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African Literature References

African Literature and Culture

Lazarus, Neil. Resistance in Postcolonial African Fiction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. ‘African “Authenticity” and the Biafran Experience’. Transition 99 (2008): 42-53.

Akpome, Aghogho. ‘Focalisation and Polyvocality in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. English Studies in Africa 56.2 (2013): 25-35.

--------. ‘Narrating a New Nationalism: Rehistoricization and Political Apologia in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. English Academy Review 30.1 (2013): 22-38.

--------. ‘Intertextuality and Influence: Chinua Achebe’s Anthills of the Savannah (1987) and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun (2006)’. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 53.5 (2017): 530-42.

Andrade, Susan Z. ‘Adichie’s Genealogies: National and Feminine Novels’. Research in African Literatures 42.2 (2011): 91-101.

Coffey, Meredith. ‘“She Is Waiting”: Political Allegory and the Specter of Secession in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Research in African Literatures 45.2 (2014): 63-85.

Cooper, Brenda. ‘An Abnormal Ordinary: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. A New Generation of African Writers: Migration, Material Culture and Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013): 133-50.

Coundouriotis, Eleni. ‘Contesting the New Authenticity: Contemporary War Fiction in Africa’. The People’s Right to the Novel: War Fiction in the Postcolony (New York: Fordham University Press, 2014): 220-73.

da Silva, Tony Simoes. ‘Embodied Genealogies and Gendered Violence in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Writing’. African Identities 10.4 (2012): 455-70.

De La Cruz-Guzmán, Marlene. ‘Trauma and Narrativity in Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun: Privileging Indigenous Knowledge in Writing the Biafran War’. African Intellectuals and Decolonization. Ed. Nicholas M. Creary (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012): 37-67.

Ganapathy, Maya. ‘Sidestepping the Political “Graveyard of Creativity”: Polyphonic Narratives and Reenvisioning the Nation-State in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Research in African Literatures 47.3 (2016): 88-105.

Hawley, John C. ‘Biafra as Heritage and Symbol: Adichie, Mbachu, and Iweala’. Research in African Literatures 39.2 (2008): 15-26.

Hewett, Heather. ‘Coming of Age: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and the Voice of the Third Generation’. English in Africa 32.1 (2005): 73-84.

Hodges, Hugh. ‘Writing Biafra: Adichie, Emecheta and the Dilemmas of Biafran War Fiction’. Postcolonial Text 5.1 (2009): 1-13.

Krishnan, Madhu. ‘Abjection and the Fetish: Reconsidering the Construction of the Postcolonial Exotic in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48.1 (2012): 26-38.

Lecznar, Matthew. ‘(Re)Fashioning Biafra: Identity, Authorship, and the Politics of Dress in Half of a Yellow Sun and Other Narratives of the Nigeria-Biafra War’. Research in African Literatures 47.4 (2017): 112-32.

Mabura, Lily. ‘Breaking Gods: An African Postcolonial Gothic Reading of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus and Half of a Yellow Sun’. Research in African Literatures 39.1 (2008): 203-22.

Nair, Chitra Thrivikraman. ‘Negotiation of Socio-Ethnic Spaces: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun as a Testimonio of African National and Ethnic Identity’. Tradition and Change in Contemporary West and East African Fiction. Ed. Ogaga Okuyade (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2014).

Ngwira, Emmanuel Mzomera. ‘“He Writes about the World that Remained Silent”: Witnessing Authorship in Chimananda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. English Studies in Africa 55.2 (2012): 43-53.

Nnolim, Charles E. ‘Chimamanda Ngozi Achichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. African Literature Today 27: New Novels in African Literature Today. Ed. Ernest Emenyonu (Oxford: Currey, 2010): 145-51

Novak, Amy. ‘Who Speaks? Who Listens?: The Problem of Address in Two Nigerian Trauma Novels’. Studies in the Novel 40.1-2 (2008): 31-51.

Ogwude, Sophia O. ‘History and Ideology in Chimamanda Adichie’s Fiction’. Tydskrif vir Letterkunde 48.1 (2011): 110-23.

Ojinmah, Umelo. ‘Humanity in War: Chimamanda Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Journal of Nigeria Studies 1.2 (2012): 1-11.

Ouma, Christopher E.W. ‘Composite Consciousness and Memories of War in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. English Academy Review 28.2 (2011): 15-30.

Rideout, Jennifer. ‘Toward a New Nigerian Womanhood: Woman as Nation in Half of a Yellow Sun’. Commonwealth Essays and Studies 36.2 (2014): 71-81

Ryan, Connor. ‘Regimes of Waste: Aesthetics, Politics, and Waste from Kofi Awoonor and Ayi Kwei Armah to Chimamanda Adichie and Zeze Gamboa’. Research in African Literatures 44.4 (2013): 51-68.

Sarkar, Neepa. ‘Literatures of Memory: Assia Djebar’s The Tongue’s Blood Does Not Run Dry and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Glocal Colloquies 2.1 (2016): 99-113.

Strehle, Susan. ‘Producing Exile: Diasporic Vision in Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Modern Fiction Studies 57.4 (2011): 651-72.

Tembo, Nick Mdika. ‘Ethnic Conflict and the Politics of Greed: Rethinking Chimamanda Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun’. Focus on Nigeria: Literature and Culture. Ed. Gordon Collier (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012): 173-90.

Ugochukwu, Francoise. ‘A Lingering Nightmare: Achebe, Ofoegbu and Adichie on Biafra’. Matatu 39 (2011): 253-72.

Walder, Dennis. ‘Remembering “Bitter Histories”: From Achebe to Adichie’. Postcolonial Nostalgias: Writing, Representation, and Memory (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010): 116-38.

Wenske, Ruth S. ‘Adichie in Dialogue with Achebe: Balancing Dualities in Half of a Yellow Sun’. Research in African Literatures 47.3 (2016): 70-87.


Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born

Anonymous [Ayi Kwei Armah]. ‘Letter from Ghana’. New York Review of Books 9.6 (1967): 34-39.

Armah, Ayi Kwei. ‘African Socialism: Utopian or Scientific’. Présence Africaine 64 (1967): 6-30.

