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Session 19A-19C 14:00-15:30 // day two

19A - Attitudes, Happiness and Mental Health University of Warwick, IIE MSA, and University of Leeds

Across different cultures, preferences shape the happiness that women gain from employment. In less progressive societies, women are expected to be housewives and men to be the bread-winners. On the other hand, in more gender-equal societies working women are now becoming the norm over housewifery.

This paper will explore the relationship between employment and female happiness levels, in South Asia and the effect of varying gender norms. The analysis will be done using a multilevel mixed-effects regression analysis, which will help analyse the effect of changes due to change in the country-level variables as well as individual-level variables. Although these questions have been tackled before they have vastly focused on European countries and rely much on the Global Gender Gap Index. Instead of using the GGGI to account for gender norms in a country, this paper relies on average answers to subjective gender equality questions.

The findings of this research will help see if existing analysis of societal expectations and happiness sticks when we analyse it on the basis of individual and national attitudes towards gender equality.

This study seeks to examine the degree of power which societal attitudes towards disability and motherhood have in relation to the reproductive autonomies of physically disabled women (Craddock, 2019), and the implications of this. Adopting a framework which sees disability as socially and culturally positioned (Craddock, 2019: Prilleltensky, 2004), it utilises thematic analysis of academic literature and the BBC drama film Don’t Take My Baby (Anthony, 2015).

The study is an attempt to expand upon a piece of coursework - Craddock (2019), and offers a contribution to an important, yet often neglected, area of study. The factors which constitute the power of societal attitudes towards disability and motherhood can be divided into three broad categories: messages (Prilleltensky, 2004; Walsh, 2011; Forber-Pratt and Aragon, 2013; Jungels and Bender, 2015; Clarke, 2017; Fritsch, 2017), stages prior to motherhood (Prilleltensky, 2004; Kallianes and Rubenfeld, 1997) and motherhood itself. These can be seen as generally negative (Craddock, 2019), although physically disabled women do take a variety of measures to maintain and reclaim their reproductive autonomies, such as focussing on the positive insight disability provides (Shpigelman, 2015; Malacrida, 2009) and underscoring the significance of strong emotional guidance in raising children (Prilleltensky, 2004; Anthony, 2015, also cited in Craddock, 2019). Looking at how topics discussed in academic literature are translated into a film elucidates ways in which media products can be seen as culturally influential, and therefore play a role in diversifying the ways in which disabilities are perceived (Craddock, 2019).

Osteoarthritis is a medical condition impacting a patient's quality of life, manifesting in severe chronic joint pain and difficulty in mobility and physical functionality. In a resource limited healthcare system such as the NHS, it is essential that appropriate care is carried out to maximise efficiency. As such, NICE provides recommendations for management of osteoarthritis prior to surgical referral and so our clinical audit was carried out to see if these recommendations were being met.

NICE recommendations preceding surgical referral are as follows; (i) Written & verbal communication be given to patients about their condition (ii) Analgesia, exercise for weight loss if BMI >35kg/m*2 and physiotherapy (iii) Patient monitoring for three months concurrent with (i) and (ii)

Patients from our GP practice in Worcestershire were selected having presented to their primary care practitioner with osteoarthritic symptoms from April 1st 2018 – April 1st 2019, ascertained through the electronic patient record system, EMIS. The nature of their osteoarthritis, along with other parameters, was recorded and analysed to see if subsequent referrals were being carried out in line with NICE recommendations.

Our main finding was that due to the implementation of a regional intermediate triage service, there was a discrepancy in enactment of NICE recommendations, but interestingly those patients who most closely resembled the objectives of the NICE recommendations were less likely to need surgical management of their condition. Analysis of results led us to recommend a pop-up system in EMIS in order to remind and invite clinicians to enact NICE recommendations.

