16A - Discrimination, Radicalisation and the Self University of Warwick, Monash University Australia, and Nanyang Technological University
The Midday Meal Scheme introduced to all public primary schools in 2001 is the largest school feeding programme in the world. Extended to include Upper Primary schools in 2007, the programme was estimated to benefit 34 million children and cost the government Rs. 73.24 billion.
While the positive externalities of the scheme on primary school children has been widely acknowledged, it is unclear if upper-primary school children can expect the same benefits. Thus, in this paper I have attempted to provide a large-scale assessment of the impact of the meal programme on upper primary school children. This has significant policy implications with 43% of children dropping out before completing upper primary school in India.
To estimate its impact, the author employed a differences-in-differences methodology on a sample of more than 300,000 schools over the period 2009-2011. The data was provided by the District Information System for Education. One found evidence of an increase in overall enrolment levels of 5.7% on average with boys and those in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups benefitting more than others.
The results are significant as with the twofold impact of providing an implicit subsidy to low-income households and improvement in children’s nutrition levels, the programme will reduce not only child labour-force participation, but also improve student educational performance. Hence, the government must invest resources in improving the quality of the meal programme.
With data being limited to new student enrolment and having a short time period, one was unable to investigate the impacts of the scheme on drop-out levels as well as its long run impacts on school-participation levels. Thus, future literature could expand on existing analysis by addressing above limitations.
16B - Issues of Sexuality and Gender University of Warwick, Monash University Australia, and Monash University South Africa
Despite the significant progress towards gender equality made across Australian workplaces, the sporting domain sees Australian women greatly disadvantaged. The lack of female sports shown in the media, and conceptions of ‘gendered sports’ has contributed to the barriers young women face in accessing sports programs. This study exploring the experiences and attitudes of young women in Melbourne in regard to the current sporting landscape, aims to support existing research challenging traditional patriarchal ideologies, in order to construct evidence based solutions to the current gender inequality in sport.
In-depth interviews of female participants ages 18 – 25 were conducted and the findings of the study revealed three consistent themes raised by respondents; ingrained male hegemony, the media’s role, and the perceived benefits of sport. The final theme clearly expressed in the experience of one participant involved in the traditionally male sport of gridiron, she attributes her management of anxiety and depression to the mental heath benefits of exercise. The benefits extending to the positive influence on body image,
“Playing sport can really change your perception of your body. You’re sweaty, makeup-less, red faced, bruised and battered, and you’ve just play one hell of a game.”
Ultimately the research aims to enhance the opportunities for women to access the vast physical, social and financial benefits of sport, to an equal level of their male counterparts.
Society is aware of “sexting” and the dangers associated with the practice including the growing use of social media in relation to young people, however the recent introduction of laws to criminalise the practice impacts more heavily on post 16 young people. In an attempt to protect young people from sexual exploitation the law has threatened young people’s right to sexual exploration, expression and sexual identity.
During the rise of feminism, second wave feminists argued that certain sexual practices such as prostitution, pornography and exotic dancing were exploitative and objectified women. However following on from this third wave feminists have taken a different stand point and argue that women should celebrate and explore their sexuality which in turn empowers women. This research explores the views of post 16 young people at a local city college and demonstrates that young people’s views differ from previous generations and also that they share the views of the third wave feminists and see “sexting” as a normal part of their sexual exploration and development and believe that the laws that impact on their age group specifically are redundant.
The implications of the findings is that legislation is not necessarily the correct tool to address the practice of sexting in post sixteen young people. Education is key in preparing young people to explore their sexuality in a digital age. In turn guidance supports young people so as not to smother their own feminist views and supports individuals to understand other methods of freedom, expression and empowerment.
16C - History Through the Ages: An International PerspectiveUniversity of Warwick and Kyushu University
Foucault’s assertion that power is diffuse has a significant effect on the way historians interpret sources with ideological and cultural implications. This has led me to look upon some of the most famous works of the Italian Renaissance in a different light. The ultimate aim of this study is to reinterpret the purpose of numerous books on mannerly behaviour and conduct in Italy in terms of their response to the chaos that followed the Italian Wars and Reformation. I also wish to understand the nature of the ideological power behind these works in order to better appreciate their impact.
To achieve these aims this study takes inspiration from cultural historians like Edward Muir, who is known for his analysis of the social codes behind ritual and feuding in Italy. As for my study it begins by considering the purpose behind Baldassare Castiglione’s famous discourse on courtly behaviour in the Book of the Courtier (1528), before tracing its influence across numerous other works. My analysis of the style, authorship and purpose of these works leads me to argue that war and religious crisis created a demand for social order. This in turn caused the spread of the conduct book form, as individuals from all walks of life standardised social codes across diverse institutions from the Church to universities. Therefore the expression of mannerly behaviour and conduct is a form of diffuse power because it is not centralised on a single social or intellectual body.
With somewhat open border controls, booming international trade, relaxed tax policies and an interconnectivity with the rest of the world, Hong Kong is considered a highly globalised society. At its core lies Chungking Mansions a landmark building considered ‘the most globalised building in the world’ (Matthews, 2011: 7); known for its international trade of small capital goods by South Asian and Sub-Sahara African business owners and small traders. Existing researchers (Bertoncello and Bredeloup, 2007, and Matthews and Yang, 2012) offer an economic perspective into HK’s international community and globalisation, neglecting the social and cultural implications of globalisation.
Globalisation is not only an economic phenomenon, but also a process of interconnectivity and integration of people and cultures, hence it is important to question, ‘to what extent Hong Kong can be considered a highly globalised society?’ This project seeks to answer just that from the perspective of the African community, who are heavily involved in the globalisation process, yet encounter exclusion within society. Using qualitative methods, grounded in non-positivist approaches this research is divided into three stages, consisting of interviews with entrepreneurs, business owners and traders, cultural mapping in order to trace the histories of the African community, and observations of daily life through food processes, language and communal activities. The results will produce an innovative and interesting piece of research that will offer an alternative narrative of globalisation and deeper understanding into the inner workings of globalisation in Hong Kong, and the social and cultural implications of globalisation.