--------. ‘A Mystification: African Independence Revalued’. Pan-African Journal 2.2 (1969): 141-51.

--------. ‘Fanon: The Awakener’. Negro Digest 18.12 (1969): 4-9, 29-43.

Ayuk, G. Ojong. ‘The Lust for Material Well-Being in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born and Fragments by Ayi Kwei Armah’. Présence Africaine 132 (1984): 33-43.

Barrows, Adam. ‘The Static Clock and the Old Manchild: Temporality in Twentieth Century African Literature’. Literature Compass 5.3 (2008): 633-44.

Barthold, Bonnie J. ‘Ayi Kwei Armah: An Akan Story-Teller’. Essays on Contemporary Post-Colonial Fiction. Eds. Hedwig Bock and Albert Wertheim (München: Max Hueber Verlag, 1986): 67-80.

Booker, M. Keith. ‘Ayi Kwei Armah: The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. The African Novel in English: An Introduction (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann; Oxford: James Currey, 1998): 103-18.

Coates, John. ‘The Mythic Undercurrent in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. World Literature Written in English 28.2 (1988): 155-70.

Cooper, Brenda. “‘With His Colour Like That of the African Soil at Dawn”: Evaluating Black Nationalism in the Fiction of Ayi Kwei Armah, Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Sembene Ousmane”. To Lay These Secrets Open: Evaluating African Writing (Cape Town: David Phillip, 1992): 31-75.

Crehan, Stewart. ‘Phantasy and Repression in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Research in African Literatures 26.4 (1995): 104-20.

Dunham, Jarrod. ‘The Fanonian Dialectic: Masters and Slaves in Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 47.2 (2012): 281-94.

Esty, Joshua. ‘Excremental Postcolonialism’. Contemporary Literature 40 (1999): 22-59.

Folarin, Margaret. ‘An additional comment on Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. African Literature Today 5 (1971). Ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1977): 116-28.

Fraser, Robert. The Novels of Ayi Kwei Armah: A Study in Polemical Fiction (London: Heinemann, 1980). Gakwandi, Shatto Arthur. ‘Freedom as Nightmare: Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born and Duodu’s The Gab Boys’. The Novel and Contemporary Experience in Africa (London: Heinemann, 1977): 87-107.

Gikandi, Simon. ‘The Parabolic Narrative: Character and Consciousness in the Novels of Camara Laye and Ayi Kwei Armah’. Reading the African Novel (London: James Currey, 1987): 1-40.

--------. ‘The Subjective Narrative: Exile and Alienation in the Novels of Wole Soyinka and the Early Ayi Kwei Armah’. Reading the African Novel (London: James Currey, 1987): 72-110.

Innes, C.L. ‘Conspicuous Consumption: Corruption and the Body Politic in the Writing of Ayi Kwei Armah and Ama Ata Aidoo’. Essays on African Writing. 2: Contemporary Literature. Ed. Abdulrazak Gurnah (Oxford and Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1995): 1-18.

Jackson, Tommie Lee. The Existential Fiction of Ayi Kwei Armah, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre (Lanham: University Press of America, 1996).

Kibera, Leonard. ‘Pessimism and the African Novelist: Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 14.1 (1979): 64-72.

Lazarus, Neil. Resistance in Postcolonial African Fiction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).

Lorentzon, Leif. “An African Focus”: A Study of Ayi Kwei Armah’s Narrative Africanization (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1998).

Lutz, John. ‘Pessimism, Autonomy, and Commodity Fetishism in Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Research in African Literatures 34. 2 (2003): 94-111.

Mamadu, Ayo. ‘Making Despair Bearable: Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born and Fragments’. Neohelicon 10.2 (1983): 231-49.

McEwan, Neil. ‘Independence: Soyinka, Achebe, Armah’. Africa and the Novel (Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1985): 61-101.

Nnolim, Charles E. ‘Dialectic as Form: Pejorism in the Novels of Armah’. African Literature Today 10. Ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1979): 207-23.

O’Connell, Hugh Charles. ‘A Weak Utopianism of Postcolonial Nationalist Bildung: Re-reading Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48.4 (2012): 371-83.

Ogede, Ode. Ayi Kwei Armah: Radical Iconoclast. Pitting Imaginary Worlds against the Actual (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000). Ogungbesan, Kolawole. ‘Symbol and Meaning in The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. African Literature Today 7. Ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1975): 93-110.

Osei-Nyame, Kwadwo. ‘“Love and Nation”: Fanon’s African Revolution and Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 33 (1998): 97-107.

Palmer, Eustace. An Introduction to the African Novel (London: Heinemann, 1977 [1972]): 129-42.

Peck, Richard. ‘Hermits and Saviors, Osagydfos and Healers: Artists and Intellectuals in the Works of Ngugi and Armah’. Research in African Literatures 20.1 (1989): 26-49.

Rao, K.Damador. The Novels of Ayi Kwei Armah (New Delhi: Prestige, 1997).

Retief, Glen. ‘Homoeroticism and the Failure of African Nationalism in Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Research in African Literatures 40.3 (2009): 62-73

Staehr, Amy. ‘Exploring the Middle Ground: Ayi Kwei Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born’. Commonwealth 23.2 (2001): 5-19.

Wodajo, Tsegaye. Hope in the Midst of Despair: A Novelist’s Cures for Africa (Trenton: Africa World Press). Wright, Derek. Ayi Kwei Armah’s Africa: The Sources of His Fiction (London, Munich, New York: Hans Zell Publishers, 1989).

--------, ed. Critical Perspectives on Ayi Kwei Armah (Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1992).

Yankson, Kofi. The Rot of the Land and the Birth of the Beautyful Ones: The World of Ayi Kwei Armah’s Novels (Ghana University Press, 2000).  

J.M. Coetzee, Waiting for the Barbarians

Adams, Kelly. ‘Acts without Agents: The Language of Torture in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Ariel 46.3 (2015): 165-77.

Ashcroft, Bill. ‘Irony, allegory and empire: J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and In the Heart of the Country’. On Post-Colonial Futures: Transformations of Colonial Culture (London and New York: Continuum, 2001): 140-57. Attridge, Derek. J.M. Coetzee and the Ethics of Reading: Literature in the Event (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Attwell, David. ‘The Problem of History in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee’. Poetics Today 11.3 (1990): 579-615. --------. J.M. Coetzee: South Africa and the Politics of Writing (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). --------. ‘Writing Revolution: The Manuscript Revisions of J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Life Writing 11.2 (2014): 201-16. --------. J.M. Coetzee and the Life of Writing: Face to Face with Time (Johannesburg: Jacana, 2015).

