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Exploratory Action Research: Underlying Research

Links from underlying ('Phase 1') research to current ('Phase 2') in-service initiatives (2010s)

Smith, R. 2015. ‘Exploratory action research: why, what, and where from?’ In Dikilitas, K., Smith, R. and Trotman, W (eds). Teacher-researchers in Action. Faversham: IATEFL, Chapter 3 (pp. 37-45). Online:

Smith, R. with A. Barfield. 2013. ‘Exploring teacher-learning: Interview with Richard Smith, Learner Development SIG co-founder’. Learning Learning 20/2: 44-49. Online: 

Smith, R. with S. Course. 2014. ‘Teacher development, teacher research, and autonomy’ (Interview). Independence 61. Pre-publication version:

Smith, R. with L. Prasad Ohja. 2015. ‘Teaching English in difficult circumstances: A conversation with Dr Richard Smith’ (Interview). NELTA Forum July (special issue on ‘Teaching English in difficult circumstances’). Online:

Smith, R., Barkhuizen, G., & F. Vieira. 2013. ‘Teacher education and autonomy: Where’s the real story?’ In A. Barfield & N.Delgado Alvarado (eds), Autonomy in Language Learning: Stories of Practices. Canterbury, England: IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG. Pre-publication version:


Phase 1 foundational work on ‘teacher-learner autonomy’ (late 1990s to 2000s)

Smith, R. 1999. ‘Teacher-learner autonomy: the role of conference and workshop design’. (Co-author with A. Barfield). In Proceedings of Teachers Develop Teachers Research (TDTR) 4 (CD-ROM). Whitstable, Kent: IATEFL. Available online:

Smith, R. 2000. ‘Starting with ourselves: Teacher-learner autonomy in language learning’. In Sinclair, B., McGrath, I. and Lamb, T. (eds.). Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy: New Directions. London: Addison Wesley Longman, 89–99.

Smith, R. 2003. 'Teacher education for teacher-learner autonomy', in Gollin, J., G. Ferguson and H. Trappes-Lomax (eds), Symposium for Language Teacher Educators: Papers from Three IALS Symposia (CD-ROM). Edinburgh: IALS, University of Edinburgh. Also available online:

Smith. R. and S. Erdoğan. 2008. ‘Teacher-learner autonomy: Programme goals and student-teacher constructs’. In Lamb, T. and Reinders, H. (eds), Learner and Teacher Autonomy: Concepts, Realities and Responses. Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Phase 1 work promoting teacher-learner autonomy via action research in initial teacher education (2000s)

Smith, R., S. Alagöz, P. Brown and S. Îçmez. 2003. ‘Faute de mieux? Simulated action research, from participant perspectives’ (), in Hancioğlu, D. (ed.) TDTR 5: [Proceedings of] Teachers Develop Teachers Research (CD-ROM). Ankara, Turkey: Middle Eastern Technical University. Also available online:

Smith, R. 2005. ‘Developing Professional Autonomy: An action research based MA module and its ongoing evaluation’. Interactions 9/2 (issue no. 26). Online:

Smith, R. 2006. ‘Developing teacher-learner autonomy: constraints and opportunities in pre-service training’, in Bobb-Wolff, L. and Vera Batista, J.L. (eds), Proceedings of The Canarian Conference on Developing Autonomy in the FL Classroom 2003. La Laguna, Spain: University of La Laguna. Also available online:

Brown, P., R. Smith and E. Ushioda. 2007. ‘Responding to resistance’. In A. Barfield and S. Brown (eds), Reconstructing Autonomy in Language Education: Inquiry and Innovation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ushioda, E., R. Smith, S. Mann and P. Brown. 2011. ‘Promoting teacher-learner autonomy through and beyond initial language teacher education’. Language Teaching 44/1: 118-121. Online:

Phase 1 foundational work on teaching English in difficult circumstances

Kuchah, K. and R. Smith. 2011. ‘Pedagogy of autonomy for difficult circumstances: From practice to principles’ (with K. Kuchah). Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 5/2: 119-140.

Smith, R. 2001. ‘Group work for autonomy in Asia: insights from teacher research’. AILA Review 15: 70–81

Smith, R. 2002. Autonomy, context and “appropriate methodology”’, in Vieira, F., Moreira, M.A., Barbosa, I. and Paiva, M. (eds.) Pedagogy for Autonomy and English Learning: Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Working Group – Pedagogy for Autonomy. Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho, 13–23.

Smith, R. 2003. ‘Pedagogy for autonomy as (becoming-)appropriate methodology’. In Palfreyman, D. and R.C. Smith (eds) Learner Autonomy across Cultures: Language Education Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 129–46.

Smth, R. 2008. 'Taking the bull by its horns: Zakia Sarwar's pro-autonomy approach to large classes in Pakistan (Part I)'. Independence 44: 7-13. Also available online:

Smith, R. 2011. ‘Teaching English in difficult circumstances: A new research agenda’. In Pattison, T. (ed.) IATEFL 2010 Conference Selections. Canterbury: IATEFL. Pre-publication version online.

Smith, R. [2014]. ‘Transformations in ELT: Contexts, agents and opportunities’. In Shrestha, P.N., Dhakal, K.R., Ojha, L.P., Rana, L.B., and Rawal, H. (eds) NELTA Conference Proceedings 2013. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association. 12-22

Smith, R. with N. Negash, V. Benevolo Franca, Q. Wang, P. Phyak, M. Ajjan, H. K. Kuchah, M. Saleem, Z. Sarwar and H. Coleman. 2012, ‘Investigating large classes’ In Pattison, T. (ed.) IATEFL 2011 Brighton Conference Selections. Canterbury: IATEFL.