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Early Christianity - Bibliography

Basic books | Weekly reading | General bibliography |

Basic module books

The following basic course books are recommended for purchase:

  • The New Testament, especially the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles of St Paul (an edition with cross-references and other annotation - a ‘Study Bible’ - is a great advantage, e.g the OUP or CUP ones)
  • Barton and Muddiman’s Oxford Bible Commentary is scheduled as a pbk in November
  • H. Chadwick, The Early Church (Pelican History of the Christian Church, vol. 1)
  • H. Chadwick, The Church in Ancient Society (OUP)
  • P. F. Esler’s The Early Christian World (2 vols.) is a multi-author comprehensive treatment
  • Eusebius, Church History (rev. Penguin edition by A. Louth, 1989)
  • J. Stevenson, (ed.) A New Eusebius: Documents Illustrating the History of the Church to AD 337 (Revised edition by W. H. C. Frend, 1987: ISBN 0281042683). Please note that the numbering of documents in this edition varies considerably from earlier ones; all references are to the revised edition
  • R. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (Penguin, 1986, repr. 2006) is very good
  • M. Humphries, Early Christianity (2006) looks a good up-to-date treatment of how to approach the subject; and G. Clark’s Christianity and Roman Society  (2004) is aimed at beginners in EChr and Roman history


The above books will provide basic outlines to the first term's work, and suggestions for further reading. The works cited below are specific to the subject sessions. Please refer to the bibliography appended for full citations of works. Further reading will be distributed during classes.

WK 2

I) The Gospels as Sources for Provincial Life

If you are unfamiliar with the New Testament, a useful orientation in its historicity is Lane Fox 1991: chapters 1, 6-9, 13 (section III), 15, 17 and 19 are the most relevant. There are good discussions of how to use the NT in Barton (1992) and Brox (1994), chapters 1-3. See also Sherwin-White (1963) passim. For literary aspects try Burridge (1992), on the ‘social world’ try Malina (1996)

II) The Life and Death of Jesus

There are innumerable books on the subject. Reasonable sources are:
Lane Fox (1991), chapter 17; Sanders (1985); Sherwin-White (1963), chapters 1-2; Smallwood (1976), chapter 7 - useful for Pontius Pilate's role; Sordi (1994), chapter 1. 

Don’t forget the net: e.g.

III) For Jewish Sources and History in the first two centuries AD:

Sources: Josephus, Philo Judaeus
Discussion: Rajak (1983) on Josephus; Schürer (1973-87); Smallwood (1976); Whittaker (1984); Simon (1986); Lieu (1992); Sly (1995); Vermes 1983; Winter (1997) on Philo; Yonge (1971) on Philo; Goodman (1987) on the Judaean elite. 

WKS 3-4.1

I) Pauline Teaching

Background and Sources: Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St Paul. Bornkamm (1969), Dunn (1998) for Paul’s theology and Murphy O’Connor (1996) for biography/aims, Meeks (1983) on the ‘social world’, Wallace and Williams (1998)

II) Pauline Missionary Activity

Harnack (1904), esp. vol. I: 1-39, and vol. II: 46-114; Hengel (1992); Humphries (2006) on Acts; Lane Fox (1986), chapter 6; MacMullen (1984); Meeks (1983); Nock (1972) vol. I: 49-133, and vol. II, 'Christianity as a Mission Religion'; Schürer (1973-87). 

WK 4.2

Pagan Views of Christians in the First and Second Centuries

There is a useful collection of primary material in Stevenson (1987), nos. 3, 5, 16-18, 36, 41, 106-119, and in Whittaker (1984), part II.

The principal pagan writers on Christianity in this period are:
Tacitus, Annals 15.44, describes Nero's persecution
Pliny the Younger, letters to Emperor Trajan (Letters, Book 10)
Lucian, essays on religious charlatans, esp. Alexander, or the False Prophet and On the Death of Peregrinus (both refer to Christians: translated in the Loeb edition)
Celsus, long attack on Christianity preserved by Origen, see Chadwick (1965)

For discussions, see Wilken in Sanders (1980) 100-25; Wilken 1984; Barnes in Hazlett (1991) 231-243; Barnes (1968); Benko (1985); Sordi (1994) chapters 2-5; Keresztes in ANRW II.23.1: 274-315; Clark (2004) ch. 2

WK 5-7.1

I) Christian Literature in the First to Third Centuries I

Sources: J. K. Elliott, The Apocryphal New Testament contains apocryphal acts and gospels; Lake for Apostolic Fathers; Stevenson (1987) nos 33, 34, 35, 40, 133-155 excerpts some Christian apologetic literature
For discussions see Grant in Sanders (1980) 16-29; Hanson in ANRW II.23.2: 910-973; Barnes (1971) on Tertullian; Edwards (1992) and Pervo (1994) on fiction; Edwards and Swain (1996); Edwards et al. (1999); Young (2004); Kraemer 1998 (with Sivan) on the novel Asenath; Clark (2004) on literacy/education

II) New Testament Apocrypha

Sources: the most important are the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, and the Apocryphal Acts of Andrew, John, Paul, Peter and Thomas, collected in Elliot (1993). 
For discussions see Brown (1988) 153-9, 328-9; Wimbush (1990) 370-86; Perkins (1980).