Baral, Kailash C., ed. J.M. Coetzee: Critical Perspectives (New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2008). Barnett, Clive. ‘Constructions of Apartheid in the International Reception of the Novels of J.M. Coetzee’. Journal of Southern African Studies 25.2 (1999): 287-301.

Bewes, Timothy. ‘The Event of Shame in J.M. Coetzee’. The Event of Postcolonial Shame (Princeton and London: Princeton University Press, 2011): 137-63. Birks, Cécile. ‘“Nothing is worse than what we can imagine”: Secrecy and Allegory in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Disgrace’. Commonwealth 30.1 (2007?): 13-25.

Boehmer, Elleke, Katy Iddiols and Robert Eaglestone, eds. J.M. Coetzee in Context and Theory (London: Continuum, 2008).

Boletsi, Maria. ‘Barbaric Encounters: Rethinking Barbarism in C.P. Cavafy’s and J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Comparative Literature Studies 44.1-2 (2007): 67-96.

Bradshaw, Graham and Michael Neill, eds. J.M. Coetzee’s Austerities (Abingdon: Ashgate, 2010). Bradstreet, Tom Z. ‘“The Coming of the Storm”: Imperial Empiricism and Ecological Indifference in Waiting for the Barbarians’. Ariel 48.2 (2017): 1-23.

Canepari-Labib, Michela. Old Myths, Modern Empires: Power, Language, and Identity in J.M. Coetzee’s Work (Oxford and New York: Peter Lang, 2005). Castillo, Debra. ‘The Composition of the Self in Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Critique 27.2 (1986): 78- 90.

Clarkson, Carrol. ‘J.M. Coetzee and the Limits of Language’. Journal of Literary Studies 25.4 (2009): 106-24. --------. J.M. Coetzee: Countervoices (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

Craps, Stef. ‘J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and the Ethics of Testimony’. English Studies 88.1 (2007): 59-66.

Danta, Chris, Sue Kossew and Julian Morphet, eds. Strong Opinions: J.M. Coetzee and the Authority of Contemporary Fiction (London: Continuum, 2011).

DelConte, Matt. ‘A Further Study of Present Tense Narration: The Absentee Narratee and Four-Wall Present Tense in Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Disgrace’. Journal of Narrative Theory 37.3 (2007): 427-46.

Dooley, Gillian. J.M. Coetzee and the Power of Narrative (New York: Cambria, 2010). Dovey, Teresa. The Novels of J.M. Coetzee: Lacanian Allegories (Johannesburg: Ad Donker, 1988). --------. ‘Waiting for the Barbarians: Allegory of Allegories’. Critical Perspectives on J.M. Coetzee. Eds. Graham Huggan and Stephen Watson (London: Macmillan, 1996): 138-51.

Durrant, Sam. ‘Bearing Witness to Apartheid: J.M. Coetzee’s Inconsolable Works of Mourning’. Contemporary Literature 40.3 (1999): 430-63.

--------. Postcolonial Narrative and the Work of Mourning: J.M. Coetzee, Wilson Harris and Toni Morrison (New York: State University of New York, 2004).

Eckstein, Barbara. ‘The Body, The Word, and the State: J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Novel 22.2 (1989): 175-98.

--------. ‘Torture and Interrogation: J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. The Language of Fiction in a World of Pain: Reading Politics as Paradox (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990): 68-93.

Gagiano, Annie. ‘“Racial” Characterisation in the Apartheid-Period and Postapartheid Writings of J.M. Coetzee’. Under Construction: ‘Race’ and Identity in South Africa Today (Pietermaritzburg: Heinemann, 2004): 38-49.

Gallagher, Susan VanZanten. ‘Torture and the Novel: J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Contemporary Literature 29.2 (1988): 277-85.

--------. A Story of South Africa: J.M. Coetzee’s Fiction in Context (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991). Gillmer, Joan. ‘The Motif of the Damaged Child in the Work of J.M. Coetzee’. Momentum: On Recent South African Writing. Eds. M.J. Daymond, J.U. Jacobs and Margaret Lenta (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1984): 107-20.

Hayes, Patrick. J.M. Coetzee and the Novel: Writing and Politics after Beckett (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) Head, Dominic. J.M. Coetzee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

--------. The Cambridge Inroduction to J.M. Coetzee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). Helgesson, Stefan. Writing in Crisis: Ethics and History in Gordimer, Ndebele and Coetzee (Pietermaritzburg: University of Kwazulu/Natal Press, 2004). Huggan, Graham and Stephen Watson, eds. Critical Perspectives on J.M. Coetzee (New York: St. Martin’s, 1996).

Jolly, Rosemary. Colonization, Violence, and Narration in White South African Writing: André Brink, Breyten Breytenbach, and J.M. Coetzee (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1996).

Kannemeyer, J.C. J.M. Coetzee: A Life in Writing (Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 2012).

Kossew, Sue. Pen and Power: A Post-Colonial Reading of J.M. Coetzee and André Brink (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996).

Lochner, Liani. ‘Literary Form and Contesting the Subject in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger. Aesthetics and Ideology in Contemporary Literature and Drama. Eds Madelena Gonzales and René Agostini (Cambridge: Cabridge Scholars, 2015): 235-50.

--------. ‘Power and the Subject in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Ariel 47.4 (2016): 103-34.

Marais, Michael. ‘Writing with Eyes Shut: Ethics, Politics, and the Problem of the Other in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee’. English in Africa 25.1 (1998): 43-60.

--------. ‘“Little Enough, Less Than Little: Nothing’: Ethics, Engagement, and Change in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee’. Modern Fiction Studies 46.1 (2000): 159-82. --------. Secretary of the Invisible: The Idea of Hospitality in the Fiction of J.M. Coetzee (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009). PR9369.3.C58 Z826

Martin, Richard. ‘Narrative, History, Ideology: a Study of Waiting for the Barbarians and Burger’s Daughter’. Ariel 17.3 (1986): 3-21. May, Brian. ‘J.M. Coetzee and the Question of the Body’. Modern Fiction Studies 47.2 (2001): 391-420. Mehigan, Tim, ed. A Companion to the Works of J.M. Coetzee (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2011).

