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Suggested Secondary Reading


These suggestions are no more than that, and also no more than a starting point. Different students have different needs and the essence of literary study is personal exploration – of the catalogue and shelves of the library, and of CD-Rom and online resources such as LION, JSTOR and MUSE, available through the library website. You are also reminded of the bibliographic information supplied in lecture handouts. Be aware that academic study changes with times, trends and movements. A few of the texts below are more than thirty years old. This I point out not to reduce their potential contemporary relevance, nor their usefulness to understanding and enhancing your reading of novels, but to make you aware of their vintage when they present specific - sometimes historically specific - arguments and points.

Basic Reading List

1. General

Robert Alter, Partial Magic: The Novel as a Self-Conscious Genre (1975)

Erich Auerbach, Mimesis (1946)

Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination (1981)

- Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics (1984)

Roland Barthes, A Barthes Reader, ed. by Susan Sontag, (1982)

- Writing Degree Zero (1967)

George Becker ed., Documents of Modern Literary Realism (1963)

Michael Bell, The Sentiment of Reality (1983)

Wayne Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction (1983)

André Brink, The Novel: Language and Narrative from Cervantes to Calvino (1998)

Peter Brooks, Reading for the Plot (1984)

J. A. V. Chapple, Science and Literature in the Nineteenth Century (1986)

Margaret Anne Doody, The True Story of the Novel (1996)

Elizabeth Deeds Ermath, Realism and Consensus in the English Novel (1983, 1998)

Jeremy Hawthorne, Studying the Novel: An Introduction (1985)

Wolfgang Iser, The Implied Reader (1974)

Henry James, The House of Fiction, Ed., Leon Edel (1957)

Arnold Kettle, The Nineteenth-Century Novel: Critical Essays and Documents (1972, 1985)

Milan Kundera, The Art of the Novel (1986)

R. Langbaum, The Modern Spirit: Essays on the Continuity of 19th and 20th Century Literature (1970)

F. R. Leavis, The Great Tradition (1948)

Georg Lukács, The Historical Novel (1962)

- Studies in European Realism (1950)

- The Theory of the Novel (1971)

Jenny Mander, Remapping the Rise of the European Novel (2007)

Franco Moretti, (ed) The Novel (2 Vols) (2006)

- An Atlas of the European novel, 1800-1900 (1998)

- The Way of the World: the Bildungsroman in European Culture (1987)

Christopher Nash, World-games: the tradition of anti-realist revolt (1987)

Bill Overton, The novel of female adultery : love and gender in continental European fiction, 1830-1900 (1996)

Roy Pascal, The Dual Voice: Free Indirect Speech and its Functioning in the Nineteenth Century Novel (1977)

Stephen Regan, ed., The Nineteenth-Century Novel: A Critical Reader (2001)

John Richetti (ed), The Cambridge companion to the eighteenth-century novel (1996)

John Rignall, Realist fiction and the strolling spectator (1982)

Delia da Sousa Correa, The Nineteenth-Century Novel: Realisms (2000)

Jane Spencer, The Rise of the Woman Novelist from Aphra Behn to Jane Austen (1986)

J. P. Stern, On Realism (1973)

Raymond Tallis, In Defence of Realism (1988)

Martin Travers, An Introduction to Modern European Literature: From Romanticism to Postmodernism (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998)

Ann Jessie Van Sant (ed), Eighteenth-century sensibility and the novel : the senses in social context (1993)

Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (1957)

Dennis Walder, ed., The Nineteenth-Century Novel: Identities (2001)

Paul Wood, Art in Theory 1648-1815: An anthology of changing ideas (2000)

Art in Theory 1815-1900: An anthology of changing ideas (1997)

2. nation

Victorian/English Novel

Amanda Anderson, Tainted Souls and Painted Faces: The Rhetoric of Falleness in Victorian Culture (1993)

Deirdre David, The Cambridge companion to the Victorian novel (2001)

Terry Eagleton, The English Novel:an introduction (2005)

J. M. Guy, The Victorian Social-Problem Novel (1996)

Patricia Ingham, The language of gender and class: transformation in the Victorian novel (1996)

P. K. Garrett, The Victorian Multiplot Novel (1980)

Robin Gilmour, The Victorian Period: the Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature (1993)

Francis O'Gorman, A Concise Companion to the Victorian Novel (2005)

John Sutherland, The Longman Companion to Victorian Fiction (1988)

Raymond Williams, The English Novel from Dickens to Lawrence (1970)

French Literature: General

David F. Bell, Real time: accelerating narrative from Balzac to Zola (2004)