III) Heresies: Montanism, Manichaeism, Valentinians

Sources: Eusebius, Church History 4.7, 4.11 (Gnostics); 5.14-19 (Montanists): Stevenson (1987) 42-60, 68-70 (Gnostics); 61-7 (Valentinians); 84-90 (Montanists); Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion (arranged alphabetically by heresy). 
For discussions see Dodds (1965), chapter 2 (Montanists); Heine (1989); Knox (1956); Gardner (1995); Lieu (1985) and Lieu (1995) on Manichaeans; Rudolph (1983) and Pagels (1980) on Gnostics; Rankin (1995), chapters 2-3 on Montanists; Robinson (1977) on Gnostics; Hall (1991); Trevett (1996) on Montanists and women; Sider (2001) and Barnes (1985) on Tertullian

WK 7.2

I) Christian Conduct and Morality

Clement of Alexandria, Protrepticus, Paedagogus, Rich Man’s Salvation
MacMullen (1974); Duncan Jones (1982); Meeks (1983); Foucault (1986); Veyne (1987); Cameron (1986); Treggiari (1991); Bradley (1991); Esler (1994); Hunter (1992); Hopkins (1999)

WK 8.1

I) Persecution from Decius to Diocletian

Sources: Stevenson (1987) nos 192-224. 237-50; Eusebius, Church History 6. 39-7.12; 8.1-9.11. Also see the sources in MacMullen, and Lane (1992), chapter 19. The best surveys are by Chadwick (1967) and Frend (1965); also Lane Fox (1986), chapter 9.

WK 8.2-9.2

I) Martyrdom:

Sources: Musurillo (1972); Lake (1912-13) vol. 1 for Ignatius, vol. 2 for Polycarp; websites - esp.;
Discussion: Frend (1965); Perkins (1985), (1995); Bowerwock (1995); Clark (1997), (2004) ch. 3; Rajak (1997); Droge and Tabor (1992); Wood (1993); Scarry (1985); Lane Fox (1986) on Polycarp and Pionius; Shaw (1993), Salisbury (1997) on Perpetua; cf. Kyle (1998) on spectacle and death

Sex, Bodies, Renunciation: Discussion in Brown (1988); Castelli (1991); Rousselle (1988); Salisbury (1991) on (church) Fathers and virgins; Wimbush (1990); Grimm (1996) on food and the body; Clark (2004)

II) Martyrs Revisited

Prudentius, Peristephanon
Palmer (1989), Roberts (1989), and White (2000) on Prudentius; and for the gorier 4th c. narratives see also e.g. the martyrdom of Febronia in Brock and Ashbrook Harvey (1987), and the martyrdom of Shenufa and his siblings in Reymond and Barns (1998).
Discussion: addtionally see Bynum (1992) and (1995), Cloke (1995), Clark (1997) + (2004)

WK 10.1

I) Christian Art

Discussion in Elsner (1998) 145-58, 211-21; Lowden (1997) 17-31; Grabar (1967) 1-142 (nice pictures but beware outdated text!); Mathews (1999)

II) Christianity in Context

Review the reading from the previous weeks in the seminar. 

Spring Term

The works cited on the next page are specific to the subject sessions. Please refer to the bibliography appended for full citations of works. 


I) Martyrs Revisited

Prudentius, Peristephanon
Palmer (1989), Roberts (1989), and White (2000) on Prudentius; and for the gorier 4th c. narratives see also e.g. the martyrdom of Febronia in Brock and Ashbrook Harvey (1987), and the martyrdom of Shenufa and his siblings in Reymond and Barns (1998).
Discussion: addtionally see Bynum (1992) and (1995), Cloke (1995), Clark (1997)

II) Persecution from Decius to Diocletian

Sources: Stevenson (1987) nos 192-224. 237-50; Eusebius, Church History 6. 39-7.12; 8.1-9.11; Lactantius, Deaths of the Persecutors ( Also see the sources in MacMullen and Lane (1992) ch. 19. The best surveys are by Chadwick (1967) and Frend (1965); also Lane Fox (1986) ch. 9; Barnes (1968); Ste. Croix (1963).


I) Constantine Basics

Sources: Eusebius, Church History, Books 9 and 10; Barnes (1981); Cameron and Hall (1999) (Life of Constantine); Edwards (1997) for the dossier of inscriptions dealing with the Donatist schism

II) Constantine Works

Sources: Stevenson (1987) nos. 248-279, 289-296, 304-307; Eusebius, Church History, Books 9 and 10, Life of Constantine (translated Cameron and Hall 1999)
Constantine’s own Oration to the Saints can be found at and other websites (cf. Edwards in Edwards, Price, Goodman 1999)
For discussions and more sources see Barnes (1981); Baynes (1931) (a classic study); Burckhardt (1949) (ditto); Jones (1948); Keresztes (1981); MacMullen (1984); Mosshammer (1989); Attridge and Hata (1992); Lieu and Montserrat (1995) and (1998) (sources), Cameron (1997); Cameron and Hall (1999); Drake (2000) (political history)


