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Module Bibliography

This is the full module bibliography for this module.

A selective bibliography only is available via TalisAspire, designed for you to identify key readings from week to week. This bibliography should be used for your research for essay writing and for preparation for the examination.

Course Extracts are available via Warwick Uni Library for scans of chapters / articles:


Primary texts | Commentaries / Key Readings | Documentary Sources | Key reference |

Imperial biographies | Imperial (self)representations | Tacitus |

Flavians | Provinces | Jewish Revolts | City of Rome | Latin West

Roman Greece | Greek Lit. under Rome | Greek East |

Robert Graves' novels

Key Sourcebooks

Everyone will need to buy copies of the following or borrow from the library, which has multiple copies, and bring them along to every lecture:

  • Cooley, M.G.L., ed. (2011) Tiberius to Nero (LACTOR Sourcebook, DG 281.T53)
  • Cooley, M.G.L., ed. (2015) The Flavians (LACTOR Sourcebook, DG286.F53)

Primary Texts (in translation)

The Library has access to the Loeb Digital Library Online, which offers parallel texts in English and Latin/Greek. 

  • Calpurnius Siculus, Eclogues
  • Dio Cassius, Histories
  • Dio Chrysostom (also known as Dio of Prusa) Orations
  • Frontinus, On the Aqueducts
  • Josephus, Jewish War; Jewish Antiquities
  • Juvenal Satires
  • Martial Epigrams
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece
  • Phaedrus, Fables
  • Philo of Alexandria, Embassy to Gaius (online translation)
  • Pliny the Elder, Natural History
  • *Pliny the Younger Letters; Panegyricus
  • *Scriptores Historiae Augustae Life of Hadrian
  • *Seneca, Apocolocyntosis; On Clemency
  • Statius, Silvae
  • *Suetonius Lives of the Caesars
  • *Tacitus Annals; Histories; Agricola and Dialogus
  • Valerius Maximus, Memorable Doings and Sayings
  • Velleius Paterculus, Roman History

Commentaries/Key Readings

  • On politics and literature:

@Ahl, F.M. (1984) 'The art of safe criticism in Greece and Rome' AJPhil 105: 174-208
@Bartsch, S. (1994) Actors in the Audience. Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to Hadrian [PA 6019.B2 + e-book]
@Dominik, W.J., Garthwaite, J., Roche, P.A. (2009) Writing politics in Imperial Rome [e-book] - articles on Calpurnius Siculus, Juvenal, Josephus, Statius, Martial, Tacitus, Pliny, Suetonius
@König, A. and Whitton, C., eds (2018) Roman literature under Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian [e-book]
Nauta, R.R. (2002) Poetry for Patrons: literary communication in the age of Domitian [PA6050.N38]
Plass, P (1988) Wit and the Writing of History: the Rhetoric of Historiography in Imperial Rome
[DG 205.P5]  

Even without knowledge of Latin/Greek, you will find lots of useful analysis in the following, especially in introductory sections:

  • Dio Cassius

Lange, C.H. and Madsen, J.M., eds (2016) Cassius Dio: Greek Intellectual and Roman Politician [DG206.C38 C37]
@Wardle, D. (2013) Oxford online bibliography: Cassius Dio

  • Frontinus

Rodgers, R.H. (2003) De aquaeductu urbis Romae [PA 6389.F4]

  • Josephus

@Edmondson, J., Mason, S., Rives, J. (2005) Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome
@Hollander, W. den (2014) Josephus, the emperors, and the city of Rome
@Howell Chapman, H. and Rodgers, Z. (2016) A companion to Josephus in his world
@Pastor, J., Stern, P., Mor, M. (2011) Flavius Josephus: interpretation and history
Price, J. (2011) 'Josephus' in Oxford History of Historical Writing, vol. 1, eds A. Feldherr and G. Hardy [D13.O9 Vol.1]
Rajak, T. (1983)
Josephus: the historian and his society [DS122.8.J67 R35]

  • Juvenal

Braund, S. (1996) Juvenal Satires I (CUP) [PA 6446.A5 + Learning Grid]
Braund, S. (1992) Roman Verse Satire (OUP) [PA 6056.B7]
Courtney, E. (1980) A Commentary on the Satires of Juvenal [PA 6448.C6]
@Freudenburg, K. (2005) The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire [e-book]

  • Martial:

Watson, L. (2003) Martial, Select Epigams [PA 6501.A3]
Coleman, K. (2006) Liber spectaculorum [PA 6501.A6 C6]
Rimell, V. (2008) Martial's Rome [PA 6507.R56]

