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About the Trial

The PARAMEDIC2 trial is looking at whether adrenaline is helpful or harmful in the treatment of cardiac arrest which occurs outside of hospital. Answering this question will help to improve future treatment of people who have a cardiac arrest.

Why is the trial needed?

Adrenaline was introduced as a treatment for cardiac arrest before clinical trials were common. Adrenaline has not been fully tested to find out if it is helpful or harmful for patients who have a cardiac arrest outside of hospital.

Many research studies suggest that, while adrenaline may restart the heart initially, it may lower overall survival rates and increase brain damage and there are real concerns in the clinical and research community that current practice may be harming patients. However, the evidence is not strong enough to change current practice.

Clinical trials help to work out whether treatments are safe and effective, and are a key part of advancing patient care.

The International Liaison Committee for Resuscitation (ILCOR) has called for a definitive clinical trial to assess the role of adrenaline. Read more about other support for the trial.

Where is the trial being conducted?map showing ambulance services involved with the trial

The trial is being delivered by the University of Warwick in partnership with Kingston and St George's University of London and the Welsh, West Midlands, North East, South Central and London Ambulance Services. These ambulance services have experience of carrying out research.

When will the trial take place?

The trial started in December 2014 and will continue to recruit for three years. Results will be available late 2018. For the latest information, and to find out whether the trial is active in your area, please visit the Trial Updates page.

Who will be included in the trial?

This trial will include patients who have a cardiac arrest outside of hospital, in areas served by participating ambulance services. People who are pregnant, are suffering anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction) or life threatening asthma or are under the age of 16 will not be included.

Paramedic 2: Adrenalin Trial


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