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Glossary

Albigensian crusade

the crusade launched by Pope Innocent III in 1208 under the leadership of the Frenchman Simon de Montfort against Christian heretics in Occitania

cobla

stanza

coblas capfinidas

a link between successive stanzas in which the last line of one stanza contains a word repeated in the first line of the following stanza

coblas doblas

versification where consecutive pairs of stanzas have the same line-lengths and rhyme-endings

coblas ternas

versification where consecutive groups of three stanzas have the same line-lengths and rhyme-endings

coblas unissonans

versification where all stanzas have the same pattern of line-lengths and rhyme-endings

envoi

A short concluding stanza, addressing a real or imaginary person or commenting on the body of the song.

epic caesura

a caesura or break in the rhythm of a decasyllabic line of verse where the accented fourth syllable, marking the break, is followed by a supernumerary unstressed syllable (i.e. which does not count towards the total of ten syllables), e.g. Quant me remembre / del douz viaire cler

feminine caesura

a caesura following an unstressed or short syllable; the feminine caesura may be an epic caesura or a lyric caesura

hypermetric

having one or more syllables in addition to those found in a standard metrical unit or line of verse; being one of these additional syllables

hypometric

having one or more syllables too few for a standard metrical unit or line of verse

leonine rhymes

rhymes involving two syllables with or without intermediate consonants, for example colours/dolours or oublïer/chastïer

lyric caesura

a caesura or break in the rhythm of a line of verse where the break falls on an unaccented syllable, e.g. q'us raubaire / per la crotz d'una veta

Occitan

1) the language of the troubadours (a romance or neo-Latin language, like French, Catalan, Franco-Provençal, Castilian, Portuguese, Italian, Sardinian, Romanian, Rheto-Romansh and Dalmatian); see Linda M. Paterson, The World of the Troubadours. Medieval Occitan Society, c. 1100 – c. 1300, Cambridge 1993, pp. 2-3

2) pertaining to Occitania (pronounced 'Oxitaynia')

Occitania

the region in southern Europe, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'Provence', where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, occupying approximately a third of present-day France with a few additions at the margins

paronymous rhymes

rhymes where one of two whole rhyme-words is contained in the other

rich rhymes

rhyme-words having the same consonant preceding the final accentuated rhyming vowel-sound, for example in French 'allure' and 'chevelure'

tornada

A short stanza at the end of a troubadour song, normally following the versification of the end of the last main stanza.

troubadour

poet-musician composing in medieval Occitan

trouvère

poet-musician composing in Old French