8A - Understanding Human Performance University of Warwick and Monash University South Africa
8B - Culture and Identity University of Warwick and University of North Carolina, Greensboro
8C - Ageing, Health, and New Technologies University of Warwick, University of Leeds, and Baruch College, CUNY
One can hardly go on their computer or phone these days without seeing an update on their social media news feed. From Facebook to Twitter, the way we store and interact with our memories and objects of memory are constantly shifting. There is a vast quantity of research on the matter from the fields of psychology and sociology, however the discipline of history has taken some time to catch up.
This project therefore asks how historians should begin to approach social media as a source, particularly in social media’s presentation of the past, and the way it changes people’s interactions with objects of the past. It will explore the shifting concept of ‘Collective Memory’ first put forward by Maurice Halbwachs, and how social media has reshaped the meaning of this phrase, exploring the way in which social media is increasingly breaking down the difference between an individual’s memory and the way we remember together.
In order to explore social media’s appropriation of memory, this study will focus on representations of the Holocaust in social media responses to the European ‘refugee crisis’ as a case study. Using this case study as a precedent, the project will finish by discussing the wider ideas of necessary future approaches historians must take when analyzing Social media as a historical source.
Antimicrobial Stewardship: a concept promoting appropriate use of antimicrobials, encompassing antibiotics, antivirals and antifungal treatments. It reduces instances of microbial and multi-drug resistance, improving patient outcomes. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) states patients should be prescribed antibiotics in accordance with antibiotic formularies and recommends an annual audit of compliance to antimicrobial guidelines, forming the basis for my research.
The focus was the Department of Paediatrics, Leeds General Infirmary. The topic was treatment of Meningitis. The aim was to measure compliance to guidelines within the Trust. Specifically:
- improve documentation of indication
- improve culture collection prior to commencement of antibiotics
- identifying cases where protocol has not been followed and ascertain why
The methodology entailed identification of 10 patients receiving antibiotics. 8 were used due to availability but this was sufficient sample size given the scope of the audit. In each case, the audit toolkit was used as a framework to complete data and compare results.
The results demonstrated 100% compliance to:
- Allergy Box completion
- Guidance for empirical antibiotics - choice, route, dose, frequency and cultures
- Acting upon culture results within 24 hours
- 83% compliance with indication documentation
The conclusions and recommended changes were to:
- Remain vigilant in documenting indication
- Completion of another audit to ensure the recommended changes are implemented and to complete the audit cycle
Audits continue to shape day-to-day clinical practice, identifying areas for improvement and highlighting excellent practice. This re-enforces a positive working environment within the NHS.
Background. One of the main reasons for poor survival for patients with metastatic bladder cancer (BCa) is the onset of cisplatin resistance and associated toxicity. Cisplatin is the standard of care chemotherapy, which unfortunately seems to be resisted by the BCa cells after some time of treatment. Thus, there is a need to understand why resistance occurs and how to sensitize BCa tumors to acceptable levels of chemotherapy. While several human BCa cell lines exist, such 2D systems may not accurately reflect (1) the complexity of human BCa and (2) adaptation to treatments due to divergent evolution during the long-term in-vitro culture. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a novel mouse model of cisplatin resistant BCa capable of in-vivo tumorigenesis, ex-vivo 3-D organoid culture and having pathology similar to advanced human BCa.
Methods. Donor mice were treated with a carcinogen OH-BBN (0.1%, N-Butyl-N-4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine) for 20-24 weeks. Following resection and dissociation, tissues were injected subcutaneously to immune incompetent nude/nude mice and propagated for 2-4 months. Successful transplantable tumors were assayed for human BCa progression signaling markers using immunohistochemistry. Allografts were implanted as chunks for 4-6 weeks before subsequent passage. Cisplatin response was determined by two approaches: in-vivo, mice were treated with cisplatin over 3-4 weeks and measured with respect to control untreated tumors; ex-vivo, cisplatin sensitivity was assayed using escalating dosages of cisplatin in organoid culture.
Preliminary results and conclusions. We derived novel OH-BBN induced BCa models that are amenable to studying cisplatin resistance. Using transplantable tumors and ex-vivo organoid cultures, we determined that: (1) tumors maintain high grade pathology and high expression of markers common to human disease including p63, cytokeratin 5, and Ki67, and (2) the responsiveness of tumors are dependent on the different dosages of cisplatin.