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Three-dimensional effects in circular cavities of large aspect ratio

Experimental data are presented for the vortex flow in a nominally two-dimensional circular cavity. The vortex is driven by a separated shear layer along an open section of the cavity circumference. It is shown that the core vortex flow is perturbed three-dimensionally. An inviscid analysis of an ideal core (solid body) vortex is given and it is shown that this flow contains a steady perturbation whose characteristics are almost exactly those identified in the experiments. Viscous effects reduce (by a few percent) the spanwise wavelength of the perturbation and also lead, via spatial variations in Reynolds stress, to a modification of the core flow so that the radial profile of the circumferential velocity is `S'-shaped, rather than linear.