Moses, Michael Valdez. ‘The Mark of Empire: Writing, History, and Torture in Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Kenyon Review 15.1 (1993): 115-27.

Nashef, Hania A.M. The Politics of Humiliation in the Novels of J.M. Coetzee (London and New York: Routledge, 2009). --------. ‘Becomings in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and José Saramago’s Blindness’.Comparative Literature Studies 47.1 (2010): 21-41. Neimneh, Shadi. ‘The Visceral Allegory of Waiting for the Barbarians: A Postmodern Re-Reading of J.M. Coetzee’s Apartheid Novels’. Callaloo 37.3 (2014): 692-709. Neumann, Anne. “Escaping the ‘Time of History’? Present Tense and the Occasion of Narration in J.M. Coetzee’s Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians”. Journal of Narrative Technique 20 (1990): 65-86. Olsen, Lance. ‘The Presence of Absence: Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Ariel 16.2 (1985): 47-56.

Palumbo-Liu, David. The Deliverance of Others: Reading Literature in a Global Age (Durham: Duke University Press, 2012).

Parry, Benita. ‘Speech and Silence in the Fictions of J.M. Coetzee’. Writing South Africa: Literature, Apartheid, and Democracy, 1970-1995. Eds. Derek Attridge and Rosemary Jolly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998): 149-65.

Penner, Dick. Countries of the Mind: The Fiction of J.M. Coetzee (New York: Greenwood, 1989). Phelan, James. ‘Present Tense Narration, Mimesis, the Narrative Norm, and the Positioning of the Reading in Waiting for the Barbarians’. Understanding Narrative. Eds. James Phelan and Peter Rabinowitz (Columbus, Ohio University Press, 1994): 222-45.

Poyner, Jane. J.M. Coetzee and the Paradox of Postcolonial Authorship (Abingdon: Ashgate, 2009). --------, ed. J.M. Coetzee and the Idea of the Public Intellectual (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2006).

Rich, Paul. ‘Apartheid and the Decline of the Civilization Idea: An Essay on Nadine Gordimer’s July’s People and J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Research in African Literatures 15.3 (1984): 365-93.

Sheckels, Theodore F., Jr. The Lion on the Freeway: A Thematic Introduction to Contemporary South African Literature in English (New York: Peter Lang, 1996).

Silvani, Roman. Political Bodies and the Body Politic in J.M. Coetzee’s Novels (Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2011). Stanton, Katherine. Cosmopolitan Fictions: Ethics, Politics, and Global Change in the Works of Kazuo Ishiguro, Michael Ondaatje, Jamaica Kincaid, and J.M. Coetzee (New York and London: Routledge, 2006).

Strode, Timothy F. The Ethics of Exile: Colonialism in the Fictions of Charles Brockden Brown and J.M. Coetzee (London and New York: Routledge, 2005). Tantrigoda, Pavithra. ‘Body as a Site of Justice and Expiation in J.M. Coetzee’s Fiction’. Postcolonial Text 11.4 (2016): web.

Tegla, Emanuela. ‘Waiting for the Barbarians: The Journey from Duty to Moral Choice’. English 60.228 (2011): 68-91. Urquhart, Troy. Truth, Reconciliation, and the Restoration of the State: Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Twentieth Century Literature 52.1 (2006): 1-21.

Watson, Stephen. ‘Colonialism and the Novels of J.M. Coetzee’. Research in African Literatures 17.3 (1986): 370-92. Wenzel, Jennifer. ‘Keys to the Labyrinth: Writing, Torture, and Coetzee’s Barbarian Girl’. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 15.1 (1996): 61-71. Wittenberg, Hermann and Kate Highman. ‘Sven Hedin’s “Vanished Country”: Setting and History in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians’. Scrutiny2: English Studies in Southern Africa 20.1 (2015): 103-27.

Wood, W.J.B. ‘Waiting for the Barbarians: Two Sides of Imperial Rule and Some Related Considerations’. Momentum: On Recent South African Writing. Eds. M.J. Daymond, J.U. Jacobs and Margaret Lenta (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1984): 129-40.

Wright, Laura. Writing “Out of All the Camps”: J.M. Coetze’s Narratives of Displacement (London and New York: Rouledge, April 2006). Zimbler, Jarad. J.M. Coetzee and the Politics of Style (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Tsitsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions

Aegherter, Lindsay Pentolfe. ‘A Dialectic of Autonomy and Community: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 15.2 (1996): 231-40. Ahmad, Hena. Postnational Feminisms: Postcolonial Identities and Cosmopolitanisms in the Work of Kamala Markandaya, Tsitsi Dangarembga, Ama Ata Aidoo and Anita Desai (New York: Peter Lang, 2010).

Andrade, Susan Z., ‘Tradition, Modernity, and the Family: Reading the Chimurenga Struggle into and out of Nervous Conditions’. Negotiating the Postcolonial: Emerging Perspectives on Tsitsi Dangarembga. Eds. Ann Elizabeth Willey and Jeanette Treiber (Trenton and Asmara: Africa World Press, 2002): 25- 59.

--------. ‘Bildung in Formation and Deformation’. The Nation Writ Small: African Fictions and Feminisms, 1958-1988 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011).

Bahri, Deepika. ‘Disembodying the Corpus: Postcolonial Pathology in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Postmodern Culture 5.1 (1994): 1-16.

Bardolph, Jacqueline. “The ‘Tears of Childhood’ of Tsitsi Dangarembga”. Commonwealth Essays and Studies 13.1 (1990): 37-47.

Barker, Clare. ‘Self-Starvation in the Context of Hunger; Health, Normalcy and the “Terror of the Possible” in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 44.2 (2008): 115-25.

Basu, Biman. ‘Trapped and Troping: Allegories of the Transnational Intellectual in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Ariel 28.3 (1997): 7-24.

Begum, Khani. ‘Construction of the Female Subject in Postcolonial Literature: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies 1.2 (1993): 21-27.

