9A - Health and Wellbeing University of Warwick and Monash University South Africa
Background: Yaws is an endemic, painful and potentially disabling bacterial infection. The World Health Organisation has targeted Yaws for eradication by 2020. Currently there are many different diagnostic techniques available which all have different advantages and disadvantages.
Aims: How best to sample populations after mass treatment and how best to use the diagnostic tools are questions which are yet to be addressed. The aim of this study was to use infectious disease modelling, including a newly devised catalytic model, and simulations as a way to inform decisions about diagnostics for eradication of yaws.
Methods: A traditional catalytic model was applied to active cases data to try and estimate forces of infection, the rate susceptible individuals acquire positive serology, for the first time since 1959. Next a new catalytic model was designed especially to correspond with known yaws serology. This was applied to recent prevalence data, before and after a mass treatment event, and active and latent cases were modelled together for the first time in yaws. The new model was then used to help simulate what would happen to population prevalence serology after a change in the force of infection at a specific time point.
Results: The traditional catalytic model was able to capture the behaviour of the system and from this values for the average force of infection were estimated. The new model estimated an increase in individuals moving into an 'asymptomatic' serologically defined population after mass treatment. However, compared to the traditional catalytic model the fit to the data was not as close. Simulations clearly showed how a change in the force of infection affects the positive serology prevalence in different age groups, from this effective diagnostic approaches were postulated including sample selection and diagnostic choice.
Conclusion: Catalytic models can be effectively applied to yaws disease giving estimates for forces of infection and other rate constants. It is also possible to use simulations of the catalytic models to help inform decisions about diagnostics
9B - Attitudes and Experiences University of Warwick and Baruch College, CUNY
The term ‘teenager’, originally a damning label for the ‘fallen’ young women of a frenzied, rock’n’roll 1950s American culture, had spread to a divided Cold War Germany by 1957. Elvis Presley had successfully seduced the youth of East Germany, reinvented traditional gender identities and threatened Eastern collectivist politics.
Much contemporary research surrounding the spread of ‘rock ‘n’ roll’ culture in post-war East Germany reduces the rebellious 1950s teenager to a figment of the political imagination that heightened the moral panic used to promote East German collectivism in the aftermath of a destructive fascist regime. This standpoint invalidates their social significance, negates their legacy and reinforces the arguably universal sentiment that women who deviate from traditional gender roles are both anomalous and inconsequential. But it raises the question of how best we can explain the actions of these young women, and what resources can be found to question the standard accounts.
I will use Berlin’s records centres to examine primary media evidence of ‘Presley Admirers’ and their counterpart European and American subcultures, comparing this with several contemporary studies of East German teenage identities. Poiger’s publications, the inspiration for my research, will here be analysed in order to discover how far Presley’s rock’n’roll influence may have been exaggerated by women’s collectivist society and how far it reflected a wider pattern of female nonconformity that is ignored by standard explanations. This approach will offer an alternative, self-conscious study of the politicisation of female bodies and challenge the homogenisation of young women’s identities in contemporary research.
United Nations acknowledges discriminatory behaviors exist in many forms, however, they all involve some extent of exclusion or rejection. The immigration policies in Britain, especially those in recent two decades, have excluded or rejected the enjoyment of certain rights from immigrants. For example, the Immigration Act 2014 deprives the right of abode from some immigrants. All these suppressions could be due to multi reasons, including the continuous outbreak of terrorist attacks and what Jeroen Doomernik, the lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences of the University of Amsterdam, highlighted that the current scale of immigration is unsustainable. Robert W. McChesney, the professor of communication at the University of Illinois, said “... news media, would exercise its advantages in both the economy and politics in ways that can undermine political equality. ”
This research studies “UK newspapers report migration news with discriminatory bias”. The two British newspaper giants, the Guardian and the Daily Mail, are studied and the focus of immigrants is put on refugees and asylum seekers. Using both quantitative (content analysis) and qualitative (case study) research methods, the research aims to see any tendency of discrimination, in both UK newspapers, when describing refugees and asylum seekers as (1) crime offenders, (2) low-educated and (3) low-skilled. Made aware of the fact that sensitive topics are involved, the researcher tries, as bet 2she could, to follow every ethical guideline and minimize the effects on refugees and asylum seekers involved in the research.
9C - Changing Societies University of Warwick, University of Leeds, and University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Historically the Jews have been targeted by systematic persecution. Whilst the Christian Church was not the first organisation to do this, they undoubtedly provided at least tacit approval for the practice throughout much of their history. Notably anti-Semitic views are commonplace throughout some of the earliest histories of the Church, and their writers never seem to miss an opportunity to question Jewish moral character. What is surprising about this is that the Church grew from the Jewish faith, and the first Christians were almost entirely Jewish.
The question is therefore at what point the Christian Church fully separated from Jewish culture and began to persecute, rather than embrace, their forbears. Traditionally this has been assumed to have happened as early as the 1st century AD – with the rise of the Gentile Church. More recently this view has begun to be challenged, and if it can be done so successfully then it will impact our understanding of the makeup of the Early and Imperial Christian Church.
My research argues that in the 5th century the Imperial Church was still struggling to create a clear demarcation between Christianity and Judaism and that if we examine the Church Histories of the period we can see outright fabrications designed to persuade later readers that this demarcation had occurred far earlier. This examination of the textual evidence, and comparisons with what archaeological evidence suggests, will be supplemented by sociological models to demonstrate how uncomfortably close the Jewish faith remained to the Imperial Church.
It has been acknowledged that the population of the world is ageing. An ageing demographic correlates with decreased mobility. Thus, understanding the relationship between older and disabled people and transport has become fundamental in ensuring the demographic is able to travel by both public and private transport systems. Further, in the present day, technology is becoming prominent in human activities. Therefore, exploring new technological opportunities could offer solutions to barriers in transport for older and disabled people, retaining independence and active lifestyles.
The research seeks to apprehend the challenges faced when older and disabled people access transport in the UK, aiming to understand how technological advancements can make society's transport more inclusive. Including finding out how, and if, older and disabled people would utilise new technologies e.g. mobile applications or wearable devices to overcome difficulties currently faced with their personal mobility.
Methodology included two mixed-gendered focus groups with participants sixty-five years and older. Each group had between six and nine participants, voluntarily recruited. Participants self-prescribed themselves into one of two groups: experience some degree of hearing or sight impairment or encounter no particular difficulties when accessing transport. Once prescribed, participants were assigned to the relevant focus group.
Findings from the research would endeavour to make travelling for those concerned more sustainable, raising awareness to accessibility issues of transport systems which have the potential to cause problems such as, social exclusion. Moreover, they would contribute to understanding the importance of co-design when implementing changes, including technological advancements, to UK transport infrastructure.