David Coward, A history of French literature : from Chanson de geste to the cinema (2002)

Jennifer Birkett, Guide to French Literature (1997)

Allan H. Pasco, Novel configurations: a study of French fiction : Stendhal, Balzac, Zola, Gide, Huysmans, Proust, Robbe-Grillet, Saporta, (1987)

Sandy Petrey, Realism and revolution : Balzac, Stendhal, Zola, and the performances of history (1988)

James H. Reid, Narration and description in the French realist novel : the temporality of lying and forgetting (1993)

Timothy Unwin, The Cambridge Companion to the French Novel: from 1800 to the present (1997)

German Literature: General

Benjamin Bennett, Beyond theory : eighteenth-century German literature and the poetics of irony (1993)

Henry B. Garland, ed. The Oxford companion to German literature (1986)

David Hill (ed), Literature of the Sturm und Drang (2003)

Dennis Mahoney (ed), The Literature of German Romanticism (2003)

E. L. Stahl, German literature of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (1970)

Helen Watanabe-O’Kelly, The Cambridge History of German Literature (2000)

Russian Literature: General

Alexander Boyd, Aspects of the Russian novel (1972)

Neil Cornwell, The Routledge companion to Russian literature (2001)

Richard Freeborn, The Russian revolutionary novel : Turgenev to Pasternak (1982)

John Garrard, The Russian novel from Pushkin to Pasternak (1983)

Wendy S. Jacobson, Dickens and the Children of Empire (2000)

Malcolm V. Jones and Robin Feuer Miller, The Cambridge companion to the classic Russian novel (1998)

C. A. Moser, The Cambridge History of Russian Literature (1989)

Vladimir Nabokov, Lectures on Russian Literature (1982)

Victor Terras, A History of Russian Literature (1994)

Victor Terras, Handbook of Russian literature (1985)

Scandinavian Literature - General

Arnold Weinstein, Northern Arts: the breakthrough of Scandinavian literature and art, from Ibsen to Bergman (2008)

Schoolfield, George C., 'The Scandinavian Novel', in Schellinger, Paul (ed.); Hudson, Christopher; Rijsberman, Marijke (asst eds), Encyclopedia of the Novel. Either Access at LION: or: download word file: (Word Document)

Scandinavian Studies Journal - online content available via library and LION

3. individual authors/texts

Some of these works are relevant to more than one of the set texts. Where this is the case, they are listed the first time they are likely to be useful. There are of course many other general and specific studies on authors, genres, and periods, which you can track down. Use the bibliographies of these secondary texts, and don’t underestimate the power of the keyword search function! Or even going to the library and perusing the shelves. There is an array of electronic resources, sites like JSTOR, Project Muse and LION. Navigate through the library's electronic resources webpage.

Goethe and Werther

Stuart Atkins, Essays on Goethe (1995)

Michael Bell, The Sentiment of Reality: Truth and Feeling in the European Novel (1983), ch. 5

Eric A. Blackall, Goethe and the Novel (1978)

Marilyn Butler, Romantics, Rebels and Reactionaries: English Literature and its Background 1760-1830 (1981)

John Mullan, Sentiment and Sociability: The Language of Feeling in the Eighteenth Century (1988)

Hans Reiss, Goethe's Novels (1969)

Lesley Sharpe (ed.), The Cambridge companion to Goethe (2002)

Martin Swales, Goethe, ‘The Sorrows of Young Werther’ (Landmarks in World Literature, 1987)

Martin Swales, Reading Goethe: a critical introduction to the literary work (2002)


Stendhal and Scarlet and Black

Richard Bolster, Stendhal: Le rouge et le noir (1994)

Victor Brombert, Stendhal: Fiction and the Themes of Freedom (1968)

Ann Jefferson, Reading Realism in Stendhal (1988)

Stirling Haig, Stendhal: The red and the black (1989)

Jonathan Keates, Stendhal (1994)

Moya Longstaffe, Metamorphoses of passion and the heroic in French literature: Corneille, Stendhal, Claudel (1999)

Roger Pearson, introduction to The Red and the Black, (World’s Classics, 1992)

Stendhal’s Violin: A Novelist and his Reader (1988)

Michael Wood, Stendhal (1971)

Flaubert and Madame Bovary

Pierre Bourdieu, The field of cultural production : essays on art and literature (1993)

Victor Brombert, The Novels of Flaubert (1966)

Jonathan Culler, Flaubert: the Uses of Uncertainty (1974)

Eric Gans, Madame Bovary: The End of Romance (1989)

Stephen Heath, Gustave Flaubert: Madame Bovary (1992)