Boehmer, Elleke. ‘Tropes of Yearning and Dissent: The Troping of Desire in Yvonne Vera and Tsitsi Dangarembga’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 39.3 (2004): 135-48.

Bolzt, Kerstin. Woman as Artists in Contemporary Zimbabwe (Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies 84, 2007).

Booker, M. Keith. ‘Tsitsi Dangarembga: Nervous Conditions’. The African Novel in English: An Introduction (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann; Oxford: James Currey, 1998): 189-204.

Bosman, Brenda. ‘A Correspondence without Theory: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Current Writing 2.1 (1990): 91-100.

Bravman, Bill and Mary Montgomery. ‘Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. African Novels in the Classroom. Ed. Margaret Jean Hay (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000): 97-105. Creamer, Heidi. ‘An Apple for the Teacher? Femininity, Coloniality, and Food in Nervous Conditions’. Kunapipi 16.1 (1994): 349-60. Flockemann, Miki. ‘“Not-Quite Insiders and Not-Quite Outsiders”: The “Process of Womanhood” in Beka Lamb, Nervous Conditions and Daughters of the Twilight’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 27.1 (1992): 37-47.

Gorle, Gilian. ‘Fighting the Good Fight: What Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions Says about Language and Power’. Yearbook of English Studies 27 (1997): 179-92.

Gray, Rosemary. “‘Unnatural Daughters’: Postmodernism and Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions”. Commonwealth Essays and Studies 17.2 (1995): 1-7.

Hay, Simon. ‘Nervous Conditions, Lukács, and the Postcolonial Bildungsroman’. Genre 46.3 (2013): 317-44. Mabura, Lily G.N. ‘Black Women Walking Zimbabwe: Refuge and Prospect in the Landscapes of Yvonne Vera’s The Stone Virgins and Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions and its Sequel, The Book of Not’. Research in African Literatures 41.3 (2010): 88-111.

McWilliams, Sally. ‘Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions: At the Crossroads of Feminism and Post- Colonialism’. World Literature Written in English 31.1 (1991): 103-12. Muponde, Robert. ‘“I am well if you are well”: Nervous Conditions of African Philanthropy in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Novels’. African Identities 9.4 (2011): 387-400. Murray, Sally Ann. ‘Some Very Nervous Conditions: Commodity, Culture and Identity in Dangarembga’s Novel’. Negotiating the Postcolonial: Emerging Perspectives on Tsitsi Dangarembga. Eds. Ann Elizabeth Willey and Jeanette Treiber (Trenton and Asmara: Africa World Press, 2002): 189-219.

Mustafa, Fawzia. ‘Reading Development and Writing Africa: UNFPA, Nervous Conditions, and The Book of Not’. Comparative Literature Studies 46.2 (2009): 379-406.

Nair, Supriya. ‘Melancholic Women: The Intellectual Hysteric(s) in Nervous Conditions’. Research in African Literatures 26.2 (1995): 130-39. Nicholls, Brendan. ‘Indexing Her Digests: Working through Nervous Conditions’. Negotiating the Postcolonial: Emerging Perspectives on Tsitsi Dangarembga. Eds. Ann Elizabeth Willey and Jeanette Treiber (Trenton and Asmara: Africa World Press, 2002): 99-136. Okonkwo, Christopher. ‘Space Matters: Form and Narrative in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Research in African Literatures 34.2 (2003): 53-74. Osei-Nyame, Jnr., Kwadwo. ‘The “Nation” between the ‘Genders”: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Current Writing 11.1 (1999): 55-66. Patchay, Sheena. ‘Transgressing Boundaries: Marginality, Complicity and Subversion in Nervous Conditions’. English in Africa 30.1 (2003): 145-55.

Phillips, Maggi. ‘Engaging Dreams: Alternative Perspective on Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta, Ama Ata Aidoo, Bessie Head and Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Writing’. Research in African Literatures 25.4 (1994): 89-103. Plasa, Carl. Textual Politics from Slavery to Postcolonialism: Race and Identification (Houndsmill: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin’s, 2000). Rooney, Caroline. ‘Re-Possessions: Inheritance and Independence in Chenjarai Hove’s Bones and Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Essays on African Writing. 2: Contemporary Literature. Ed. Abdulrazak Gurnah (Oxford and Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational, 1995): 119-43. --------. ‘Re-Possessions: Inheritance and Independence in Chenjerai Hove’s Bones and Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Contemporary African Fiction. Ed. Derek Wright (Bayreuth: 1997): 119-43.

Schulze-Engler, Frank. Texts, Tasks, and Theories: Versions and Subversions in African Literatures 3. Eds. Tobias Robert Klein, Ulrike Auga and Viola Prüschenk (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2007). Selvick, Stephanie M. ‘Beyond the Binary: Same-sex Desire and Gender Defiance in Tsitsi Dangaremgba’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 49.3 (2013): 278-90.

Shaw, Carolyn Martin. ‘“You had a daughter, but I am becoming a woman”: Feminism and Postcoloniality in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions and She No Longer Weeps’. Research in African Literatures 38.4 (2007): 7-27. Slaughter, Joseph R. ‘“Loose Connections”: Colonial Bildung and Hyperboles of Development and Self- Determination in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Human Rights, Inc.: The World Novel, Narrative Form, and International Law (New York: Fordham University Press, 2007): 228-45.

Stone, E. Kim. ‘In the Bedroom: The Formation of Single Women’s Performative Space in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 41.1 (2006): 111-26. Sugnet, Charles. ‘Nervous Conditions: Dangarembga’s feminist reinvention of Fanon’. The Politics of (M)Othering, Womanhood, Identity, and Resistance in African Literature. Ed. Obioma Nnaemeka (London and New York: Routledge, 1997): 33-49.

Thomas, Sue. ‘Killing the Hysteric in the Colonized’s House: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 27.1 (1992): 26-36.

Thompson, Katrina Daly. ‘The Mother Tongue and Bilingual Hysteria: Translation Metaphors in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 43.2 (2008): 49-63.

Uwakweh, Pauline Ada. ‘Debunking Patriarchy: The Liberational Quality of Voicing in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Research in African Literatures 26.1 (1995): 75-84.

