

                                                                                                      Gardner J "The Capocci Tabernacle in Santa Maria Maggiore" PBSR 38 (1970) 220-230 PPS.

                                                                                                      Glass D Studies in Cosmatesque Pavements Oxford 1980.

                                                                                                      Claussen PC Magistri Doctissimi Romani Stuttgart 1977. Review by I.Herklotz Kunstchronik 41 (1988) 666-685.

                                                                                                      (ii) Arnolfo di Cambio

                                                                                                      Gardner J "Arnolfo di Cambio & Roman Tomb Design" BM 115 (1973) 420-439.

                                                                                                      Romanini AM Arnolfo di Cambio e lo "stil novo" del gotico italiano

                                                                                                              Milan 1969.

                                                                                                              Pace V "Questioni arnolfiane: l'Antico e la Francia" ZfKg 59 (1991) 335-373.

                                                                                                              Rash N "Boniface VIII - honorific portraiture: observations on the half-length image in the Vatican" Gesta 26 (1987) 47-58

                                                                                                              Moskowitz A "Arnolfo, non-Arnolfo: new (and some old) observations on the ciborium in San Paolo fuori le mura" Gesta 37 (1998) 88 - 102

                                                                                                              XVII. TOMB SCULPTURE

                                                                                                              Gregorovius F The Tombs of the Popes various eds.

                                                                                                              Mann HG Tombs and Portraits of the Popes of the Middle Ages London 1928.

                                                                                                              Bauch K Das mittelalterliche Grabbild Berlin 1976.

                                                                                                              Herklotz I "Mittelalterliche Baldachingräber in S.Lorenzo fuori le mura" ZfKg 43 (1980) 11-20.

                                                                                                              Herklotz I "Sepulcra" e "Monumenta" del Medioevo, Rome 1985.

                                                                                                              *Gardner J The Tomb & the Tiara Oxford 1992. Reviews: I.Herklotz ZfKg 57 (1994) 134-141 & D.Pincus Speculum 69,3 (1994) 773-775.

                                                                                                              Garms J (ed) Die mittelalterlichen Grabmäler in Rom und Latium 2 vols Rome/Vienna 1981,1994

                                                                                                              XVIII. METALWORK AND EMBROIDERY

                                                                                                              Il Tesoro della Basilica di San Francesco ad Assisi Assisi 1980.

                                                                                                              Mortari L Il Tesoro della Cattedrale di Anagni Rome 1963.

                                                                                                              Gardner J "Some cardinals' seals of the thirteenth century" JWCI 38 (1976)72-96.

                                                                                                              Julian Gardner.

                                                                                                              May 2002