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Anu Realo, MSc PhD (Professor)

Anu Realo



I am interested in personality and cross-cultural psychology and I have conducted research on cultural and individual variation in personality development, emotional experience, individualistic-collectivistic attitudes, and subjective well-being. My current research also tackles complex relationships among personality, health, and subjective well-being as well as the genetics of personality traits

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Representative Publications:

  • Ausmees, L., Talts, M., Allik, J., Vainik, U., Sikka, T. T., Nikopensius, T., Esko, T., & Realo, A. (2021). Taking risks to feel excitement: Detailed personality profile and genetic associations. European Journal of Personality, Advance online publication, doi: 10.1177/08902070211019242, 
  • Lenneis, A., Vainik, U., Teder-Laving, M., Ausmees, L., Lemola, S., Allik, J., & Realo, A. (2021). Personality traits relate to chronotype at both the phenotypic and genetic level. Journal of Personality, Advance online publication, doi: 0.1111/jopy.12645, 
  • Lenneis, A., Das-Friebel, A., Singmann, H., Teder-Laving, M. Lemola, S., Wolke, D., Tang, N., von Mühlenen, A., Allik, J., Realo, A. (2020). Intraindividual variability and temporal stability of mid-sleep on free and workdays. Journal of Biological Rhythms. Advance online publication, 
  • Allik, J. & Realo, A. (2019). Culture and personality. In D. Matsumoto and H.-C. Hwang (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology, 2nd ed. (pp. 401-430). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190679743.003.0013 
  • Mõttus, R., Realo, A., Vainik, U., Allik, J., & Esko, T. (2017). Educational attainment and personality are genetically intertwined. Psychological Science, 11, 1631-1639, doi: 10.1177/0956797617719083 
  • Realo, A., Johannson, J., & Schmidt, M. (2017). Subjective well-being and self-reported health in osteoarthritis patients before and after arthroplasty. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18, 1191-1206. doi: 10.1007/s10902-016-9769-2 
  • Realo, A., van der Most, P. J., Allik, J., Esko, T., Jeronimus, B. F., Kööts-Ausmees, L., Mõttus, R., Tropf, F. C., Snieder, H., & Ormel, J. (2017). SNP-based heritability estimates of common and specific variance in self- and informant-reported Neuroticism scales. Journal of Personality, 85, 906-919. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12297 
  • Kööts-Ausmees, L., Schmidt, M., Esko, T., Metspalu, A., Allik, J., & Realo, A. (2016). The role of the Five Factor personality traits in self-reported general health. European Journal of Personality, 30, 492-504. doi: 10.1002/per.2058 
  • Mill, A., Allik, J., & Realo, A. (2016). Emotional variability predicts tiredness in daily life: An experience sampling study. Journal of Individual Differences, 37, 181-193. doi: 
  • Kööts-Ausmees, L., & Realo, A. (2015). The association between life satisfaction and self-reported health status in Europe. European Journal of Personality, 29, 647–657. doi: 10.1002/per.2037 
  • Mandel, A., & Realo, A. (2015). Across-time change and variation in cultural tightness-looseness. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0145213. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145213 
  • Realo, A., & Dobewall, H. (2011). Does life satisfaction change with age? A Comparison of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Sweden. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 297–308. 
  • Realo, A., Allik, J., Lönnqvist, J.-E., Verkasalo, M., Kwiatkowska, A., Kööts, L., Kütt, M., Barkauskiene, R., Laurinavicius, A., Karpinski, K., Kolyshko, A., Sebre, S., & Renge, V. (2009). Mechanisms of the national character stereotype: How people in six neighboring countries of Russia describe themselves and the typical Russian. European Journal of Personality, 23, 229–249. 
  • Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 66-75. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.95.1.66 
  • Schmitt, D., Realo, A., Voracek, M., & Allik, J. (2008). Why can’t a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 168-182. 
  • Allik, J., & Realo, A. (2004). Individualism-collectivism and social capital.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 29-49. 
  • Realo, A., Koido, K., Ceulemans, E., & Allik, J. (2002). Three components of individualism. European Journal of Personality, 16, 163–184. 
  • Realo, A., Allik, J., & Vadi, M. (1997). The hierarchical structure of collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 93-116. 

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Supervisor to:
Arman Rakhimov (2nd supervisor)
Arij Yehya