  • Phaedrus

Henderson, J. (2001) Telling tales on Caesar [PA6564.E5 H46]

  • Pliny the Younger:

Altman, J. (1982) Epistolarity, Approaches to a Form (Ohio) [PN 3448.E6]
@ Ash, R. (2013)
'Drip-feed invective: Pliny, self-fashioning, and the Regulus letters', in A. Marmodoro & J. Hill, eds, The Author's Voice in Classical & Late Antiquity (Oxford) 207-232
@ Carlon, J.M. (2009) Pliny's Women: Constructing Virtue and Creating Identity in the Roman World (Cambridge)
@Coleman, K. (2012)
'Bureaucratic language in the correspondence between Pliny and Trajan', Transactions of the American Philological Association 142.2: 189-238
@Gibson, R. and Morello, R. (2012)
Reading the Letters of Pliny the Younger
@Leach, E. (1990) 'The politics of self-presentation: Pliny's Letters and Roman portrait sculpture', Classical Antiquity 9: 14-39
@ Marchesi, I. (2008) The Art of Pliny's Letters: a poetics of allusion in the private correspondence (Cambridge)
@ Marchesi, I., ed. (2015)
Reading the Letters of Pliny the Younger (Oxford)
Marchesi, I., ed. (2015) Pliny the book-maker: betting on posterity in the Epistles [PA6640.P55]
@Morello, R. (2003) 'Pliny and the art of saying nothing' Arethusa 36.2: 187-209
@Murgia, C.E. (1985) 'Pliny's Letters and the Dialogus', Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 89: 171-206
@Norena, C. (2007)
‘The Social Economy of Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan’ AJPhil 128.2
Sherwin-White, A.N. (1966)
The letters of Pliny: a historical and social commentary [PA 6640.S4]
Whitton, C. (2013) Pliny Epistles Book 2 [PA6638.A3]
Williams, W. (1990)
 Correspondence with Trajan from Bythinia (Epistles X) [PA 6638.A3]
Woolf, G. (2006) 'Pliny's province', in T. Bekker-Nielsen, ed., Rome and the Black Sea Region: Domination, Romanisation and Resistance (Aarhus UP) 93-108 [DG 59 .A2]
@Coleman, K. (2018) Oxford online bibliography to Piny the Younger

  • Pliny's Panegyricus

@Radice, B. (1968) 'Pliny and the 'Panegyricus', G&R 15.2: 166-172
@Morford, M.P.O. (1992)
‘Iubes esse liberos: Pliny’s Panegyricus and liberty’, AJPhil 113.4: 575-93
@Roche, P. (2011)
Pliny's praise: the Panegyricus in the Roman world

  • Seneca:

@Bartsch, S. and Schiesaro, A., eds (2015) The Cambridge Companion to Seneca [PA6675.C36 + e-book]
Eden, P.T. (1984)
Seneca Apocolocyntosis [PA 6661.A9]
Griffin, M.T. (1976) Seneca: a philosopher in politics [JC89.G67]
@Nauta, R.R. (1987) ‘Seneca’s Apocolocyntosis as Saturnalian literature’, Mnemosyne 40.1-2: 69-96
@Paschalis, M. (2009) 'The afterlife of emperor Claudius in Seneca's Apocolocyntosis', Numen 56.2-3: 198-216

  • Statius:

Coleman, K. (1988) Statius Silvae IV [PA 6697.A3]
@Dominic, W.J., Newlands, C., Gervais, K. (2015) Brill's Companion to Statius
Newlands, C. (2011) Statius Silvae II [PA 6697.A3]
@Newlands, C. (2002) Statius' Silvae and the Poetics of Empire [PA 6698.N3]
Newlands, C. (2012) Statius, poet between Rome and Naples [PA6698.N495]

  • Tacitus:

Tacitus Dialogus in translation: Russell, D.A. and M. Winterbottom, Ancient literary criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972) [PN 173.R8]
Mayer, R. (2001) Tacitus Dialogus [PA 6706.D5 ]
@Berg, C. van den (2014)
 The world of Tacitus' Dialogus [PA6706.D5 V36]
@Strunk, T. (2010)
'Offending the powerful: Tacitus' Dialogus and safe criticism' Mnemosyne 63: 241-67

