A number of English terms that have applications in modern economics stem from Arabic words associated with commerce and computation, for example:
calculation by symbols, from al-jebr, combination
a problem-solving rule, from al-Khwarazmi, the ninth-century mathematician Abu Ja'far Mohammed ben Musa of Khorezm (Khiva), the territory of which is divided between present-day Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
calibrate (transitive verb)
fix the values of, from qãlib, mould or last.
numeral, sign, code, from çifr, zero or empty; see also zero.
risk, or game of chance, from al zãr, the die.
a list of charges or duties, from ta'rif, explanation or account.
nought, from çifr, zero or empty; see also cipher.