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Session 18A-18C 11:30-13:00 // day two

18A - Storytelling University of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University

This paper investigates the code-switching behaviour of bilingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia. In doing so, it makes use of corpus analysis methods, a relatively new approach to investigating code-switching behaviour, in seeking to understand and characterise patterns of code-switching by word class. It works on data from the SEAME Mandarin-English code-switching speech corpus in Malaysia and Singapore, using natural language processing tools such as automatic tokenization and part-of-speech tagging to identify systematicity in the alternations between languages. This corpus is of particular interest, as it consists of spontaneous rather than scripted speech, allowing for insight into actual patterns of code-switching present in the highly dynamic multilingual environment of countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. It is also the first unscripted Mandarin-English code-switching corpus from the region to focus on adult, rather than child, speech. In analysing code-switching patterns by word-class, we identify several trends that do not appear to support the traditional Matrix Language Frame Model proposed by Myers-Scotton (1993). The findings challenge some traditional theoretical frameworks for code-switching, and may provide insights into new theoretical frameworks such as translanguaging.

Wu-wei (無爲), often translated as ‘non-action' or ‘effortless action', is a prevalent theme in Daoism. While other schools of thought use the concept of wu-wei, its Daoist acceptations form a theme of their own. Scholars sometimes treat it solely as a psychological state, one that enables people to act spontaneously and successfully. However, wu-wei retains important political aspects that this paper proposes to explore via a comparative review of the uses of this concept in Daoist literature. Canonical Daoist texts and other records influenced by Daoism were used for this research: the Laozi, the Zhuangzi, the Guanzi, and the Annals of Lü Buwei. All the occurrences of the term wu-wei within relevant sections were found and analysed with the help of secondary literature. Although these texts do not use wu-wei in the same manner, common objectives and themes can be drawn. These include decreasing governmental action, eliminating purposes and intentions in society, and letting people find the way that suits them the most. These political recommendations originate from and are maintained by the physical and psychological state that wu-wei also describes - notably for the ruler. Relatedly, both political and psychological facets are intertwined and should not be separated. As a consequence, this paper suggests that a multi-disciplinary approach would be an interesting way to further tackle the subject of wu-wei. This conclusion should be taken within the context of the broader debate on the philosophical nature of ancient Chinese thought.

There is much ambiguity around ways people judge a food product as healthy. People might rely on their knowledge about food's nutrients but also other associations they might have with the concept of healthiness. For example, honey can be regarded as healthy because it is a "natural� product, and can also be viewed as unhealthy since it is high in sugar content. Marketing strategies (labels such as "organic�, "GMO free�) have an effect on choices people. Research supports an idea of introducing guide systems like Guiding Stars (Hobin et al., 2017). However, some other research suggests that directing consumers' attention to sensory experiences (taste and smell), which are commonly involved in marketing of hedonic goods, might be more effective in the attempts to increase choice of healthy food options in comparison to highlighting food's nutrient value (Bublitz & Perrachio, 2015).

The current research will investigate the extent to which laypeople's judgements on healthiness of products are dependent on certain types of marketing labels. The study will be conducted online to obtain data from a diverse participant sample. A type of most influential marketing strategies is expected to be identified: for instance, does health-benefits-directed advertisement increase sales of a product better in comparison to an advertisement focused on customer experience. The main intention of the investigation is to offer guidance to policy makers and contribute to improving health prospects of society.

Researchers have argued against the use of illness narratives in bibliotherapy practices. Their concerns centre on the potential difficulties depressed readers face while reading and relating to them. For example, it has been suggested that the reading of illness narratives could instil and worsen hypochondria amongst its readers, who are already struggling with mental illnesses. In response to these arguments of how illness narratives are not beneficial to its readers, this essay will argue that depression memoirs – unlike their fictional counterparts – have therapeutic benefits. By doing a close-reading on Elizabeth Wurtzel’s Prozac Nation, Brent Runyon’s The Burn Journals and Matt Haig’s Reasons to Stay Alive, this essay will begin by examining the key differences between depression memoirs and fictional illness narratives. Directly putting their lived experiences into words, the authors of these memoirs free their narratives from the trappings of aestheticization. The result is a raw account of the illness, in which readers suffering from depression can relate to and learn from. The essay will then proceed to explore the therapeutic exchange experienced between the writer and reader, that is rooted in the act of reflection. Ultimately, this essay aims to reveal how the ‘authenticity’ of depression memoirs can offer therapy to both writers and readers who have suffered or are suffering from depression.