Goodyear, F.R.D. (1981) The Annals of Tacitus 1.55-81 & Book 2 [PA 6705.A6]
Woodman, A.J. & Martin, R.H. (1996) The Annals of Tacitus Book 3 [PA 6705.A6]
Woodman, A.J. & Martin, R.H. (1989) Tacitus Annals Book 4 [PA 6705.A6]
@Woodman, A,J, (2018) Tacitus Annals 4 [PA6705.A6 B4]
Woodman, A.J. (2017)
Tacitus Annals 5-6 [PA6705.A6 B5]
Malloch, S. (2013)
Tacitus Annals 13 [PA6705.A6]
Ash, R. (2018)
 Tacitus Annals Book 15 [PA6705.A6 B15]
Ginsburg, J. (1981) Tradition and Theme in the Annals of Tacitus [PA6705.A9]
@O'Gorman, E. (2000) Irony and Misreading in the Annals of Tacitus

Damon, C. (2003) Tacitus Histories Book 1 [ PA 6705.H6]
Ash, R. (2007) Tacitus Histories Book 2 PA 6705.H6]
Ash, R. (1999) Ordering anarchy [DG286.A84]

Ash, R., ed. (2012) Tacitus
Haynes, H. (2004)
''Tacitus' dangerous word', ClAnt 23: 33-61
@Pagan, E. (2012) A Companion to Tacitus
@Woodman, A.J. (2010) The Cambridge Companion to Tacitus

  • Suetonius:

Mottershead, J. (1986) Suetonius Claudius [PA 6700.A35]
Hurley, D. (2001) Suetonius Divus Claudius [PA 6700.A35]
Warmington, B.H. (1999, 2nd edn) Suetonius Nero [PA 6700.A36]
Shotter, D. (1993) Suetonius, Lives of Galba, Otho and Vitellius [PA 6700.A37]
@Power, T. and Gibson, R.K. (2014) Suetonius, the biographer: studies in Roman lives [PA6702.S84]
Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1983) Suetonius: the scholar and his Caesars [PA 6702.W2]
@ Hägg, T. (2012) The Art of Biography in Antiquity 
@Wardle, D. (2011) Oxford Online Bibliography - Suetonius

  • SHA Life of Hadrian:

Benario, H. (1980) A commentary on the Vita Hadriani in the Historia Augusta [DG 295.B3 ]

  • Valerius Maximus

@Langlands, R. (2018) Exemplary ethics in ancient Rome

  • Velleius Paterculus

Cowan, E., ed. (2010) Velleius Paterculus: Making History [PA6798.V45]
@ Lobur, J. (2007) 'Generation of imperial ideology in Velleius Paterculus', Transactions of the American Philological Association 137: 211-30
Woodman, A.J. (1977) Velleius Paterculus: The Tiberian Narrative (2.94-131)
@Cowan, E. (2014) Oxford Online Bibliography - Velleius Paterculus

Documentary Sources

Crawford, M.H., ed. (1996) Roman Statutes (London) [KE 110.R6]
Sherk, R.K. (1988) The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian (Cambridge) [DG 275.R6]
Braund, D. (1985) Augustus to Nero: a sourcebook [DG 281.B7]
Levick, B. (2002) The high tide of empire: emperors and empire AD 14-117 [LACTOR] [DG 281.H4]
Levick, B. (1985) The government of the Roman empire [DG 83.L3] [+ 2nd edn 2000 online as e-book]
@ Lott, B. (2012) Death and Dynasty in early imperial Rome

Key Reference Works

  • Cambridge Ancient History X (2nd edn, 1996) eds A.K. Bowman, E. Champlin, A. Lintott (Cambridge)
  • Cambridge Ancient History XI (2nd edn, 2000) eds A.K. Bowman, P. Garnsey, D. Rathbone

Imperial Biographies/ Imperial Ages (* recommended; ! use with care)

  • Tiberius

!Baker, G.P. (2001 - but originally 1929) Tiberius Caesar: emperor of Rome [DG 282.B2]
*Levick, B. (1976) Tiberius the Politician [DG 282.L3]
*Seager, R. (1972) Tiberius [DG 282.S3]
!Shotter, D. (1992) Tiberius Caesar [DG 282.S4]

  • Gaius Caligula

!Barber, S. & J. Reed (2001) Caligula: Divine Carnage [DG 283.B2]
*Barrett, A. (1989) Caligula: the corruption of power [DG 283.B2]
*@Wilkinson, S. (2005) Caligula

  • Claudius

*Levick, B. (1990) Claudius [DG 284.L3]
@Levick, B. (1978) 'Antiquarian or Revolutionary? Claudius Caesar's Conception of His Principate' AJPhil 99.1: 79-105
Momigliano, A. (1934) Claudius: the emperor and his achievement [DG 284.M6]
*Osgood, J. (2011) Claudius Caesar: image and power in the early Roman empire [DG 284.O84]

