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How to format your references

's own variation on the Harvard Referencing system should be used in all papers. Examples of such referencing can be found below.

Text citations

References in the text should include surname and date (Marsh, 1997). Et al. (in italics) should be used where there are more than two authors (Marsh et al., 1997). Direct quotes or ideas that relate to a certain range of pages in a publication should also be referenced by page numbers after the date (Marsh, 1997: 34) or (Marsh, 1997: 34-36). [Note that there is a space after the colon, but not between the numbers and hyphen.] If the same author has two or more references dating from the same year, they can be differentiated by letters (Marsh, 1997a) or (Marsh, 1997b). If the work you are citing has more than one volume, you need to give the volume number as well as the page number: (Marsh, 1997, vol. 2: 34).


Full references should be listed alphabetically by author surname at the end of the paper. All authors should be identified by surname and then initial(s) or first name (choose to use either first names or just initials, and be consistent in this throughout the bibliography). If you have more than one entry from the same author, list them in date order (earliest first), so Smith, L. P. (2001) would come before Smith, L. P. (2003), regardless of the alphabetical order of the titles. If you have more than one entry from the same year for an author, add 'a', 'b' etc after the date: Smith, L. P. (2001a), Smith, L. P. (2001b).

Et al. should not be used in full references; please list all authors in the order in which they appear in the work in question.

When listing a range of page numbers, give the last two digits unless you have to change the last three: 32-39 [not 32-9]; 112-19 [not 112-9 or 112-119]; 123-45 [not 123-145]; 1297-302 [not 1297-02 or 1297-1302].

Referencing different types of publication:

Single-author book

Manunta, G. (1998b), Security: An Introduction, Cranfield: Cranfield University Press

[The full information includes the title, place of publication and name of the publisher. Note the position of the full stops, commas and colons, and follow this pattern. Note that the book title, but not the surrounding punctuation, is in italics.]

Multi-author book

Grace, B., F. Bloggs and J. Smith (1988), A History of the World, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

[Note that only the name of the first author is reversed: subsequent authors have their initials or first name followed by surname.]

Multi-volume work

Grace, B., F. Bloggs and J. Smith (1988), A History of the World, 17 vols, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

[Put the total number of volumes after the title, even if you have only used one volume for reference. As noted above, your in-text citation should specify volume as well as page number.]

Article in journal

Somekh, B. and R. Davies (1991), 'Towards a pedagogy for information technology', The Curriculum Journal, 18 (2), 153-70

[Note that the title of the article is in normal font but enclosed in quotation marks; the title of the journal is in italics. The full citation gives the volume and issue number of the journal (some journals do not have issue numbers, in which case this may be omitted), and the page reference for the article. Note that the page reference is not preceded by 'pp.'.]

Edited Book

Keene, E. (ed.) (1988), Natural language, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press

[This format is the same as for an authored book, but the editor's name must be followed by '(ed.)' to show that s/he did not author the work. Note that if there is more than one editor, only the first name should be inverted, and that the list of names should be followed by '(eds)' with no full stop.]

Chapter in Edited Book

Coffin, J. M. (1999), 'Molecular Biology of HIV', in Crandell, K. A. (ed.), The Evolution of HIV, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 2-10

[This reference contains details both of the chapter and its author, and of the book and its editor. The title of the chapter is in quotation marks, followed by the word 'in' and the details of the book, which should be formatted in the same way as the 'edited book' example above. Note particularly that the page reference should be preceded by 'pp.'.]

Second or subsequent edition of a book

Newman, J. H. (1974), An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, London: Penguin (originally published by Longman in 1897)

[Reference the edition which you are actually using, as page numbers may vary between editions. After the publication details, put in brackets the original publisher and year. If the title was slightly different in the original edition, this information should read 'originally published as title by Longman in 1897']


Slapper, Gary (2006), 'Corporate manslaughter, new issues for lawyers', The Times, 3 September 2006, pp. 4-5

[The title of the article is in quotation marks, with the name of the newspaper in italics. Note that the exact date including day and month should be given.]

Reference from the Internet

Pearson, M. (1999), 'Online study skills guide', available at, accessed 16 September 2007

[Note that the full url must be given, as well as the exact date that the page was accessed. The url should be underlined.]

Article in an online journal

WASS Collective (2007) 'Gender Transformations in Higher Education', Sociological Research Online, 12 (1), available at, accessed 3 October 2007

[Note that the journal article is formatted in the same way as an article in a printed journal, but that the additional details of the url and date must be given.]

Unpublished thesis

Neary, M. (1994), 'Youth, training and the training state: the real history of youth training in the twentieth century', unpublished PhD thesis, University of Warwick

[The title of the thesis is in normal font, in quotation marks. The citation must state 'unpublished PhD thesis', and must give the name of the awarding institution. Also note that extensive quotation from an unpublished thesis normally requires permission from the awarding institution.]

Conference proceedings

Simbuerger, E. and C. Lambert (2006), 'Reinventing Academic Practice', in New Educational Practice, Proceedings of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, 2006, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 20-34

[The title of the article is in quotation marks; the title of the work in italics. Note that the details of the conference are given in addition to the title and the publisher's details.]

Conference paper (unpublished)

Simbuerger, E. and C. Lambert (2006) 'Reinventing Academic Practice', Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, Brighton, 12-14 December, 2006

[Note that if the paper has not been published, the details of where and when the conference was held must be given.]