I) Church and State

general books on the development of Christianity will be useful (e.g. Chadwick, Frend, Lane Fox). See also Cameron (1993a) and (1993b), Cameron and Garnsey (1998) (CAH vol. XIII), Garnsey and Humphress (2001). See also Lawler and Quasten (1970) for a translation of Firmicus Maternus’ Error of the Pagans
For Constantius and Christianity (spec. bishop Athanasius) see esp. Barnes (1993); Brakke (1995)

II) Julian

Sources: Julian’s letters and orations are in the Loeb Classical Library series; the Beard Hater (Misopogon) is also at; the Letter to Arsacius is at
Discussion: Browning (1976); Bowder (1978) [good intro.]; Bowersock (1978); Lieu and Montserrat (1995) and (1998); Athanassiadi (1981); Smith (1995)


I Christian Art, early period

Discussion in Elsner (1998) 145-58, 211-21 – dip into and consult table of contents and index as guide; Lowden (1997) 17-31; Grabar (1967) 1-142 (nice pictures but beware outdated text!); Mathews (1999)

II) Christian Art, late period

There is a huge bibliography. Reliable introductions by Beckwith (1993) and Lowden (1997) 1-144; see also du Bourget (1965) on painting: Grabar (1969) 7-59 on Christian re-cycling of pagan art and iconography, and Mathews (1993) for an alternative reading of early Christian art's relationship to the pagan past. Also Grabar (1967), Milburn (1988), Ramage and Ramage (1992) ch. 12, Strong (1988) chs 13-14, and Elsner (1998) again.


I-II Pilgrimage

Sources: Egeria (NB called Aetheria/Etheria in older books), Peregrinatio (see Wilkinson 1971; also, the Bordeaux Pilgrim (, Lives of the Desert Fathers (Ward and Russell 1981)
Discussion: good short account in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium vol. 3. Generally see Elsner and Coleman (1995), Elsner (2000) on the Bordeaux Pilgrim; Frank (2000); and for specific pilgrimage routes see Hunt (1982), Frankfurter (1988), Drijvers (1992) (on Helena); esp. Wilkinson (1971) (new ed. 2001). See also Sumption (1975) (mostly dealing with later material but with good insights) and V. and E. Turner (1978) (anthropology of pilgrimage)

WEEKS 8-9.1

I) monks

Sources (and translations): Athanasius, Life of Antony (White 1998) (Paul Halsall’s website translation contains an intro.); lives by Jerome of Paul, Hilarion, and Malchus (White 1998); Jerome, Letters e.g. no. 14 (to a lapsed monk), no. 22 (to Eustochium on the meaning of the virginal life) (texts in Loeb or at; John Chrysostom, Letter to Theodore after his Fall (to the lapsed monk Theodore; NB this is ‘letter 2’ of an Exhortation to Theodore at, and A Comparison between a King and a Monk and Against the Opponents of the Monastic Life (Hunter 1988); Palladius, Lausiac History (Meyer 1965); Pachomius and his monasteries (Veilleux 1980-82); Theodoret, Historia Religiosa (Price 1985), Lives of the Desert Fathers (Ward and Russell 1981); later examples in Life of Daniel the Stylite (Dawes and Baynes 1996 with Lane Fox 1997). See also Brock and Harvey (1987) for Syriac sources
Many of these can be found on the websites listed above.
Discussion: Brown (1971) (also in Brown 1982) with (1995) ch. 3; Cameron (1993a) ch. 3; Elm (1994); Kelly (1975) on Jerome; Rouselle (1988) chs 9-11; Rousseau (1978), (1995); Bagnall (1993) 278-309

II) saints

Discussion: Brown (1981) on the cult of the saints; van Dam (1983) for Gallic saints, esp. St. Martin of Tours; Davis (2001) for the cult of Thecla (on order); Ambrose Letter 22 on the relics of Gervasius and Protasius


II) Christian Rome

Rome: Curran (2000); Hertling and Kirschbaum (1960); Krautheimer (1980), (1983), (1984); Rutgers (2000); Salzman (1990) on time; Stevenson (1978) + websites.
Urban environment: Alchermes (1994); Cormack (1990a) and (1990b); Curran (1994); Liebeschuetz (1992) and (2001) (also on Rome); Stewart (1999); Wallace-Hadrill (1964)


Theodosius, Libanius and Ambrose

Barnes (1995) on numbers of pagans and Christians; Williams and Friell (1998) on Theodosius; other books on late antiquity by e.g. Cameron and Garnsey, Markus (1990) on the ‘end’ of ‘ancient Christianity’
Theodosian Code 16. 10. 10 with other laws in the section (text at http://www.rome.; trans. in Pharr 1952; cf. Harries and Wood 1993); Libanius, For the Temples (Or. 30) is in Loeb of Libanius vol. 2 by A. F. Norman (1977) or copy in Classics Office
Ambrose, Letter 40-41, 51; McLynn (1994), Moorhead (1999); Ramsay (1997)

General Bibliography

The following is confined to works in English in the Library. 