Mental illness has been a prevalent issue in the South African setting, with an estimate of 17 million South Africans living with it. Despite this high number, it has been estimated that 75% will not seek any kind of help due to stereotypes, language barriers and cultural differences (SADAG, 2014). Although facilities to assist are available, more individuals prefer not to discuss the matter with people around them and, hence, have to deal with it alone.

The research question at hand is, do cultural perspectives and stereotypes have an impact on the number of undiagnosed cases of mental illness for millennials in South Africa? My research will make reference to an article from the South African Depression and Anxiety Group, which discusses the impact of cultural views on individuals in South Africa. In addition, this paper will go on to outline the importance of addressing non-diagnosed cases of mental illness. I will proceed to seek input from Clinical Psychologists to identify the sources of mental illness in South Africa as well as find reasons as to why it is a topic that is not readily discussed amongst individuals. Moreover, I am going to make use of surveys and questionnaires which will involve input from the public. Finally, I will identify the consequences of not dealing with mental illness and what can be done to address this, providing methods of creating awareness to help reduce the high number of cases.

19B - Innovative Materials and Treatments University of Warwick, University of Leeds, and Baruch College, City University of New York

An ever-increasing prevalence of mental health and well-being problems among the student population is of major concern. This poses significant implications for students and their academic performance. There is growing empirical evidence that displays the numerous benefits of interacting with nature. Hiking is an excellent way of becoming immersed in natural environments and receiving these benefits, thus, an ideal option for students to combat the challenges of university life. The aim of this exploratory study was to gain a deeper insight into university students' personal hiking experiences and better understand the bio-psycho-social processes underpinning the benefits. The research question for this study was 'What personal motivations do students have for hiking in nature and how do they perceive the benefits?'. The study used a qualitative approach and a photo-elicitation interview method. Seven volunteer university students were recruited from a city-based university in the north of England, ranging from second year to PhD level. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and generated five main themes: Vitalising and Calming Effects of the Natural World (containing two sub-themes: Finding Clarity in Natural Environments and Being Vitalised by What's Natural); New Layers of Connection (containing three sub-themes: Appreciating my World, Being Naked in Nature and Going Back to my Roots); Escaping and Being Free; Creating Shared Memories; and Leaving my Comfort Zone and Overcoming challenges. From the findings, it can be concluded that various nature-based interventions should be implemented within educational institutions, for the benefit of students' well-being.

Evidence on the use of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBLM) to increase student engagement and comprehension of complex ideas is well established; however, limited data has been collected on the impact of IBLM on attitude or behavior change about complicated or controversial concepts. This study investigated the impact of IBLM methods to increase students' understanding of race as a social construct and to shift attitudes and beliefs about race, identity, and culture. Using a pre- and post-study design, community college students, enrolled in introductory anthropology courses, participated in exercises where they learned their individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and reflected on race, identity, and culture in essays and personal blogs to assess. Ninety-seven students completed pre-surveys, Attitude Knowledge Belief surveys (AKB), and 85 students answered post-survey. Post-surveys indicated that IBLM methods increased students' overall understanding of race as a social versus biological construct, and shifted attitudes about the socio-political impact of racial identity. Content analysis of student essays and blogs revealed results consistent with survey data.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBS) is a human autoimmune disease that causes bile duct inflammatory and eventual liver failure. It is characterized by an increase in antibodies to Gp210, a nuclear pore protein. There is currently no approved treatment. Gp210 has been conserved throughout evolution, making it possible to study it in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster, commonly used as a leukemia model. One blood cell type of D. melanogaster, called the crystal cell, share the same gene responsible for blood cell fate in mammals. Through a genome-wide association study, we identified Gp210 to be linked to crystal cell development in wild-type flies. Female flies with Gp210 mutations have less crystal cells. Likewise, we saw the same effect when we knocked down Gp210 in hemocytes. No significant effect on crystal cells was seen in male flies. As PBS disproportionately afflicts women, this sex-biased phenotype in blood cells is perhaps worth investigating to better understand the mechanism of this rare disease in order to find effective treatments.

