Surface roughness measurement to 20 nanometre resolution using Vertical Scanning Interferometer.
Sub nanometre resolution using phase scanning interferometry.
The image on the right shows a hardness test indent apparently measuring 1.28mm diagonally (d).
As it is magnified 5x, this equates to 0.256 mm
The force used was 10 Kilograms.
Therefore, from the equation 1.854 x (Force/d2)
Vickers hardness = 282.9
STA (Simultaneous Thermal Analysis)
This technique combines TG (thermogravimetry) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) in the same operation.
Also available as an additional option is evolved CO2 analysis(up to 5% by volume).