Rosemary Lloyd, Madame Bovary (1990)

Mary Orr, Flaubert : writing the masculine (2000)

Laurence Porter, Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary : a reference guide (2002)

Alan Raitt, The originality of Madame Bovary (2002)

Francis Steegmuller, Flaubert & "Madame Bovary”: a double portrait (1993)

David Roe, Gustave Flaubert, (1989)

Tony Tanner, Adultery in the Novel: Contract and Transgression (1979)

Tony Williams and Mary Orr (eds), New approaches in Flaubert studies (1999)

Dickens and Great Expectations

Richard Barickman, Susan MacDonald and Myra Stark, Corrupt Relations: Dickens, Thackeray, Trollope, Collins and the Victorian Sexual System (1982)

Nicola Bradbury, Charles Dickens' Great Expectations (1990)

Douglas Brooks-Davies, Charles Dickens: ‘Great Expectations’ (Penguin Critical Studies, 1989)

Steven Connor, Charles Dickens (1983)

Patricia Ingham, Dickens, Women and Language (1992)

John O. Jordan (ed), The Cambridge companion to Charles Dickens (2001)

F. R. and Q. D. Leavis, Dickens the Novelist (1970)

John Mee, The Cambridge Introduction to Charles Dickens (2010)

Julian Moynahan, ‘The Hero’s Guilt: The Case of Great Expectations’, Essays in Criticism, 10 (1960), 60-77

Roger D. Sell (ed), Great Expectations : Charles Dickens, (Macmillan New Casebooks, 1994)

Ephraim Sicher, Rereading the City: Rereading Dickens: Representation, the Novel, and Urban Realism (2003)

Jeremy Tambling, Going Astray: Dickens and London (2009)

Stephen Wall, ed., Charles Dickens (Penguin Critical Anthologies, 1970)

Dostoevsky and Crime and Punishment

M.M. Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics (1984)

Harold Bloom (ed), Twentieth century views: Fyodor Dostoevsky's Crime and punishment (1988)

Malcolm Bradbury, The Modern World: Ten Great Writers (1988)

Peter Conradi, Fyodor Dostoevsky (1988)

Donald Fanger, Dostoevsky and romantic realism : a study of Dostoevsky in relation to Balzac, Dickens, and Gogol (1998)

Joseph Frank, Joseph, Dostoevsky [Vol.4], The miraculous years, 1865-71, (1995)

Robin Feuer Miller (ed), Critical essays on Dostoevsky (1986)

M. Jones and G. Terry, ed., New Essays on Dostoevsky (1983)

Robert Louis Jackson, Dostoevsky: new perspectives (1984)

Selected critical interpretations of Dostoyevsky's novel "Crime and Punishment " (1974)

- Twentieth century interpretations of 'Crime and punishment’: a collection of critical essays

Tolstoy and Anna Karenina

Gary Adelman, Anna Karenina: the bitterness of ecstasy (1990)

Judith Armstrong, The unsaid Anna Karenina (1988)

John Bayley, Tolstoy and the Novel (1966)

Mary Evans, Reflecting on Anna Karenina (1989)

Henry Gifford, Leo Tolstoy: a critical anthology (1971)

George Steiner, Tolstoy or Dostoevsky (1967)

Anthony Thorlby, Leo Tolstoy: ‘Anna Karenina’ (Landmarks in World Literature, 1987)

Zola and Germinal

Eduardo A. Febles, Explosive Narratives: Terrorism and Anarchy in the Works of Emile Zola (2010)

F. W. J. Hemmings, Emile Zola (1966)

William Gallois, Zola : the history of capitalism (2000)

Robert Lethbridge and Terry Keefe (eds), Zola and the craft of fiction (1990)

Henri Mitterand, Emile Zola: fiction and modernity (2000)

Brian Nelson (ed), Naturalism in the European novel: new critical perspectives (1992)

Colin Smethurst, Emile Zola: Germinal, (1996)

Philip Walker, Zola (1985)

Angus Wilson, Emile Zola: An Introductory Study of his Novels (1964)

Richard H. Zakarian, Zola's "Germinal": a critical study of its primary sources (1972)

See also specific chapters in Delia De Sousa Correa, The Nineteenth Century Novel: Realisms (2000) and The Nineteenth Century Novel: A Critical Reader, Stephen Regan (ed) (2000)

Hamsun and Hunger

Knut Brynhildsvoll, 'Between Early Literary Modernism and Contemporary Postmodernism: Jan Kjaerstad rewrites Knut Hamsun's Novel Hunger 100 Years Later', in China Academic Journal Issue 3, 2005, pp. 54-60 (PDF Document)