  • Nero

*@Barrett, A., Fantham, E., Yardley, J. (2016) The Emperor Nero: a guide to the sources
*@Bartsch, S., Freudenberg, K., Littlewood, C., eds (2017)
The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Nero
!Bishop, J. (1964)
Nero [DG 285.B4]
Buckley, E. and Dinter, M., eds (2013) A companion to the Neronian Age [e-book]
Champlin, E. (2003) Nero [DG 285.C4]
@Drinkwater, J. (2019) Nero: emperor and court
**Elsner, J. & Masters, J. (1994)
Reflections of Nero [DG 285.R3] - NOT biography, but important collection of essays exploring source & reception issues 
!Grant, M. (1970) Nero [DG 285.G7]
*Griffin, M. (1984) Nero: the end of a dynasty [DG 285.G7]
!Holland, R. (2000) Nero: the man behind the myth [DG 285.H6]
@Rudich, V. (1993) Political dissidence under Nero
Rudich, V. (1997)
Dissidence and literature under Nero [PA 6029.P6 ]
!Shotter, D. (1997)
Nero [DG 285.S4]
!Warmington, B.H. (1969) Nero, reality and legend [DG 285.W2]

  • The Four Emperors

Morgan, G. (2006) 69 AD: The Year of the Four Emperors (OUP) [DG 288.M6]
Murison, C.L. (1993) Galba,Otho and Vitellius: careers and controversies [DG 286.M8]
Wellesley, K. (1975) The Year of the Four Emperors [DG 288.G7]

  • Flavians

*@Levick, B. (2017, 2nd edn) Vespasian
Wiseman, T.P. (1978) Titus Flavius and the Indivisible Subject [DG 289.W4]
Jones, B.W. (1984) The Emperor Titus [DG 290.J6]
@Jones, B.W. (1992) The Emperor Domitian [DG 291.J6]
!Southern, P. (1997) Domitian: tragic tyrant [DG 291.S6]

  • Nerva/Trajan/Hadrian

Grainger, J.D. (2003) Nerva and the Roman succession crisis of AD 96-99 [DG 293.G7]
*Bennett, J. (1997) Trajan: optimus princeps [DG 294.B3]
*Birley, A.R. (1997) Hadrian: the restless emperor [DG 295.B4]
Opper, T. (2008) Hadrian: Empire and Conflict - not a biography, but lavish and well written exhibition catalogue [DG295.O67]
Opper, T. (2013) Hadrian: art, politics and economy [DG295.O694]
Perowne, S. (1976) Hadrian [DG 295.P3]

Imperial (self)representations

Calomino, D. (2015) 'Emperor or God? The posthumous commemoration of Augustus in Rome and the provinces' The Numismatic Chronicle 175: 57-82
@Flower, H.I. (2006) The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture 
@Gibson, A.G.G., ed. (2012) The Julio-Claudian Succession
Gradel, I. (2002) Emperor Worship and Roman Religion
@Højte, J. (2003) ‘The statue bases of Claudius. A reassessment of The Portraiture of Claudius by Meriwether Stuart’, in The Cauldron of Ariantas, Studies Presented to A.N. Sceglov on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, eds Bilde et al. (Aarhus University Press) pp.365-88
@ Lobur, J. (2008) Consensus, Concordia, and the Formation of Roman Imperial Ideology
Norena, C. (2011) Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power [DG 271.N67]
Norena, C. (2011) "Coins and Communication," in M. Peachin (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World pp.248-68.
@Norena, C. (2001) "The Communication of the Emperor's Virtues," Journal of Roman Studies 91: 146-68.
Rose, C.B. (1997) 'The imperial image in the Eastern Mediterranean', in The Early Roman Empire in the East, ed. S.E. Alcock 108-20 [DG 59 A2]
Rose, C.B. (1997) Dynastic Commemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio- Claudian Period [NB1296.3.R67]


Champlin, E. (2013) 'The Odyssey of Tiberius Caesar' C&M 64: 199-246
@Cooley, A.E. (2019) 'From the Augustan Principate to the age of Augustus' JRS 
@Cowan, E. (2016) 'Contesting clementia: the Rhetoric of Severitas in Tiberian Rome before and after the Trial of Clutorius Priscus'', JRS
Cox, S.E. (2005) ‘The mark of the successor: tribunician power and the ara Providentia under Tiberius and Vespasian’, Numismatica e Antichità Classiche 34: 251-70.