Vambe, Maurice Taonezvi and Abebe Zegeye. ‘Amilcar Cabral and the Fortunes of African Literature’. African Identities 4.1 (2006); 23-44. West-Pavlov, Russell. ‘Pedagogical Memory and the Space of the Postcolonial Classroom: Reading Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions’. Scrutiny2 17.2 (2012): 67-81.

Willey, Ann Elizabeth and Jeanette Treiber, eds. Negotiating the Postcolonial: Emerging Perspectives on Tsitsi Dangarembga (Trenton and Asmara: Africa World Press, 2002).

Wright, Derek. “‘More than Just a Plateful of Food’: Regurgitating Colonialism in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions”. Commonwealth Essays and Studies 1.2 (1995): 8-18.

Zwicker, Heather. ‘The Nervous Collusions of Nation and Gender: Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Challenge to Fanon’. Negotiating the Postcolonial: Emerging Perspectives on Tsitsi Dangarembga . Eds. Ann Elizabeth Willey and Jeanette Treiber (Trenton and Asmara: Africa World Press, 2002): 3-25.

Interviews: George, Rosemary Marangoly and Helen Scott. ‘An Interview with Tsitsi Dangarembga’. Novel: A Forum on Fiction 26.3 (1993): 309-19. Lee, Christopher Joon-Hai. ‘Desperately Seeking Tsitsi’. Transition 96 (2006): 128-50.

Wilkinson, Jane, ed. Talking With African Writers (London: James Currey; Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1992 [1990]): 189-98.

Nadine Gordimer, The House Gun

Clingman, Stephen. ‘Surviving Murder: Oscillation and Triangulation in Nadine Gordimer’s The House Gun’. Modern Fiction Studies 46.1 (2000): 139-58.

Diala, Isidore. ‘Nadine Gordimer, J.M. Coetzee, and Andre Brink: Guilt, Expiation and the Reconciliation Process in Post-Apartheid South Africa’. Journal of Modern Literature 25.2 (2001-02): 50-68.

Dimitriu, Ileana. ‘The End of History: Reading Gordimer’s Post-Apartheid Novels’. Current Writing 15.1 (2003): 17-37. Gramich, Katie. ‘The Politics of Location: Nadine Gordimer’s Fiction Then and Now’. Current Writing 17.2 (2005): 74-85. Helgesson, Stefan. Writing in Crisis: Ethics and History in Gordimer, Ndebele and Coetzee (Pietermaritzburg: University of Kwazulu/Natal Press, 2004).

Jackson, Jeanne-Marie. ‘Gordimer’s Effacement by Narration’. South African Literature’s Russian Soul: Narrative Forms of Global Isolation (London: Bloomsbury, 2015). Kossew, Sue. ‘”Something Terrible Happened”: Nadine Gordimer’s The House Gun and the Politics of Violence and Recovery in Post-Apartheid South Africa’. Mots Pluriels 13 (2000). Lewis, Simon. ‘“Under the Sign of the Gun”: Welcome to the Postmodern Melancholy of Gordimer’s Post- Apartheid World’. Critical Survey 11.2 (1999): 64-76.

Martínez Marín, Natividad. ‘Nadine Gordimer’s Later Novels: Or, The Fiction of Otherness’. Embracing the Other: Addressing Xenophobia in the New Literatures in English. Ed. Dunja M. Mohr. Cross Cultures 95 (Amsterdam: Rodopi, ): 153- .

Medalie, David. ‘The Context of the Awful Event: Nadine Gordimer’s The House Gun’. Journal of Southern African Studies 25.4 (1999): 633-44.

O’Brien, Anthony. ‘Post-Apartheid Narratives: The House Gun and Fools’. Against Normalization: Writing Radical Democracy in South Africa (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2001): 257-79. Oliphant, Andries Walter, ed. A Writing Life: Celebrating Nadine Gordimer (London: Viking, 1998).

Palumbo-Liu, David. The Deliverance of Others: Reading Literature in a Global Age (Durham: Duke University Press, 2012).

Pearsall, Susan. ‘ “Where the Banalities are Enacted’: The Everyday in Gordimer’s Novels’. Research in African Literatures 31.1 (2000): 95-118.

Roberts, Ronald Suresh. No Cold Kitchen: A Biography of Nadine Gordimer (Johannesburg: STE Publishers, 2005). Stobie, Cheryl. Somewhere in the Double Rainbow: Representations of Bisexuality in Post-Apartheid Novels (Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2007).

Worsfold, Brian. ‘The Anti-Apartheid Liberal and Post-Apartheid Cultural Resistance: A Critical View of Nadine Gordimer’s The House Gun’. Post-Colonialism and Cultural Resistance. Eds. Jopi Nyman and John A. Stotebury (Joensuu, Finland: Faculty of the Humanities, University of Joensuu, 1999): 253-59.

Interviews: Nasta, Susheila, ed. Writing Across Worlds: Contemporary Writers Talk (London and New York: Routledge, 2004). ‘Living in Hope’. Commonwealth 23.2 (2001): 55-61 (Sue Kossew).

Relevant non-Fiction by Gordimer: Living in Hope and History: Notes from Our Century (London: Bloomsbury, 1999). Telling Times: Writing and Living 1950-2008 (London: Bloomsbury, 2010).

Ngugi wa Thiong’o, A Grain of Wheat

Amoko, Apollo Obonyo. Postcolonialism in the Wake of the Nairobi Revolution: Ngugi wa Thiong’o and the Idea of African Literature (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010). Bardolphe, Jacqueline. ‘Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat and Petals of Blood as Readings of Conrad’s Under Western Eyes and Victory’. The Conradian: Journal of the Joseph Conrad Society 12.1 (1987): 32-49. Berger, Roger. ‘Ngugi’s Comic Vision’. Research in African Literatures 20.1 (1989): 26-49. Bewes, Timothy. ‘Shame and Revolutionary Betrayal: Joseph Conrad, Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Zoë Wicomb’. The Event of Postcolonial Shame (Princeton and London: Princeton University Press, 2011): 100-34, esp. 115-23. Boehmer, Elleke. “The Master’s Dance to the Master’s Voice: Revolutionary Nationalism and the Representation of Women in the Writing of Ngugi wa Thiong’o”. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 26.1 (1991): 188-97. Breidlid, Anders. Resistance and Consciousness in Kenya and South Africa: Subalternity and Resistance in the Novels of Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Alex La Guma (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2002).