Martin Humpal, The Roots of Modernist Narrative: Knut Hamsun's novels (1998) (PDF Document)

Atle Kittang, 'Knut Hamsun's Sult: Psychological Deep Structures and Metapoetic Plot', in Janet Garton, Facets of European Modernism (UEA: Norwich, 1985)(PDF Document)

Arnold Weinstein, 'Hamsun's Hunger and Writing', in Northern Arts: the breakthrough of Scandinavian literature and art, from Ibsen to Bergman (2008)

Mark B. Sandberg, 'Writing on the Wall: The Language of Advertising in Knut Hamsun's Sult', in Scandinavian Studies, Fall 1999, 71:3 (PDF Document)

Harald S Naess and Nicolas Royle (separate articles on Hamsun and Hunger from LION): (Word Document)

Not in the library:

Robert Ferguson, Enigma: the Life of Knut Hamsun (1988)

Sverre Lyngstad, Knut Hamsun, Novelist: a critical assessment, UCAL Press (2005)

Harald S Naess, Knut Hamsun, Michigan: Twayne (1984)

Peter Sjolyst-Jackson, Troublng Legacies: Migration, Modernism and Fascism in the case of Knut Hamsun, Continuum (2010)

Karin Michaelis, The Dangerous Age

Peter Madsen, 'Elsie', in Franco Moretti (ed) The Novel: Vol 2: Forms and Themes (Princeton 2006), pp. 559-567 (PDF Document)

Mariannne Stecher-Hansen, Twentieth-Century Danish Writers (includes chapter by Phyllis Lassner on Karin Michaelis) (1999)(PDF Document)

Catherine Delafield, Women's Diaries as narrative in the nineteenth century novel (2009)

Madeleine Wood, "Centrifugal Fires. Consuming Desires and the Performative Female Subject in Karin Michaelis’s The Dangerous Age", Orbis Litterarum, Volume 68, Issue 1, pages 43–71, February 2013 (PDF Document)

Pio baroja, The Quest

Leo L. Barrow, Negation in Baroja: A Key to His Novelistic Creativity, (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1971): Excerpt: (PDF Document)

Mary Lee Bretz, Encounters Across Borders: The Changing Visions of Spanish Modernism 1890-1930, (London: Associated University Presses, 2001) Excerpt:(PDF Document)

Alan Hoyle, 'The Function of Landscape in Baroja's La lucha por la vida', in Joseph Harrison and Alan Hoyle (eds.), Spain's 1898 Crisis: regeneration, modernism and post-colonialism' MUP, 2000. (Available on Google Books)

Alex Longhurst, 'The Turn of the Novel in Spain: From Realism to Modernism in Spanish Fiction', in Anthony H Clarke (ed), A Further Range: Studies in Spanish Literature from Galdos to Unamuno (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999): (PDF Document)

C. A. Longhurst, Pio Baroja, El Mundo as ansi, (London: Grant and Cutler, 1977) (PDF Document)

Nelson R Orringer & Sebastiaan Faber, 'Pio Baroja', in Dictionary of Literary Biography 322: Twentieth Century Spanish Fiction Writers, Marta E Altisent & Cristina Martinez-Caratzo (eds) (Chicago: Gale, 2005) (Also includes the ediotr's introduction)(PDF Document)

Madeleine de Gogorza Fletcher, The Spanish Historical Novel 1870-1970, (London: Tamesis, 1974)(PDF Document)

Ricardo Landeira, The Modern Spanish Novel, 1898-1936, (Twayne: Boston, 1985)(PDF Document)

Margaret H Tejerizo, 'Pio Baroja and Russian Literature', in The Influence of Russian Literature on Spanish Authors in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Reception, Translation, Inspiration (Lampeter: Mellen Press,2007)(PDF Document)

Harriet Turner and AdelaidaLopez de Martinez (eds)., The Cambridge Companion to the Spanish Novel: from 1600 to the present (Cambridge: CUP, 2003). Available electronically from the Library Catalogue@:

Dezso Kosztolanyi, Skylark

Lorant Czigany, The Oxford History of Hungarian Literature: from the earliest times to the present (Oxford: Clarendon, 1984) Excerpt on Kosztolanyi: (PDF Document)

Tibor Claniczay, History of Hungarian Literature (1964)

George Gomorri, 'The Hungarian Novel', from Encyclopedia of the Novel, Schellinger, Paul (ed.); Hudson, Christopher; Rijsberman, Marijke (asst eds).
London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998. 2 vols. Available on LION: (Word Document)

