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Biorefinery Symposium


Thermochemical points:

  • It is impossible to generate all the bioethanol which could satisfy the demand of biofuels considering even all the Earth surface.
  • High demand for liquid fuels.
  • Enzymes represent 30 % of the cost of the bioplant.

Biochemical points:

  • There are already bioplants in Italy which run and obtain incomes.
  • 280 Biogas upgrading plants in operation in IEA Bioenergy.

Common points:

  • Competition between food industry and biorefinery.
  • Considering the carbon cycle, we should return some amount to the soil in order to reduce the environmental impact, deforestation…
  • Petrochemical companies such as Shell and BP are interested in biorefinery, so this should have a perspective future.
  • Complexity of lignin because of aromatic polymers, bend cleavages and solubility problems.
  • Policy should encourage promising new technologies instead of relying on the old ones.
  • In the future, if this technology developed properly, a balance between agriculture and biorefinery would have to be taken into account.

Audience points:

  • Strict legislation to get rid of wastes in UK. Problems for anaerobic digestion.
  • Landfilling in UK is very expensive.