Last year marked seventy years since the Doctors' Trial, where twenty Nazi physicians were tried for crimes including targeting certain groups with a eugenics-based sterilisation programme. Reflection on such atrocities may raise to question what it is about biological science, like genetics, which is susceptible to manipulation by ideologies of hatred. This presentation will propose that the positivist-empiricist nature of the scientific method faces tension with cultural or humanitarian analysis of human experience and that it is the resultant adoption of the former mode of study in isolation, by biological scientists, that results in narrow findings susceptible to manipulation. Regarding this statement, I will examine scientific research into homosexuality. When conceived in the 1990s, it was widely accepted that biological explanations, such as Hamer's ‘gay gene', could decrease social homophobia by illustrating that homosexuality was biologically predetermined—not a choice—and homosexual individuals should thus be accepted. However, now sexuality is deemed a fluid spectrum experienced in the wider context of an individual's life, I will assert that it has features which are incompatible with science's reductively operationalised variables and pursuit of causal relationships. I will suggest that research into homosexuality should occur within the other aforementioned culture of study, focusing on revealing gay people's experiences, like Kramer's autobiographically-based play, ‘The Normal Heart'. This is to address concerns raised by the past use of biological science to oppress specific groups and to avoid the implicit legitimisation of the suggestion that for homosexuality to be tolerated, it must be biologically inescapable.

19C - Global Governance and Cultures University of Warwick, University of Leeds, and Pompeu Fabra University

With the British Army's latest recruitment campaign targeting '˜binge gamers' and the US military still attempting to entice possible recruits with its long-running military videogame America's Army, the importance of the relationship between videogames and militarism is at an undoubted high. This, combined with the ascension of videogames into the mainstream of popular culture entertainment, makes it an area ripe for academic exploration. Through research as part of the Laidlaw Scholarship at the University of Leeds, I have explored the relationship between games and militarism through organising and 5 focus groups involving videogamers, exploring the nature of the participant's videogame consumption and their thoughts on questions of militarism in both videogames and social media spaces. Alongside my supervisor, I presented our findings at the BISA conference this year and we are currently in the process of writing an article, focusing on the attitudes of these gamers towards military recruitment advertisements and, more widely, their thoughts on military institutions and militarism. We have found that gamers are being targeted by the British military through social media advertising, yet demonstrate a reflexivity when discussing military recruitment. Despite being avid consumers of military videogames, they were often critical of military recruitment advertising, arguing that it was deceptive and manipulative. This raises ethical and moral questions about modern military recruitment; should it permeate into people's leisure practices and what are the implications of such a practice for society when it is pursued by military institutions?

How far would you get for a piece of pizza? This is how the narrative simulation video game conceived by Clara Aler, Andrea López and Anna Guxens (students of the Audiovisual Communication Degree at UPF) is taking place that puts us on the skin of Roni, a boy who will be to use social networks as the only tool to avoid that, at the party tonight, your friends eat their Extra Special Extra. This talk is a look back into key aspects of project production to achieve one's goals, with the case study of The Pizza Situation. The Pizza Situation is a point and click simulation game still in development. The game is an over-the-top simulation of social networks where the surreal narrative is complemented by the main game mechanics: stalking, scrolling, investigating and manipulating through social media. The player character, Roni Mozzarello is an obsessive pizza geek, who's very excited to go to this Friday’s University freshmen party where a special pizza will be served. However, he dreams that 8 people are going to eat the 8 pizza slices, and that’s something he cannot allow. Now he only has one goal: to prevent those 8 characters from going to the party. How? Without stepping out of his room, using social networks. The player will have to investigate, manipulate, stalk and blackmail through them to obtain his precious pizza. We are currently testing an alpha version of the first level. The demo is still not open to the public, but will be soon! This talk encloses key points that made the game a reality: from choosing an idea, scoping and facing challenges to jumping from University context into the "Real World".