@Hurley, D.W. (1989) 'Gaius Caligula in the Germanicus tradition', American Journal of Philology 110.2: 316-38
Pollini, J. (2012) From Republic to Empire. Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome [N 72.P6.P655] - ch.8


@Aveline, J. (2004) ‘The death of Claudius’, Historia 53.4: 453-75
@Fishwick, D. (2002)
‘The deification of Claudius’ CQ 52.1: 341-49


@Gallivan, P.A. (1973) 'The false Neros: a reexamination', Historia 22: 364-7
@Jones, C. (2000)
‘Nero speaking’ HSClPhil 100: 453-62
@Manning, C.E. (1975)
'Acting and Nero's conception of the Principate', G&R 22.2: 164-75
@Smith, R.R.R. (2000)
'Nero and the Sun-god: divine accessories and political symbols in Roman imperial images', JRA 13: 532-42

Imperial Women

@Barrett, A. (2002) Livia: first lady of Rome [DG 291.7.L5]
Bartman, E. (1999)
Portraits of Livia: imaging the imperial woman in Augustan Rome [NB 165.L4]
@Flory, M. (1993) "Livia and the history of public honorific statues for women in Rome", TAPA 123: 287-308
Fraschetti, A. (2001)
"Livia the politician", in A. Fraschetti (ed.), Roman Women, 100-117 [DG 91.R6]
Ginsburg, J. (2006)
Representing Agrippina: constructions of female power in the early Roman Empire [DG 282.6.G4]
Kokkinos, N. (1992)
Antonia Augusta: portrait of a great Roman lady [DG 291.7.A6]
@Rutland, L.W. (1978)
"Women as makers of kings in Tacitus' Annals", Classical World 72: 15-29
@Santoro L'Hoir, F. (1994) ‘Tacitus and women's usurpation of power’, Classical World 88: 5-25
Wood, S. (1999) Imperial Women: a study in public images [DG 274.3.W6]


Also consult the Oxford Online Bibliography, 'Tacitus' by Sailor

  • General/ Historiography

Ash, R. (2006) Tacitus (Ancients in Action, Duckworth/BCP) [PA 6716.A84]
Ash, R. (2012) Oxford Readings in Tacitus [PA6716.A75]
Cooley, A.E. (2005) 'Introduction' in Tacitus Annals and Histories translated by Church and Brodribb [DG 207.T2]
@Daitz, S.G. (1960) ‘Tacitus’ technique of character portrayal’, American Journal of Philology 81: 30-52.
Goodyear, F.R.D. (1970)
O'Gorman, E. (2011) in Oxford History of Historical Writing vol. 1, ed. D. Woolf (general editor) [D13.O9 Vol.1]
Martin, R.H. (1981) Tacitus
@Pagan, E. (2012) A Companion to Tacitus [PA 6716.C66]
@Sailor, D. (2008) Writing and Empire in Tacitus
Syme, R. (1958) Tacitus
Wellesley, K. (1969) ‘Tacitus as a military historian’, in T.A. Dorey (ed.) Tacitus (London), 63-97
Woodman, A.J. (1979) ‘Self-imitation and the substance of history: Tacitus Annals 1.61-5 and Histories 2.70, 5.14-15’, in D. West and A.J. Woodman (eds) Creative imitation and Latin literature, 143-55
Woodman, A.J. (1998) Tacitus Reviewed [DG 207.T2]
@Woodman, A.J. (2009) The Cambridge Companion to Tacitus [PA 6716.C3]

  • Dialogus

@Barnes, T.D. (1986) 'The significance of Tacitus' Dialogus de Oratoribus' HSCP 90: 225-44
Dressler, A. (2013) 'Poetics of conspiracy and hermeneutics of suspicion in Tacitus' Dialogus' ClAnt 32: 1-34
Gallia, A. (2009)
'Potentes and potentia in Tacitus' Dialogus' TAPhA 139: 169-206
@van den Berg, C.S. (2014)
The World of Tacitus' Dialogus de Oratoribus : Aesthetics and Empire in Ancient Rome
Levene, D.S. (2004) 'Tacitus' Dialogus as literary history' TAPA 134: 157-200

  • Agricola

@von Fritz, K. (1957) ‘Tacitus, Agricola, Domitian and the problem of the Principate’, Classical Philology 52: 73-97
@Dorey, T.A. (1960) 'Agricola and Domitian', Greece and Rome 7.1: 66-71
@Liebeschutz, W. (1966) ‘The theme of liberty in the Agricola of Tacitus’, Classical Quarterly 16: 126-39
@Percival, J. (1980) ‘Tacitus and the Principate’, Greece and Rome 27: 119-32
@Clarke, K. (2001) 'An island nation: re-reading Tacitus' Agricola', Journal of Roman Studies 91: 94-112
@ Hägg, T. (2012) The Art of Biography in Antiquity
@ Heyworth, S. , ed. (2007) Classical Constructions: papers in memory of Don Fowler (ch. by S. Harrison)