George Gomorri, 'Kosztolányi, Dezso" (1885-1936)', in Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature, (New York; Guildford: Columbia University Press, 1980). Full text/record available on LION: (Word Document)

Corvina Kiado, 'Years of the Nyugat (1908-1941/Deszo Kosztolanyi', in A History of Hungarian Literature, (Budapest: Tibor Klaniczay, 1982) (PDF Document)

Ray Keenoy, Vivienne Menkes-Ivry & Zsuzsanna Varga, The Babel Guide to Hungarian Literature in Translation, (London: Boulevard, 2001), brief excerpt on Skylark (PDF Document)

Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, The Leopard

Peter Bondanella and Andrea Ciccarelli (eds), The Cambridge Companion to the Italian Novel (Cambridge: CUP, 2003) (Ch9 on Lampedusa. Also available through libcat as electronic resource:

Cristina Della Colletta, Plotting the Past:metamorphoses of historical narrative in modern Italian fiction (Indiana, PUP, 1996)

John Fletcher, New Directions in Literature: critical approaches to a contemporary phenomenon (1969)

David Gilmour, The Last Leopard: A Life of Giuseppe Tomasi Di Lampedusa (London: Harvill, 1996)

Richard H.Lansing, The Structure of Meaning in Lampedusa’s Il Gattopardo, PMLA 93:3, 1978 (409-422)

Nelson Moe, The View from Vesuvius (Berkeley, LA and London: University of California Press, 2002)

Richard O'Mara, 'The Leopard Reconsidered' in Sewanee Review, Vol 116, Number 4, Fall 2008, pp. 637-644 (PDF Document)

Sergio Pacifici (ed), - From Verisimo to Experimentalism: essays on the modern Italian Novel (Bloomington: Indiana, 1969)

- The Modern Italian Novel from Capuana to Tozzi (Feffer and Simons: Southern Illinois UP, 1973)

Mark Pietralunga, 'The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi Di Lampedusa', in Schellinger, Paul (ed.); Hudson, Christopher; Rijsberman, Marijke (asst eds), Encyclopedia of the Novel, (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998. 2 vols) Available from LION (Word Document)

Olga Ragusa, 'Stendhal, Tomasi di Lampedusa, and the Novel', Comparative Literature Studies 3 (1973)

Eduardo Saccone, ‘Nobility and Literature: Questions on Tomasi di Lampedusa, MLN 106 (1991), 159-178

Olivia Santovetti, Digression: a narrative strategy in the Italian Novel (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2007)

Jane Schneider (ed), Italy’s “Southern Question”: Orientalism in one country (Berg: Oxford and New York, 1998)

Halldor Laxness, The Atom Station

Icelandic Literature (from LION) (Word Document)

Peter Hallberg, Intro to Laxness and Chapter on The Atom Station from his book: Halldor Laxness, (Twayne: NYC, 1971) (PDF Document)

Peter Hallberg, 'Halldor Laxness and the Sagas of Modern Iceland', The Georgia Review 1995 Spring Pt 1, pp. 34-45 (PDF Document)

Magnus Magnusson, 'Seeing the Truth', New Statesman, 25 December 2000 - 1January 2001. pp. 91-92 (PDF Document)

Sigurdur A Magnusson, 'The World of Halldor Laxness', World Literature Today, 66: 3, 1992 (Summer), 457-463 (PDF Document)

Various Articles from Scandinavica: An International Journal of Scandinavian Studies, Special Issue: 'The Silent Music of the Clouds: 100 Years with Halldor Laxness', Vol 42 no. 1 May 2003 (PDF Document)

Laxness Bio from LION: (Word Document)

António Lobo Antunes, The Land at the End of the World

Lobo Antunes and Anderson Tepper. "Antonio Lobo Antunes on "The land at the End of the World". The Paris Review. 26 July 2011. (PDF Document)

Madureira, Luis. "The Discreet Seductiveness of the Crumbling Empire -- Sex, Violence and Colonialism in the Fiction of António Lobo Antunes". Luso-Brazilian Review 32.1 (1995): 17-30.

Rother, Larry. "On a Fool's Mission in a Dying Colonial World". The New York Times. 29 June 2011. (PDF Document)

Soares, Anthony. "The Violent Maintenance of the Portuguese Colonial Identity and the Search for a Postcolonial One: Literary Images of Portugal as a Colonial and Postcolonial Nation". Ellipsis: Journal of the American Portuguese Studies Association. 4 (2006): 79-97. (PDF Document)

Lobo Antunes. "Prescription to Read Me". Portuguese Literary & Cultural Studies 19/20 (2011): 15-17 (PDF Document)