Bu-Buakei, Jabbi. “Conrad’s Influence on Betrayal in A Grain of Wheat”. Research in African Literatures 11 (1980): 50-83. --------. “Structure of Symbolism in A Grain of Wheat”. Research in African Literatures 16 (1985): 210-41. Caminero-Santangelo, Byron. “Neocolonialism and the Betrayal Plot in A Grain of Wheat: Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Re-vision of Under Western Eyes”. Research in African Literatures 29.1 (1998): 139-52. Cantalupo, Charles, ed. The World of Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Trenton: Africa World Press, 1995). --------, ed. Ngugi wa Thiong’o: Texts and Contexts (Trenton: Africa World Press, 1995). Chakraborty, Amitayu. ‘Contextualizing Transgression: Dynamics of Gender and Ethnicity in Ngugi’s A Grain of Wheat’. Gnosis: An International Journal of English Language and Literature 2.2 (2016): 33-43. Channappa, C. Voices of Protest: The Fiction of Ngugi and C. Bharathi (New Delhi: Prestige Books, 2012). --------. Global Challenges in the Fiction of Ngugi (New Delhi: Vedanta Books, 2014). Cook, David and Michael Okenimkpe. Ngugi wa Thiong’o: An Exploration of His Writings (London: Heinemann, 1983). Cooper, Brenda. “‘With His Colour Like That of the African Soil at Dawn”: Evaluating Black Nationalism in the Fiction of Ayi Kwei Armah, Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Sembene Ousmane”. In To Lay These Secrets Open: Evaluating African Writing (Cape Town: David Phillip, 1992): 31-75.

Eggan, Taylor A. ‘Revolutionary Temporality and Modernist Politics of Form: Reading Ngugi wa Thiong’o Reading Joseph Conrad’. Journal of Modern Literature 38.3 (2015): 38-55.

Gakwandi, Shatto Arthur. “Commitment: Ngugi’s A Grain of Wheat and Sembene Ousmane’s God’s Bits of Wood”. In The Novel and Contemporary Experience in Africa (London: Heinemann, 1977): 108-25. Gandhi, Lingaraja. Connecting the Postcolonial: Ngugi and Anand (New Delhi: Atlantic, 2006). Gikandi, Simon. “On Culture and the State: The Writings of Ngugi wa Thiong’o”. Research in African Literatures 20.4 (1989): 148-56. --------. Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Glenn, Ian. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o and the Dilemma of the Intellectual Elite in Africa: A Sociological Perspective”. English in Africa 8.2 (1981): 53-66. Gugelberger, Georg. “Blake, Neruda, Ngugi wa Thiong’o: Issues in Third World Literature”. Comparative Literature Studies 21 (1984): 463-83. Gurnah, Abdulrazak. “Transformative Strategies in the Fiction of Ngugi wa Thiong’o”. In Abdulrazak Gurnah, ed. Essays on African Writing. 1: A Re-Evaluation (Oxford and Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational, 1993): 142-58. Gurr, Andrew. “A foot in both jungles: Ngugi wa Thiong’o”. In Writers in Exile: The Creative Use of Home in Modern Literature (Brighton: Harvester Press; Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1981): 92-121. Harrow, Kenneth. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat: Season of Irony”. Research in African Literatures 16 (1985): 243-63. Jackson, Tommie L. “The Canine in Ngugi’s A Grain of Wheat and Nadine Gordimer’s A World of Strangers: A Metaphor for the Master-Slave Relationship between the Colonizer and the Colonized”. CLA Journal XLV.1 (2001): .

JanMohamed, Abdul. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o: The Problems of Communal Regeneration”. In Manichean Aesthetics: The Politics of Literature in Colonial Africa (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1983): 225-62. Julien, Eileen. “Heroism in A Grain of Wheat”. African Literature Today 13, ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1983): 136-45. Kamau-Goro, Nicholas. ‘Rejection or Reappropriation? Christian Allegory and the Critique of Postcolonial Public Culture in the Early Novels of Ngugi wa Thiong’o’. Christianity and Public Culture in Africa. Ed. Harri Englund (Columbus: Ohio University Press, 2011): 67-88. Kiddeh, Ime. “James Ngugi as novelist”. African Literature Today 2 (1-4, 1972), ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1972): 3-10. Killam, G.D. An Introduction to the Writings of Ngugi (London: Heinemann, 1980). --------, ed. Critical Perspectives on Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1984). Krause, Delia. “A Grain of Wheat: Ngugi’s Tribute to the Armed Rebellion”. Wasafiri 9 (1988-89): 6-10. Lane, Richard J. ‘National Consciousness: Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat’. The Postcolonial Novel (Cambridge: Polity, 2006): 47-58.

Larson, Charles R. “The ‘Situational’ Novel: The Novels of James Ngugi”. In The Emergence of African Fiction (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1971): 113-46. --------. “Characters and Modes of Characterisation: Chinua Achebe (Nigeria), James Ngugi (Kenya), and Peter Abrahams (South Africa””. In The Emergence of African Fiction (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1971): 147-66.

Lazarus, Neil. ‘(Re)Turn to the People: Ngugi wa Thiong’o and the Crisis of Postcolonial African Intellectualism’. The World of Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Ed. Charles Cantalupo (New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1995): 11-25.

Loflin, Christine. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Visions of Africa”. Research in African Literatures 26.4 (1995): 76- 93. Lovesey, Oliver. Ngugi wa Thiong’o (New York: Twayne, 2000). --------. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Post-Nation: The Cultural Geographies of Colonial, Neocolonial, and Postcolonial Space”. Modern Fiction Studies 48.1 (2002): 139-68. --------. The Postcolonial Intellectual: Ngugi wa Thiong’o in Context (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015). --------, ed. Approaches to Teaching the Works of Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Modern Language Association, 2012). Mathuray, Mark. ‘Resuming a Broken Dialogue: Prophecy, Nationalist Strategies and Religious Discourses in Ngugi’s Early Work’. Research in African Literatures 40.2 (2009): 40-62.