  • Histories

Ash, R. (1999) Ordering anarchy: armies and leaders in Tacitus' Histories (London) [DG 207.T2]

  • Annals

Ginsburg, J. (1981) Tradition and theme in the Annals of Tacitus
@Keitel, E. (1984) 'Principate and Civil war in the Annals of Tacitus' American Journal of Philology 105.3: 305-25
@O’Gorman, E. (2000)
Irony and misreading in the Annals of Tacitus [PA 6705.A9]
@O’Gorman, E. (2006) 'Alternative empires: Tacitus' virtual history of the Pisonian principate', Arethusa 39.2: 281-301
Walker, B. (1951)
The Annals of Tacitus

  • Tacitus on Tiberius' rule

@American Journal of Philology 120.1 (1999) The Senatus Consultum de Cn. Pisone Patre
@Balsdon, J.P.V.D. (1946) review of D.M. Pippidi Autour de Tibère, Journal of Roman Studies 36: 168ff
@Barnes, T.D. (1998) ‘Tacitus and the “Senatus Consultum de Cn. Pisone Patre”,’ Phoenix 52: 125-48.
@Bird, H.W. (1987)
’Tiberius, Piso and Germanicus: further considerations’, Acta Classica 30: 72-75.
@Cooley, A.E. (1998)
The moralising message of the senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre’, Greece & Rome 45.2: 199-212
Corbeill, A. (2004) Nature Embodied. Gesture in Ancient Rome (Princeton UP) ch.5 'Face facts: facial expression and the new political order in Tacitus' [DG 78 C6]
@Cowan, E. (2009) 'Tacitus, Tiberius and Augustus' Classical Antiquity 28.2: 179-210
@Cowan, E. (2009) 'Tiberius and Augustus in Tiberian sources' Historia 58.4: 468-85
@Drogula, F.K. (2015)
‘Who was watching whom? A reassessment of the conflict between Germanicus and Piso’, American Journal of Philology 136.1: 121-53.
@Flower, H.I. (1998)
'Rethinking 'damnatio memoriae': the case of Cn Calpirnius Piso pater in AD 20', Classical Antiquity 17.2: 155-87
@Fulkerson, L. (2006) ‘Staging a mutiny: competitive roleplaying on the Rhine (Annals 1.31-51)’, Ramus 35.2: 169-192.
Gill, C. (1983)
The question of character development: Plutarch and Tacitus’, Classical Quarterly 33: 469-87
Griffin, M.T. (1997) ' The Senate's story' Journal of Roman Studies 87: 249-63
@Kelly, B. (2010) ‘Tacitus, Germanicus and the kings of Egypt’ Classical Quarterly 60.1: 221-37
@Miller, N.P. (1968) Tiberius speaks’, American Journal of Philology 89: 1-19
@Pelling, C. (1993) 'Tacitus and Germanicus', in A.J. Woodman & T.J. Luce, eds Tacitus and the Tacitean Tradition (Princeton) 59-85 [PA 6716.T2] - NOW BETTER as updated reprint in Ash, ed. Oxford Readings in Classical Studies: Tacitus
@Pettinger, A. (2012) The Republic in Danger: Drusus Libo and the Succession of Tiberius
@Potter, D.S. 'Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone', Journal of Roman Archaeology 11 (1998) 437-57
@Rapke, T.T. (1982) ‘Tiberius, Piso, and Germanicus’, Acta Classica 25: 61-69.
@Richardson, J.S. (1997)
‘The senate, the courts and the SConsultum de Cn. Pisone Patre’, CQ 47.2: 510-18
Rowe, G. (2002) Princes and Political Cultures: The New Tiberian Senatorial Decrees [DG 282.R6]
Ross, D.O., jr (1973) ‘The Tacitean Germanicus’, in T. Cole and D. Ross (eds), Studies in Latin Language and Literature, 209-28. (Cambridge: Yale Classical Studies 23 / Cambridge University Press).
@Rutland, L.W. (1987) ‘The Tacitean Germanicus: suggestions for a re-evaluation’, Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 130.2: 153–64.
Shatzman, I. (1974)
‘Tacitean rumours’, Latomus 33: 549-78 [Arts Journal]
@Shotter, D.C.A. (1968) 'Tacitus, Tiberius and Germanicus', Historia 17: 194-214
@Shotter, D.C.A. (1974) ‘Cnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Legate of Syria’, Historia 23.2: 229–45.
@Syme, R. (1974)
History or biography: the case of Tiberius Caesar’, Historia 23: 481-96 = Roman Papers III: 937-52
@Williams, K.F. (2009) ‘Tacitus’ Germanicus and the Principate’, Latomus 68.1: 117-130
@Woodman, A.J. (1989) Tacitus’ obituary of Tiberius’, Classical Quarterly 39: 197-205
@Woodman, A.J. (2015) ‘Tacitus and Germanicus’, in R. Ash, J. Mossman, F. Titchener (eds), Fame and Infamy: Essays on Characterization in Greek and Roman Biography and Historiography, 255-68. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