Before Constantine:


Ackroyd, P. R. and Evans, C. F. The Cambridge History of the Bible vol. 1 From the Beginnings to Jerome (1970)

ANRW = Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II. 23. 1 (1979) (in library under DG 210 A8)

Athanassiadi, P. Julian and Hellenism. An Intellectual Biography (1981)

–––––––and Frede, M. Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (1999)

Barclay, J. M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora. From Alexander to Trajan (323 bce - 117 ce) (1996)

Barnard, L. W., Justin Martyr (1967)

Barnes, T. D. 'Legislation against the Christians' Journal of Roman Studies 58 (1968) 32-50

–––––––Constantine and Eusebius (1981)

–––––––Early Christianity and the Roman Empire (collected papers) (1984)

–––––––Tertullian, A Literary and Historical Study (1985)

–––––––Athanasius and Constantius. Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (1993)

–––––––From Eusebius to Augustine. Selected Papers 1982-1993 (1994)

Barrett, C. K. The New Testament Background: Selected Documents (2nd edn 1987)

Barton, J. and Muddiman, J. The Oxford Bible Commentary (2001)

Barton, S. C. 'The Communal Dimension of Early Christianity: a Critical Survey of the Field,' Journal of Theological Studies 43 (1992) 399-427

Bauer, W. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (1971)

Baynes, N. H. Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (1931)

Beard, M., North, J., Price, S. Religions of Rome vols 1-2 (1998)

Bell, R. Holy Anorexia (1985)

Benko, S. Pagan Rome and the Early Christians (1985)

–––––––and O’Rourke, J. J. Early Church History (1971)

Benson, E. W. Cyprian (1897)

Betz, H. D. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation (1987)

Bornkamm, G. Paul (1969)

Boswell, J. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe (1980)

Bowersock, G. Julian the Apostate (1978)

–––––––Hellenism in Late Antiquity (1990)

–––––––Fiction as History (1994)

–––––––Martyrdom and Rome (1994)

–––––––Brown, P., and Grabar, O. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World (1999)

Bradley, K. Discovering the Roman Family (1991)

Brock, S. and S. Ashbrook Harvey, Holy Women of the Christian Orient (1987)

Brown, P. Augustine of Hippo. A Biography (1967)

­­­–––––––The World of Late Antiquity: From Marcus Aurelius to Muhammad (1971)

–––––––The Making of Late Antiquity (1978)

–––––––Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (collected papers) (1982)

–––––––The Body and Society. Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (1988)

–––––––Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity: Towards a Christian Empire (1992)

–––––––Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World (1995)

–––––––The Rise of Western Christendom. Triumph and Diversity ad 200-1000 (1996)

Brox, N.A History of the Early Church (trans. J. Bowden) (1994)

Bruun, P. Constantine and Licinius, A.D. 313-337 vol 7 of The Roman imperial Coinage ed. C.H.V. Sutherland and R.A.G. Carson (1966)

Burridge, R. A. What are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography (1992)

Cameron, A. M. 'Early Christian Territory after Foucault' Journal of Roman Studies 76 (1986)

–––––––Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire (1991)

–––––––‘Eusebius’ Vita Constantini and the Construction of Constantine’, in Edwards and Swain, Portraits (1997) 145-74

–––––––and Hall, S. G. Eusebius. Life of Constantine (1999)

Castelli, E. ‘“I Will make Mary Male”: Pieties of the Body and Gender Transformation of Christian Women in Late Antiquity’, in J. Epstein and K. Straub, Body Guards. The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity (1991)

Chadwick, H. Origen, Contra Celsum (1956)

––––––– Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition. Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (1966)

–––––––The Early Church (Pelican History of the Christian Church vol. 1) (1967)

–––––––History and Thought of the Early Church (collected essays) (1982)

–––––––The Church in Ancient Society. From Galilee to Gregory the Great (2001)

Chitty, D. The Desert a City (1977)

Clark, G. ‘Bodies and Blood. Late Antique Debate on Martyrdom, Virginity, and Resurrection’, in Montserrat, Changing Bodies (1997)

–––––––Christianity and Roman Society (2004)

Cloke, G. This Female Man of God (1995)

Coleman, K. M. ‘Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments’, JRS 80 (1990) 44-73

Cooper, K. The Virgin and the Bride (1999)

Court, J. and C. The New Testament World (1990)

Cross, F. L. and Livingstone, E. A. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd edn 1997)

Curran, J. R. Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Courth Century (2000)

Daley, B. Gregory of Nazianzus (2006)

D’Arms, J. Commerce and Social Standing in Ancient Rome (1981)

Dawson, D. Allegorical Readers and Cultural Revision in Ancient Alexandria (1992)

Dillon, J. The Middle Platonists 80 b.c. to a.d. 220 (2nd edn 1996)

Dodds, E.R. Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety (1965)

Downing, F. G. Cynics, Paul and the Pauline Churches (1998)

Drake, H. A. In Praise of Constantine: A Historical Study and New Translation of Eusebius' Tricennial Orations (1976)

–––––––Constantine and the Bishops. The Politics of Intolerance (2000)

Droge, A. and Tabor, J. D. A Noble Death: Suicide and Martyrdom among Christians and Jews in Antiquity (1992)

Dunn, J. D. G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle (1998)

Edwards, M. J. Optatus. Against the Donatists (1997)