18B - Art and Literature University of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University

Abstract- This study aims to investigate the social norms, in particular gender portrayal, that have been taken for granted in Malay children’s storybooks. Previous studies on children’s storybooks show that traditionally assigned gender roles were present in the text and graphics of award winning English children story books. In contrast, research of a similar nature on local Malay children’s storybooks is scant, a gap this study aims to fill. Four local Malay children’s storybooks written by two writers were selected for this study. Hallidayan transitivity was employed to analyse the clauses in the books. Six processes were identified, namely, verbal, mental, material, relational, existential and behavioural processes. The results show that both writers made use of relational and material processes to foreground male dominance and male active participation in society, respectively. The examination of field, tenor and mode showed that the writers used the third person narrative centering around real-life experiences that is relatable to the young readers. However, both authors preferred male characters to be the centre of the messages in the books. references to relevant discourses suggest that Singapore and the Malay society had an influence over the writers in producing their works. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the existence of subliminal messages in children’s storybooks so that they could use teachable moments to rectify unquestioned social norms that may be favourable to certain groups of people in the society. Keywords - Malay children’s story books, critical discourse analysis, transitivity analysis, social norms

Language acquisition is an important field of research in linguistics. Many studies on child language acquisition can be found, but studies on grammar acquisition by children, particularly by bilingual children are rare. Grammar acquisition is important as it helps one to form a proper sentence in both spoken and written language aspects. Therefore, this study aims to examine the features of Chinese grammar acquisition by Singaporean Chinese-English bilingual children, who received education at local preschools and primary schools. There are two parts in the design of the study: (1) a questionnaire for children’s parents to provide demographic information of their families and (2) a bilingual grammar test designed in a child-friendly fashion for the children to complete. After the analysis of the data collected from the questionnaire and the grammar test, results showed three main findings. Firstly, most children were able to identify and form a proper sentence with appropriate grammars. Secondly, children who were unable to form a proper sentence with appropriate grammars were still able to identify some of the corresponding Chinese phrases. Thirdly, some participants used different phrases to express a same idea. Three main factors that led to the above findings were: frequency of language usage within home environment, participants’ different education level background and the frequency of participants’ contact with relevant media. By understanding the factors affecting children’s Chinese grammar acquisition, local educators can improvise on teaching methods in school while researchers and parents can brainstorm on ideas to enhance children’s degree of grammar acquisition.

Researching between 1815-1850, my research focuses on the portrayal of woman in cartoon and caricature, tracing the changes of political protest and political thought over the nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century there was a growth of female intellectuals and radicals who used the 1790s age of revolutions as a platform from which they could increase their political activism. There was a shifting social order, as evidenced by women's growing presence in the public sphere. I will consider the fear of female spaces, and the suspicion towards the female intellectuals. In particular, I will refer to the Bluestocking's movement to trace the changing attitudes towards female intellectuals, as the once respected female literary figures became subject to intense scrutiny in the early nineteenth century. With prints being widely accessible at a public level the restrictions on women's intellectual works, particularly when considering the lack of women caricaturists in relation to public consumption, is suggestive of the fear of women's presence in the public sphere. Overtly patronising, male critiques used caricatures to undermine the growing women's emancipation movement of the nineteenth century. Looking at the critical tropes of the juxtaposing hyper-feminised and de-sexualised women, I will consider how male critiques would use satire as medium for their social commentary in the nineteenth century. Focusing on the satirical gaze, I will illustrate that the employment of caricatures was a vehicle of social commentary on the shifting power relations between men and women.

For my Dissertation I studied Modigliani and his connection to late 19th and early 20th century philosophical enquiry into the conditions of consciousness. I have begun to understand that connecting Modigliani's work to Cezanne (whose paintings are understood to present an understanding of experience that is based on late 19th century philosophy of this kind) and Henri Bergson's writing can reveal a lot about what informed Modigliani's style and the nature of his expression. Through studying Modigliani's painting in this way, his work begins to make far more sense, his strange perspective, his elongated forms and his facial distortions that make his figures look like sculpture from a range of different artistic traditions.