Maughan-Brown, David. ‘“Mau Mau” and Violence in Ngugi’s Novels’. English in Africa 8.2 (1981): 1-22. Monkman, Leslie. “Kenya and the New Jerusalem in A Grain of Wheat”. African Literature Today 7, ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1975): 111-16.

Moore, Gerald. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o: Towards Uhuru”. In Twelve African Writers (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980): 263-88.

Nama, Charles. ‘Daughters of Moombi: Ngugi’s Heroines and Traditional Gikuyu Aesthetics’. Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature. Eds. Carole Boyce Davies and Anne Adams Graves (Trenton: Africa World Press, 1986): 139-50.

Nazareth, Peter, ed. Critical Essays on Ngugi wa Thiong’o (New York: Twayne, 2000). Ngara, Emmanuel. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o: A Grain of Wheat”. In Stylistic Criticism and the African Novel (London: Heinemann, 1982): 81-98. Ogude, James. Ngugi’s Novels and African History: Narrating the Nation (London and Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 1999).

Omuteche, Jairus. ‘Historification and Kenya’s Plural Identities: Re-reading Ngugi’s Historiography’. East African Literary and Cultural Studies 1.1-2 (2014): 107-16. Palmer, Eustace. An Introduction to the African Novel (London: Heinemann, 1977 [1972]): 1-47. Parker, Michael and Roger Starkey, eds. Postcolonial Literatures: Achebe, Ngugi, Desai, Walcott (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995). Peck, Richard. ‘Hermits and Saviors, Osagydfos and Healers: Artists and Intellectuals in the Works of Ngugi and Armah’. Research in African Literatures 20.1 (1989): 26-49. Radithalo, Sam. ‘“Kenyan Sheroes”: Women and Nationalism in Ngugi’s Novels’. English Studies in Africa 44.1 (2001): 1-12. Robson, Clifford B. Ngugi wa Thiong’o (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1979).

Sharma, Govind Narain. “Ngugi’s Christian Vision: Theme and Pattern in A Grain of Wheat”. African Literature Today 10, ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1979): 167-76.

Sicherman, Carol. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o and the Writing of Kenyan History”. Research in African Literatures 20.3 (1989): 347-70.

--------. Ngugi wa Thiong’o: The Making of a Rebel: A Sourcebook in Kenyan Literature and Resistance (London: Hans Zell, 1990).

--------. “Ngugi wa Thiong’o as Mythologizer and Mythologized”. In Anna Rutherford, ed., From Commonwealth to Post-Colonial (Sydney: Dangaroo Press, 1992): 259-75.

Simatei, Tirop Peter. “Ngugi’s Liberation Aesthetics”. In The Novel and the Politics of Nation Building in East Africa (Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies, 2001): 55-72.

Stratton, Florence. “Narrative Method in the Novels of Ngugi”. African Literature Today 13, ed. Eldred Jones (London: Heinemann, 1983): 122-35. Tsabedze, Clara. African Independence from Francophone and Anglophone Voices: A Comparative Study of the Post-Independence Novels of Ngugi and Sembene (New York: Peter Lang, 1994). West-Pavlov, Russell. ‘The Politics and Spaces of Voice: Ngugi’s A Grain of Wheat and Conrad’s Heart of Darkness’. Research in African Literatures 44.3 (2013): 160-75.

Williams, Patrick. Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001). Interviews: Cantalupo, Charles. ‘African Literature… Says Who? The Last Fifty Years with Ngugi wa Thiong’o’. Transition 120 (2016): 4-21. Jussawalla, Feroza and Reed Way Dasenbrock, eds. Interviews with Writers of the Post-Colonial World (Jackson and London: University Press of Mississippi, 1992): 24-41.

Nasta, Shusheila, ed. Writing Across Worlds: Contemporary Writers Talk (London and New York: Routledge, 2004). Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Ngugi wa Thiong’o Speaks: Interviews with the Kenyan Writer. Eds. Reinhard Sander and Bernth Lindfors (Oxford: James Currey; Nairobi: EAPH; Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2006).

Wilkinson, Jane, ed. Talking With African Writers (London: James Currey; Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1992 [1990]): 123-35. 

Tsotsi (dir. Gavin Hood)

Barnard, Rita. ‘Tsotsis: On Law, the Outlaw, and the Postcolonial State’. Contemporary Literature 49.4 (2008): 541-72. Dovey, Lindiwe, ‘Redeeming Features: from Tsotsi (1980) to Tsotsi (2006)’. Journal of African Cultural Studies 19.2 (2007): 143-64.

Ellapen, Jordache Abner. ‘The Cinematic Township: Cinematic Representations of the “Township Space” and Who Can Claim the Rights to Representation in Post-Apartheid South African Cinema’. Journal of African Cultural Studies 19.1 (2007): 113-38.

Hood, Gavin. ‘Interview’. Conducted by David Archibald. Cinéaste 31.2 (2006): 44-47. --------, dir. A Reasonable Man. African Media Entertainment, 1999. --------, dir. In Desert and Wilderness. 2001. --------, dir. The Storekeeper. Miramax, 2005. --------, dir. Tsotsi. Miramax, 2005. --------, dir. Rendition. 2007. --------, dir. X-Men Origins: Wolverine. 2009. --------, dir. Ender’s Game. 2013 Kruger, Loren. ‘Filming the Edgy City: Cinematic Narrative and Urban Form in Postapartheid Johannesburg’. Research in African Literatures 37.2 (2006): 141-63.

Landau, L.B. ‘Transplants and Transients: Idioms of Belonging and Dislocation in Inner-City Johannesburg’. African Studies Review 49.2 (2006): 125-45.

Reef, Anne M. ‘Post-Colonial Transformation: The Rejection of English in Gavin Hood’s Tsotsi’. Beyond Adaptation: Essays on Radical Transformations of Original Works. Eds. Phyllis Frus and Christy Williams (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2010): 56-68. Rijsdijk, Ian-Malcolm and Adam Haupt. ‘Redemption to a Kwaito Beat: Gavin Hood’s Tsotsi’. Journal of Musical Arts in Africa 4.1 (2007): 29-46.