–––––––and Swain, S. Portraits. Biographical Representation in the Greek and Latin Literature of the Roman Empire (1997)

–––––––Price, S. R. F., Goodman, M. Apologetics in the Roman Empire (1999)

Elliott, J.K. The Apocryphal New Testament (1993)

Ellis, E. E. Paul’s Use of the Old Testament (1998)

Elm, S. Virgins of God. The Making of Asceticism in Late Antiquity (1994)

Elsner, J. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph. The Art of the Roman Empire, ad 100-450 (1998)

–––––––‘The Itinerarium Burdigalense: Politics and Salvation in the Geography of Constantine’s Empire’, JRS 90 (2000) 181-95

Esler, Ph. F. The First Christians in their Social Worlds (1994)

–––––––(ed.) The Early Christian World vols 1-2 (2000)

Evans Grubb, J. Law and Family in Late Antiquity (1995)

Evans, C. S. The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith (1996)

Ferguson, E. The Early church and Greco-Roman thought (1993)

–––––––Early Christianity and Judaism (1993)

–––––––Church and State in the Early Church (1993)

–––––––Orthodoxy, Heresy, and Schism in Early Christianity (1993)

–––––––Encyclopedia of Early Christianity (2nd edn (1997)

Finley, M. I. (ed.), Studies in Ancient Society (1974)

Foucault, M. The Care of the Self. The History of Sexuality Volume Three (trans. R. Hurley) (1986 etc)

Frankfurter, D. T., Elijah in Upper Egypt (1994)

Frend, W.H.C. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (1965)

–––––––The Archaeology of Early Christianity (1996)

–––––––The Rise of Christianity (1984)

–––––––The Early Church. From the Beginnings to 461 (3rd edn 1991)

Gardner, I. The Kephalaia of the Teacher (1995)

Garnsey, P. Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (1970)

–––––––Ideas of Slavery from Aristotle to Augustine (1996)

Goodenough, E. R. An Introduction to Philo Judaeus (2nd edn 1962)

Goodman, M. State and Society in Roman Galilee, a.d. 132-212 (1983)

–––––––The Ruling Class of Judaea, The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66-70 (1987)

–––––––The Roman World 44 BC – AD 180 (1997)

Grant, R. M. Augustus to Constantine: the Thrust of the Christian Movement into the Roman World (1971)

–––––––Early Christianity and Society (1977)

–––––––Greek Apologists of the Second Century (1988)

–––––––Irenaeus of Lyon (1997)

Green, H. A. The Economic and Social Origins of Gnosticism (1985)

Grimm, V. From Feasting to Fasting. The Evolution of a Sin (1996)

Gruen, E. S. Heritage and Hellenism. The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition (1998)

Hall, S. G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church (1991)

Hanson, R. P. C. Studies in Christian Antiquity (1985)

Harkins, P. W. [John Chrysostom] Discourses against Judaizing Christians (1979)

Harnack, A. von The Expansion of Early Christianity in the First Three Centuries (1904)

–––––––Marcion. The Gospel of the Alien God (1990)

Hazlett, I. (ed.), Early Christianity (1991)  

Harvey, S. A. Asceticism and Society in Crisis: John of Ephesus and the Lives of the East (1990)

Hawthorne, G. F. et al. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship (1993)

Heine, R. The Montanist Oracles and Testimonia (1989)

Hengel, M. The Hellenization of Judaea in the First Century after Christ (1989)

Hennecke, E. New Testament Apocrypha (trans. R. Mcl. Wilson, 1963)

Hopkins, K. A World Full of Gods: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Roman Empire (1999)

Humphries, M. Early Christianity (2006)

Hunter, D. G. A Comparison between a King and a Monk; Against the Opponents of the Monastic Life: Two Treatises by John Chrysostom (1988)

–––––––Marriage in the Early Church (source book) (1992)

Jones, A. H. M. Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (1948)

Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Creeds (3rd edn 1972)

–––––––Jerome. His Life, Writings and Controversies (1975)

–––––––Golden Mouth: the Story of John Chrysostom - Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop (1995)

Keresztes, P. Constantine: A Great Christian Monarch and Apostle (1981)

Knox, R. Enthusiasm (1956)

Konstan, D. Sexual Symmetry (1994)

Kraemer, R. S. Her Share of the Blessings: Women's Religions among Pagans, Jews and Christians in the Greco-Roman World (1992)

–––––––When Aseneth Met Joseph: a Late Antique Tale of the Biblical Patriarch and His Egyptian Wife, Reconsidered (1998) [with the review by Sivan at]

Lamberton, R. Homer the Theologian (1986)

Krautheimer, R. Three Christian Capitals: Topography and Politics (1983)

Lake, K. The Apostolic Fathers (Loeb Classical Library) vols 1-2 (1912-13)

Lane Fox, R. Pagans and Christians in the Mediterranean World from the Second Century a.d. to the Conversion of Constantine (1986)

–––––––The Unauthorized Version. Truth and Fiction in the Bible (1991)

–––––––‘The Life of Daniel’, in Edwards and Swain, Portraits (1997) 175-225

Layton, B. The Gnostic Scriptures (1996)

Lee, A. D. Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity. A Sourcebook (2000)

Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G. Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church, and State in the Reign of Arcadius and Chrysostom (collected papers) (1990)

Lieu, J. North, J., and Rajak, T. The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (1992

Lieu, S.N.C, Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and Medieval China (1985)

–––––––Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman East (1995)

–––––––and Montserrat, D. From Constantine to Julian: A Source History (1995)

–––––––and Montserrat, D. Constantine: History, Historiography, and Legend (1998)

McLynn, N. Ambrose of Milan. Church and Court in a Christian Capital (1994)

MacMullen, R. Paganism in the Roman Empire (1981)

MacMullen, R. Christianizing the Roman Empire (1984)

–––––––and Lane, E. N. (eds) Paganism and Christianity 100-425 ce: A Sourcebook (1992)

Malina, B. J. The Social World of Jesus and the Gospels (1996)

Markus, R. A. Saeculum. History and Society in the Theology of St. Augustine (1970)

–––––––The End of Ancient Christianity (1990)

Meeks, W.A. Jews and Christians in Antioch (1978)

–––––––The First Urban Christians, The Social World of the Apostle Paul (1983)

Metzger, B. M. Introduction to the Apocrypha (1957)

–––––––The New Testament. Its Background, Growth, and Content (1969)

–––––––The Canon of the New Testament. Its Origin, Development, and Significance (1987)

–––––––and Cogan, M. D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible (1993)

Meyer, B.F. & Sanders, E.P. Jewish and Christian Self-Definition III, Self-Definition in the Graeco-Roman World (1982)

Meyer, M. & R. Smith, Ancient Christian Magic (1994)

Miles, M. R. Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West (1992)

Millar, F. The Roman Near East 31 BC – AD 337 (1993)

Mitchell, S. Anatolia vols 1-2 (1994)

Montserrat, D. Changing Bodies, Changing Meanings (1997)

Moule, C. F. D. The Birth of the New Testament (1966)

Moxnes, H. Constructing Early Christian Families (1997)

Murphy O’Connor, J. Paul, A Critical Life (1996)

Musurillo, H. The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1972)

Nock, A. D. Essays on Religion and the Ancient World (ed. Z. Stewart, 1972)

O’Daly, G. Augustine’s City of God. A Reader’s Guide (1999)

Pagels, E. The Gnostic Gospels (1980)

Palmer, A.-M. Prudentius on the Martyrs (1989)

Perkins, J. 'The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles and early Christian  Martyrdom', Arethusa 18 (1985) 211-30

–––––––The Suffering Self: Pain and Narrative Representation in the Early Christian Era (1995)

Pervo, R. I. ‘Early Christian Fictrion’, in J. R. Morgan and R. Stoneman (eds), Greek Fiction (1994)

Price, S. R. F.  Rituals and Power. The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (1984)

Pritchard, J. P. A Literary Approach to the New Testament (1972)

Quasten, J. Patrology vols 1-4 (1960-86)

Rajak, T. Josephus (1983)

–––––––‘Dying for the Law: the Martyr’s Portrait’, in Edwards and Swain, Portraits (1997) 40-67

Rankin, D. Tertullian and the Church (1995)

Robinson, J. M. The Nag Hammadi Gnostic Library in English Translation (3rd edn 1988)

Rousseau, Ph., The Early Christian Centuries (2002)

Rousselle, A. Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity (1988)

Rudolph, K. Gnosis (trans. R. Mcl. Wilson, 1983)

Salisbury, J. E. Perpetua's Passion: the Death and Memory of a Young Roman Woman (1997)

Salzman, M. ‘The Evidence for the Conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in the Theodosian Code’, Historia 42 (1993) 362-78

Sanders, E. P. (ed.), Jewish and Christian Self-Definition vol. I The Shaping of Christianity in the Second and Third Centuries (1980)

––––––– Jesus and Judaism (1985)

–––––––The Historical Figure of Jesus (1993)

Sawyer, D. Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries (1996)

Scarry, E. The Body in Pain. The Making and Unmaking of the World (1985)

Schneemelcher, W. The New Testament Apocrypha vol. 1 Gospels and Related Writings (1991), vol. 2 Writings Related to the Apostles/Apocalypses and Related Subject (1992)

Schürer, E. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (rev. ed. by G. Vermes, F. Millar, M. Goodman (1973-87)

Shaw, B. ‘The Passion of Perpetua’, Past & Present 139 (1993) 1-45

Shaw, T. The Burden of the Flesh. Fasting and Sexuality in Early Christianity (1998)

Sherwin-White, A. N. Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament (1978)

Simon, M. Verus Israel. A Study of Relations between Christians and Jews in the Roman Empire ad 135-425 (trans. H. McKeating, 1986)

Sly, D. Philo’s Alexandria (1995)

Smallwood, E. M. The Jews under Roman Rule (1976)

Sordi, M. Christians in the Roman Empire (2nd ed. 1994)

Stark, R. The Rise of Christianity: a Sociologist Reconsiders History (1996)

Stanton, G. N. The Gospels and Jesus (1989)

Ste. Croix, G. E. M. de ‘Why Were the Early Christians Persecuted?’, Past & Present 26 (1963) 6-38 = M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Ancient Society (1974) 210-49