18C - Social Change, Inclusion and Engagement University of Warwick, University of Leeds, and Pompeu Fabra University

Despite its anti-imperialist rhetoric, the Soviet Union undoubtedly regarded the Communist states of Southeast Asia as pseudo-colonies, which greatly weakened its international position and contributed to its collapse in 1991. However, this topic is largely overlooked in the existing literature examining Soviet foreign policy. This research, therefore, attempted to address this gap by highlighting the Soviets exploitative foreign policy towards China and North Vietnam. To evidence the validity of this argument, a large range of primary and secondary sources from Russia, China, and Vietnam were utilised, particularly as primary material such as telegrams and reports revealed the intimate details of Soviet foreign policy. By including sources from these three countries, this research was both objective and addressed the lack of existing research considering more than one perspective. This research explored four key aspects of Soviet imperialism in Southeast Asia, beginning with Stalin's exploitation of China's deteriorating economy, which laid the foundations for a hostile Russian-Chinese relationship, until his death in 1953. This was followed by a thorough investigation of both Khrushchev's exploitation of China's fears and weakened domestic situation, and his failure to support Mao following his failures to reform China's economy and agriculture. Finally, the role of North Vietnam was considered due to its close relationship with both the Soviets and China, with this researching concluding that the Soviet Union's imperialist foreign policy contributed to its collapse in 1991.

Latentes is a TRANSMEDIA INTERACTIVE PROJECT. On the one hand, it is an interactive short film where the viewer can be an active part of the story, making decisions for the characters and accessing where they could only access from an interactive experience. In turn, ‘Latentes’ is a theatrical project that aims to mix the performing arts with audiovisual and interaction. On December 27 we begin the experience at the Tantarantana Theater. Synopsis: In a dystopian society where the only possible social bond is imposed, Mila, Vera and Leo, life partners since they are 10 years old, will begin to consider their root individuality when they see a single person walking down the street.

Whilst fascistic propaganda from Germany, Italy, and Spain have been researched repeatedly and extensively within the fields of political science and art history, the same cannot be said for Britain's equivalency. Although an inquiry into the historical, political and propaganda tactics of the BUF have certainly been documented, there has been no attempt to catalogue or analyse the collection of cartoons, posters, collages, photographs, memorabilia or symbols of this movement from an art-historical perspective.

This presentation will not only endeavor to evaluate the nominal value of these images but their implicit meaning(s) through an application of political and philosophical theory. From this examination it will be determined that throughout this compilation of works that there remains a persistent set of motifs; from the articulation of Spengler's fatalistic perspective and Nietzsche's theory of the will-to-power, to the conceptions of modernism, etc. Whilst each of these pronouncements subsume an individual context and purpose, it can be surmised that what remains homogeneous within these respective subjects is their affinity with the notion of ‘Revelation'.

Whilst the BUF never achieved the notoriety or political achievements of other fascist organisations throughout Europe, they were undoubtedly a sizable political force throughout the inter-war period. Therefore, it is not only surprising that more has not been done to understand this organisation but a complete injustice. We are told to ‘never forget', yet it seems we already have. Further research must be done if we are to fully understand this organisation and their impact upon British history.

This work is a study of gender, climbing and (plastic) bodies in Ecuador. Using online semi-structured interviews, this project explores how does gender influences indoor climbing competition and the experiences and abilities of the young athletes taking part in them. Following this, this study has focused in exploring the ways in which climbers challenge established ideas of gender embedded in the Ecuadorian context and how they re-negotiate the social expectations and self-prophecies about their bodies and abilities in order to have more chances of succeeding at international competition events. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that the materiality of the climber's body is, in essence, the materiality of gender. This further demonstrates that the body is lived and shaped in relation to the socio-cultural expectations surrounding it. Therefore a shift of the competition venues from the national to international events exemplifies the ways in which gender and bodies are interpreted differently. A shift of the competition venues and standards means a transformation of the materiality of the climber's body. Ecuadorian athletes have on sight new challenges and dreams that require the modification and re-modification of their bodies and abilities. Thus, this study is a close look at the re-interpretations and re-negotiations of the climber's own bodies and abilities.