  • Tacitus on Claudius

@Griffin, M. (1982) The Lyons Tablet and Tacitean Hindsight’, Classical Quarterly 32: 404-18
@Griffin, M.T. (1990) 'Claudius in Tacitus', Classical Quarterly 40.2: 482-501
@Joshel, S. (1995) ‘Female desire and the discourse of Empire: Tacitus’ Messalina’ Signs 21.1: 50-82

  • Tacitus and the Principate

Griffin, M. (1995) 'Tacitus, Tiberius and the Principate', in Leaders and Masses in the Roman World. Studies in Honor of Zvi Yavetz, eds I. Malkin & Z.W. Rubinsohn, 33-57 [DG 82.L3]
@Percival, J. (1980) 'Tacitus and the Principate', Greece & Rome 27: 119-33
Syme, R. (1984) 'How Tacitus wrote Annals I-III', in Roman Papers vol. 3, ed. A.R. Birley, 1014-1042 [DG 209.S9]


Year of Four Emperors

@Chilver, G.E.F. (1957) ‘The army in politics, AD 68-70’ JRS 47: 29-35
@Ferrill, A. (1965) ‘Otho, Vitellius and the Propaganda of Vespasian’, CJ 60.6: 267-69
Morgan, G. (2006) 69 AD: The Year of the Four Emperors (OUP) [DG 288.M6]
Murison, C.L. (1993) Galba,Otho and Vitellius: careers and controversies [DG 286.M8]
@Newbold, R.F. (1972) ‘Vitellius and the Roman plebs’, Historia 21.2: 308-19
Perkins, C.A. (1993) ‘Tacitus on Otho’, Latomus 52: 848-55
@Ramage, E.S. (1983) ‘Denigration of predecessor under Claudius, Galba, and Vespasian’, Historia 32.2: 201-14 
@Shotter, D. (1996)
‘The coinage of Otho: a contribution to the history of his reign’, Historia 45.3: 382-85
@Syme, R. (1982)
‘Partisans of Galba’ Historia 31.4: 460-83
Wellesley, K. (2000, 3rd edn)
The Year of the Four Emperors (Routledge) [DG 288.W3]
@Yavetz, Z. (1969)
‘Vitellius and the “Fickleness of the Mob”’, Historia 18.5: 557-69


Boyle, A.J.,Dominik, W.J. , eds (2003) Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text (Brill, Leiden)
@Brunt, P.A. (1977) 'Lex de imperio Vespasiani', JRS 67: 95-116
@ Closs, V. (2016) 'Neronianis temporibus: the so-called arae incendii Neroniani and the fire of AD 64 in Rome's monumental landscape', Journal of Roman Studies pp.102-123
@Flower, H.I. (2001) ‘A tale of two monuments: Domitian, Trajan, and some praetorians at Puteoli (AE 1973, 137)’, American Journal of Archaeology 105.4: 625-48
@Lattimore, R. (1934) ‘Portents and Prophecies in Connection with the Emperor Vespasian’ CJ 29.6: 441-49
@ Morgan, M.G. (1996) 'Vespasian and the omens in Tacitus' Histories 2.78' Phoenix 50.1: 41-55
@Townend, G. (1961) 'Some Flavian connections' JRS 51: 54-62
@Turner, E.G. (1954) 'Tiberius Iulius Alexander', JRS 44 54-64
@Wardle, D. (1996) ‘Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus, and the restoration of the Capitol’, Historia 45.2: 208-22
@Waters, K.H. (1964) ‘The character of Domitian’, Phoenix 18: 49-77
Waters, K.H. (1963) ‘The second dynasty of Rome’, Phoenix 17.3: 198-218
@Zissos, A, (2016) A Companion to the Flavian Age of Ancient Rome


  • Imperial expansion

@ Beckmann, M. (2016) ‘Trajan’s column and Mars Ultor’ JRS 106: 124-46
@ Cornwell, H. (2017) Pax and the Politics of Peace: Republic to Principate [e-book]
@ Speidel, M. (1970) 'The captor of Decebalus. A new inscription from Philippi' JRS 60: 142-53
@ Sasel, J. (1973) 'Trajan's canal at the Iron Gate', JRS 63: 80-85

