I am an Associate Professor in International Political Economy. Prior to joining the University of Warwick, I studied at the University of Sheffield where I received my PhD in 2008.
- Political economy of food and agriculture
- International trade and labour standards
- Theories of global governance
- Development in southern Africa and the Caribbean
The main focus of my research has been the international political economy of sugar. My first book Sugar: Refined Power in a Global Regime emerged out of my doctoral research and was shortlisted for the BISA International Political Economy Group book of the year. It concerned the governance of the international sugar trade and made two key arguments. First, the privileged economic position of the sugar industry had relied on more than just financial ties to politicians; sugar farmers and processors have also used agrarian discourse and strategies of self-organisation to insulate themselves from trade reform (dubbed ‘refined power’). But, second, new international trade agreements have pitted the sugar industry against more powerful fractions of capital, thereby leading to liberalisation and fragmenting the sugar industry as larger businesses began to invest abroad and trans-nationalise ownership (hence the shift to a global regime).
My next book, Sugar, broadened my investigation of the circulation of the sugar commodity to include its production and consumption. Situated in a eco-Marxist framework, it argued that multinational companies have advanced the mass consumption of sweetened snacks in the Global South and underpinned a new wave of foreign investment in sugar production. The expansion of large-scale and highly-industrialised farms across Latin America, Asia and Africa has kept the price of sugar down whilst pushing workers out of jobs and rural dwellers off the land. However, it also identified counter-movements to these practices. Health advocates warning against costly diseases like diabetes, trade unions fighting for better pay, and local residents campaigning for a cleaner environment have all re-shaped the way sugar is consumed and produced; typically by challenging the profit-driven nature of food and farming itself. Here is my overview of the book's approach.
My interest in the link between trade and development has led to a related project on Working Beyond the Border? EU Trade Agreements and International Labour Standards. This looks at the effects of labour provisions in the EU's Free Trade Agreements on labour governance and, ultimately, workers themselves. The research has involved fieldwork in Moldova, South Korea and Guyana - all countries that have signed an EU FTA with labour provisions in them - and will trace the effects of the agreements in their respective EU-linked export industries of clothing, cars and sugar. The International Labour Organization, the European Trade Union Institute, and the European Centre for Development Policy Management have all been integrated as project partners. Here are summaries of key findings on the effects of EU FTAs on labour governance and on export industries. More detail is available at the project website.
Teaching and supervision
I am Module Director for the undergraduate module Politics of International Development and the MA module The Global Food System. I am also part of the editorial team for the online teaching tool I-PEEL: International Political Economy of Everyday Life.
I have supervised the PhD theses below. Please get in touch if you are interested in working together on a thesis topic that overlaps with my research interests.
- The Discontented Farmer: State-Society Relations and Food Security in Rural Tanzania (Marika Mura, completed 2016)
- Uneven Development and the Governance of Agricultural Commodity Booms: The Case of Soybean in South America (Maria Giraudo, completed 2018)
- A Critical Assessment of the BasicNeeds Model for Mental Health and Development (Nathan Harris)
- Recasting Rights in the Caribbean: The Formation of a Regional Fisheries Policy (Lisa Soares)
- Electronic Cashless Welfare Transfers in Australia and South Africa (Luke Bantock)
- Externalisation of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy in Georgia (Laura Gelhaus)
Through my research on trade and labour standards I have co-authored a study for the Human Rights Subcommittee in the European Parliament on the impact of the GSP+ scheme on workers' rights and a submission to the European Commission on reform to its Trade and Sustainable Development chapters.
Through my research on sugar I have worked with Ethical Sugar, a non-governmental organisation which campaigns for better social and environmental standards in the sugar industry. In this voluntary role I have written discussion papers on the relationship between sugar cane and development (see publications) and participated the multi-stakeholder roundtable Bonsucro. In 2012, I was chosen to be part of the committee that would advise on revisions to the production standard against which Bonsucro certifies sugarcane producers as sustainable. I have also made contributions to public reports concerning the sugar industry. These include the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report on biofuels and the Harvard Kennedy School's Collaborating for Change in Sugar Production. In addition, I have provided information to the policy departments of international development organisations including ActionAid, Oxfam, Traidcraft and the Fairtrade Foundation, as well as to Coca-Cola’s expert convening on land rights in its sugar supply-chain. My work has been cited in media reports, including:
- Connor, L. 'The real cost of Thailand scrapping its sugar subsidy program', Southeast Asia Globe, 23 February 2017
- Griffiths, M. 'Uncertain Times for the UK Sugar Industry', Raconteur, 13 October 2016.
- 'Reform subsidies to sugar beet producers and support small scale farming' says report looking at ways to combat sugar problem, Farming UK, 11 February 2016
- Thomas, J. ‘Synthetic Biology: Ecover Must Come Clean’, The Ecologist, 16 July 2014
- Dharssi, A. ‘Sugar’s Sticky Trail: Coke and Pepsi Work to Clean Up Their Supply Chains’, Thomson Reuters Foundation, 21 May 2014
- Pastor, B. ‘Can Fairtrade Sweeten the Lives of Africa’s Sugarcane Producers?’, AllAfrica, 14 March 2013
- Tran, M. ‘EU Sugar Aid for Swaziland Leaves a Bitter Taste’, The Guardian, 19 July 2012
- Kuyk, D. ‘Corporate Candyland’, GRAIN: Seedling, 28 April 2009.
|Source||Project title||Amount||Duration (months)||Start date||Co-applicants|
|ESRC Standard Grant||Working Beyond the Border: EU Trade Agreements and International Labour Standards||£401,000||36||2015||James Harrison (Warwick) and Liam Campling and Adrian Smith (Queen Mary University of London)|
|University of Warwick ESRC Impact Acceleration Award||Sustainable Sugar and Global Standards: The Workers’ Perspective||£1,250||2||2015||Olivier Genevieve (Ethical Sugar)|
|University of Warwick and Queen Mary University of London Partnership Fund||Externalisation of EU Economic Governance||£8,000||12||2012||James Harrison (Warwick) and Liam Campling and Adrian Smith (Queen Mary University of London)|
|University of Warwick Brazil Partnership Fund
||Brazilian Discourse on Food Security||£8,000||24||2012||João Nunes (Warwick)|
|Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship||Social Justice in the Sugar Cane Industry||£50,000||24||2010|
|ESRC Post-Doctoral Fellowship||Global Political Economy of Sugar||£74,000||12||2009|
|University of Sheffield Departmental PhD Award||Politics of the International Sugar Trade||£40,000||36||2005|