Stern, M. Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism vols 2-3 (1982-4)

Stevenson, J. (rev. W. H. C. Frend) A New Eusebius. Documents Illustrating the History of the Church to AD 337 (1987)

–––––––(rev. W. H. C. Frend) Creeds, Councils and Controversies. Documents Illustrating the History of the Church, AD 337-461

Temkin, O. Hippocrates in a World of Pagans and Christians (1991)

Thomas, A.F.J. The Acts of Thomas (1962)

Treggiari, S. Roman Marriage (1991)

Trigg, J. W. Origen. The Bible and Philosophy in the Third-Century Church (1985)

–––––––Origen (1998)

Vermes, G. Jesus and the World of Judaism (1983)

–––––––Jesus the Jew. A Historian’s Reading of the Gospels (2nd edn 1983)

–––––––The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (1997)

Veyne, P. ‘The Roman Empire’ in P. Veyne (ed), A History of Private Life (series ed. G. Duby) vol. 1 (1987) 5-234

Vööbus, A. History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient. A Contribution to the History of Culture in the Near East vols 1-2 (1958-60)

Wallace, R. and Williams, W. The Three Worlds of Paul of Tarsus (1998)

Wacher, J. (ed.), The Roman World (1987)

Werblowsky, R. J. Z. and Wigoder, G. (eds) The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (1997)

White, C. Early Church Lives (1998)

–––––––Early Christian Latin Poets (2000)

White, L. M. Building God's House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptation among Pagans, Jews, and Christians (1990)

Whittaker, M. Jews and Christians: Graeco-Roman Views (source book) (1984)

Wilken, R. L. (ed.) Early Christian Literature and the Classical Intellectual Tradition (1979)

–––––––John Chrysostom and the Jews: Rhetoric and Reality in the Late 4th Century (1983)

–––––––The Christians as the Romans Saw Them (1984)

Wimbush V. L. (ed.), Ascetic Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity. A Sourcebook (1990)

Winter, B. M. Philo and Paul among the Sophists (1997)

Worp, K. A. (ed) Greek Papyri from Kellis [P. Kellis I] (1994)

Yonge, C. D. et al. The Essential Philo (1971) [search on Webcat under title]

Young, F. (ed.) The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature (2004)




Constantine and After:


Alchermes, J., ‘Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 48 (1994) 167-78

Alföldi, A., The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948)

Attridge, H. and Hata, G. (eds), Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (1992)

Bagnall, R., Egypt in Late Antiquity (1993)

Baker, G. P., Constantine the Great and the Christian Revolution (1930)

Barnes, T. D., ‘Statistics and the Conversion of the Roman Aristocracy’, JRS 85 (1995) 135-47

Beckwith, J. Early Christian and Byzantine Art (3rd edition, Yale 1993)

Bowder, D., The Age of Constantine and Julian (1978)

Bowersock, G. (1989) Hellenism in Late Antiquity (1989)

Brakke, D. Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism (1995)

Brown, P. ‘Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman Aristocracy’, Journal of Roman Studies 51 (1961) 1-11 [reprinted in Brown's collected essays, Religion and Society in the Age of St Augustine (1972)]

–––––––The Cult of the Saints: its rise and function in Latin Christianity (1981)

Burckhardt, J., The Age of Constantine the Great (English translation) (1949)

Bynum, C. W., Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (1992)

–––––––The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200-1336 (1995)

Cameron, A., The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity (1993a)

–––––––The Later Roman Empire (1993b)

Cameron, A. and Garnsey, P. (eds), The Cambrdge Ancient History vol. XIII The Late Empire A.D. 337-425 (1998)

Casiday, A. Evagrius Ponticus (2006)

Cooper, K. ‘Insinuations of Womanly Influence: an aspect of the Christianization of the Roman aristocracy’, Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992) 150-64

Cormack, R., ‘Byzantine Aphrodisias: Changing the Symbolic Map of a City’, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 30 (1990a) 26-41

––––––– ‘The Temple as Cathedral’, in C. Roueché and K. Erim (eds), Aphrodisias Papers (JRA Supp. 1) (1990b) 75-88

Crisafulli, V. S. and Nesbitt, J. W., The miracles of St. Artemios (1997)

Curran, J., ‘Moving Statues in late antique Rome: problems of perspective’, Art History 17 (1994) 46-58

Davis, S. J., The Cult of Saint Thecla (2001)

Drijvers, J. W., Helena Augusta: the mother of Constantine the Great and the Legend of her Finding of the True Cross (1992)

Du Bourget , P. Early Christian Painting (1965)

Eade, J. and Sallnow, M., Contesting the Sacred. The Anthropology of Pilgrimage (2000)

Elliott, T. G., The Christianity of Constantine the Great (1996)

Elsner, J. and Coleman, S. Pilgrimage Past and Present: Sacred Travel and Sacred Space (1995)

Elsner, J., Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph (1998)

Evans Grubbs, J., Law and Family in Late Antiquity. The Emperor Constantine's Marriage Legislation (1995)

Fowden, G., ‘The Last Days of Constantine’, JRS 84 (1994) 146-70

Frank, G., The Memory of the Eyes: Pilgrims to Living Saints in Christian Late Antiquity (2000)

Frankfurter, D., Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt (1998).