Pepe Rico will present on Nebuloid: The adventures and misadventures of space hikers on a trip through the Galaxy, from the point of view of a spoiled robot. A 360VR animated web-series. Originally a final degree project, NEBULOID was conceived as an animated web-series in 360VR, a science-fiction comedy that follows the misadventures of four space travellers on a "galactic road trip", all seen from the eyes of an ancient, malfunctioning robot. Our team's ambition was to explore the possibilities of 360-degree video as a story-telling tool, one that would allow us to craft an experience both narrative and immersive, and also easily accessible to the general public despite its innovative format. Previous research made us acknowledge the nature of 360-degree video alongside its virtues, limitations and the user's role in the experience. That helped us to imagine a story that would fit perfectly in the format, rather than adapting a traditional script to a completely different audio-visual language. From there we started working on the series pilot. All stages of production (from writing to environment design and animation) had to work together tightly, as we discovered how interdependent they become in a 360-degree production with just a team of three and no budget. These constraints forbid us to produce no more than a 3-minute teaser (the first scene of a fully written and recorded 10 minute pilot) in 360VR. Nevertheless the result embodies the spirit of what the series could be, and the experience taught us so much about the format and producing animation. With this knowledge we are currently producing new material that can be also watched traditionally, while we look for the resources to craft the complete experience.

2014 saw the first territorial annexation in continental Europe since 1945. Russia's actions in Crimea shook the global order. A tendency emerged in Western academia that wrote the annexation off as an inevitable result of dictatorship and kleptocracy (Mankoff, 2014). At the same time, the annexation was popular among the Russian populace, made evident by independent polling (VTsIOM and FOM, 2014). Left mesmerised by the disconnect between mainstream Western reasoning and the popular response inside Russia, I decided to inquire into the history of memory in post-1991 Russia, which I knew to be contentious, as a possible source for such contradictions. Through focusing on Russian primary sources, I isolated three themes in post-1991 Russian popular memory--opposing the perceived discrimination of Russians ‘left behind' in the former USSR after 1991, rebuking a perceived attack on Russians' role in WWII by Soviet successor states and re-adopting Russian Orthodoxy, including its Russian imperialist past--as reasons for popular approval for annexing Crimea and even more crucially, as motors largely behind Russia's assertive foreign policy in the former USSR. I have concluded that Russian policy-making regarding foreign relations is dictated as much by popular pressures as in the West, with the popular memory created by the post-1991 developments in Russia dictating the type of foreign policy Russia will pursue in its 'backyard' for at least another generation. I believe that the impact of domestic popular memory on Russian policy-making would merit additional research to determine its possible impact on future Russo-Western relations.

Aim: Demonstrate and discuss the decreasing levels of trust in modern society and the reasons behind this

Recent modern history has been indicative of a decrease in trust from the global, especially as the 21st century has become synonymous to ‘fake news’ and ‘post-truth’. The 2019 Edelman Trust Barometer highlights the expansion of distrust to wider society and the increased internationalization of the issue. The world as a whole seems to face a disenchantment with the future, a change exemplified in cases ranging from the rise of Trump and Bolsonaro to global youth-led climate protests to the development of social movements such France’s gilets jaunes protests. It is clear that the collapse of trust has passed the point where it was merely a political issue.

The question arises as to why this collapse of trust seems to continue to worsen, this research examining the causes behind the emergence of distrust in order to better understand and respond to this issue. In order to study this, the research combines data collected by institutions and think tanks with secondary sources ranging from academic articles to news articles and opinion pieces, establishing a scope of research centered around three major factors identified as driving distrust. Firstly, this research discusses the role of international economics in decreasing global trust, using the 2008 Global Financial Crisis as the center of this analysis. The following section studies the development of the online environment, both spreading false information and the modern communication environment which have impacted the trust present within the cyberspace. Finally, the development of social movements is discussed in relation to trust, looking not only at positively-viewed protests (e.g. climate) but also more criticized movements (e.g. anti-vaccination).