Garnsey, P. and Humfress, C., The Evolution of the Late Antique World (2001)

Grabar, A., The Beginnings of Christian Art, 200-395 (1967)

–––––––Christian iconography: a study of its origins (1969)

Harries, J. and Wood, I. (eds), The Theodosian Code. Studies in the Imperial Law of Late Antiquity (1993)

Hertling, L. and Kirschbaum, E., The Roman Catacombs and their Martyrs (1960)

Hopkins, K., ‘Christian Number and its Implications’, Journ. Early Christian Studies (JECS) 6 (1998) 184-226 (at

Howard-Johnston, J., The Cult of the Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Essays on the Contribution of Peter Brown (1999).

Hunt, D. Holy Land Pilgrimage in the later Roman Empire (1982)

Jaeger, W. Early Christianity and Greek Paideia, 2nd edition (1985)

Kent, J. P. C. & Painter, K. S., The Wealth of the Roman World (1977)

Krautheimer, R. Rome: Profile of a City 312-1308 (1980)

–––––––Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, 4th edition (1986)

Kyle, D. G., Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome (1998)

Lawler, T. C. and Quasten, J. (trans.), Firmicus Maternus. Error of the Pagans (1970)

Lowden, J. Early Christian and Byzantine Art (1997)

Liebeschuetz, W., ‘The End of the Ancient City’, in J. Rich (ed.), The City in Late Antiquity (1990) 75-88

–––––––The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (2001)

Mango, C. (1993), ‘Constantine’s Relics and the Translation of Relics’, BZ 83: 51-61.

Mango, M. M. The Sevso Treasure (1994)

Mathews, T. F. The Clash of Gods: a Re-interpretation of Early Christian Art (1999)

Matthews, J. F., The Roman Empire of Ammianus (1989)

Meyer, M. and Smith, R. (eds) Ancient Christian Magic (1994)

Milburn, R., Early Christian Art and Architecture (1988)

Moorhead, J., Ambrose (1999)

Mosshammer, A. A., The Chronicle of Eusebius and the Greek Chronographic Tradition (1989)

Pásztori-Kupán, I. Theodoret of Cyrrhus (2006)

Pharr, C., The Theodosian Code and Novels (trans.) (1952)

Pohlsander, H. A., The Emperor Constantine (1996)

Price, R. M., Philotheos Historia. A History of the Monks in Syria (1985)

Ramage, N. H. and Ramage, A., Roman Art (1992)

Ramsey, B. Ambrose (1997)

Reymond, E. A, and Barns, J. W. Four Martyrdoms from the Pierpont Morgan Coptic Codices (1998)

Rich, J. (ed.), The City in Late Antiquity (1992)

Rives, J. B., 'The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire', JRS 89: 135-54

Roberts, M., The Jeweled Style. Poetry and Poetics in Late Antiquity (1989)

Rousseau, Ph., Ascetics, Authority and the Church in the Age of Jerome and Cassian (1978)

–––––––Pachomius. The Making of a Community in Fourth-Century Egypt (1985)

Rutgers, L. V., Subterranean Rome. In Search of the Roots of Christianity in the Catacombs of the Eternal City (2000)

Salisbury, J. E., Church Fathers, Independent Virgins (1991)

–––––––Perpetua's Passion. The Death and Memory of a Young Roman Woman (1997)

Salzman, M. R., On Roman Time: the Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (1990)

Shaw, B. D., ‘The Passion of Perpetua’, Past and Present 139 (1993) 3-45

Smith, R., Julian’s Gods. Religion and Philosophy in the Thought and Action of Julian the Apostate (1995)

Stevenson, J., The Catacombs. Rediscovered Monuments of Early Christianity (1978)

Stewart, P., 'The Destruction of Statues in Late Antiquity’, in R. Miles (ed.), Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity (1999) 159-89

Straub, J.,‘Constantine as KOINOS EPISKOPOS’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967) 39-55

Strong, D., Roman Art (1988)

Sumption, J., Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion (1975)

Trevett, C., Montanism (1996)

Turner, V. and E., Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives (1978)

Valantasis, R. (ed.), Reglions of Late Antiquity in Practice (2000)

Veillleux, A., Pachomian Koinonia vols 1-3 (1980-82)

Vikan, G. Byzantine Pilgrimage Art (1982)

Wallace-Hadrill, D. S., Christian Antioch: a Study of Early Christian Thought in the East (1982)

Ward, B., Harlots of the Desert: a Study of Repentance in Early Monastic Sources (1987)

–––––––and Russell, N., Historia Monachorum in Aegypto. The Lives of the Desert Fathers (1981)

Webster, L. & Brown, M. (eds) The Transformation of the Roman World (London 1997) [NB in library at DE 93.T7 - do not confuse with the 1966 book on Gibbon of the same name!]

Wilkinson, J., Egeria's Travels to the Holy Land (1971)

Williams, S. and Friell, G., Theodosius. The Empire at Bay (1998)

Wood, D. (ed), Martyrs and Martyrology (1993)



Some of the items listed here have been made available online by the Library and can be accessed here.