  • Ruling the provinces

@Bowman, A.K. and D. Rathbone (1992) ‘Cities and administration in Roman Egypt’, JRS 82: 107-27
@Brenk, F.E. and S.J.F. Canali de Rossi (2001)
'The notorious Felix, procurator of Judaea and his many wives (Acts 23-24)', Biblica 82: 410-17
@Cottier, M. et al. (2008)
The Customs Law of Asia [KV 4932.5.C8]
@Hopkins, K. (1980) ‘Taxes and trade in the Roman Empire’, JRS 70: 101-25
@Howgego, C. (1992) 'The Supply and Use of Money in the Roman World 200 BC to AD 300', JRS 82
@Howgego, C. (1994) 'Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy', Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 5-21
@Matthews, J.F. (1984) ‘The tax law of Palmyra: evidence for economic history in a city of the Roman East’, JRS 74: 157-80
@Millar, F. (1966) 'The emperor, the senate, and the provinces', JRS 56: 156-66
@Oost, S.I. (1958) 'The career of M. Antonius Pallas', AJPhil 79.2: 113-39

  • Provincial responses to imperial power

@Ando, C. (2000) Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire [DG 59.A2]
Dyson, S.L. (1975) ‘Native revolt patterns in the Roman Empire’ ANRW II.3:138ff [DG 210.A8]
@Erim, K.T. (1982) 'A New Relief Showing Claudius and Britannia from Aphrodisias' Britannia 13: 277-281
@Frenz, H.G. (1989)
‘The honorary arch at Mainz-Kastel’, JRA 2: 120-25
MacMullen, R. (1967) Enemies of the Roman Order (1967) ch.4 [DG 78.M2]
@Mitchell, S. (1976) ‘Requisitioned transport in the Roman empire: a new inscription from Pisidia’, JRS 66
@Mitford, T.B. (1960)
'A Cypriot Oath of Allegiance to Tiberius' JRS 50: 75-79
Nutton, V. (1978) ‘The beneficial ideology’ in P. Garnsey & C. Whittaker, eds Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge) [D 60.C2]
Potter, D.S. (1990) Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the Roman Empire (Oxford) [PA 4253 O83]
Rowe, G. (2002) Princes and Political Cultures: The New Tiberian Senatorial Decrees [DG 282.R6]
@Smith, R.R.R. (1987) ‘The imperial reliefs from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias’, JRS 77 88-138
@Smith, R.R.R. (1988) ‘Simulacra gentium: the ethne from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias’, JRS 78 50-77
Whitmarsh, T. (2010) Local knowledge and microidentities in the imperial Greek world [DF135.L6]

Jewish Revolts

Applebaum, S. (1976) Prolegomena to the study of the second Jewish revolt [DS122.9.A7]
@Ben-Yehuda, N. (1995)
The Masada myth
Berlin, A.M. and J.A. Overman, eds. (2002) The first Jewish revolt
De Lange, N.R.M. (1978)
'Jewish attitudes to the Roman empire' in P. Garnsey & C.Whittaker, eds Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge, 1978) 255-81 [D60.C2]
@Fuks, A. (1961) 'Aspects of the Jewish revolt in AD 115-117', JRS 51: 98-104
@Goodman, M. (2000) 'Judaea', ch. 22 in CAH XI (2nd edn) [D 57.C2]
@Goodman, M. (1987) The ruling class of Judaea
@Magness, J. (2019) Masada: from Jewish revolt to modern myth
@Mason, S. (2016) A History of the Jewish War
@Popovic, M. (2011) The Jewish revolt against Rome
@Rajak, T. (1984) 'Was there a Roman Charter for the Jews?' JRS 74: 107-23
Ritter, B. (2015) Judeans in the Greek cities of the Roman empire [DS121.7.R57]

City of Rome

  • The imperial family

@ Arena, P. (2009) ‘The pompa circensis and the domus Augusta’, in Ritual dynamics and religious change in the Roman Empire, ed. Hekster et al. pp.77-94
@Barrett, A.A. (1991)
'Claudius' British Victory Arch in Rome' Britannia 22: 1-19
Boatwright, M.T. (1987)
Hadrian and the City of Rome [ DG 63.T2 + dept office copy + Learning Grid]
@Boyle, A.J.,Dominik, W.J. , eds (2003) Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text (Brill, Leiden)
@Corbier, M. (1995)
‘Male power and legitimacy through women: the domus Augusta under the Julio-Claudians’, in R. Hawley & B. Levick (eds.), Women in Antiquity: New Assessments pp.178-193 [DE 61.W6]
Fischler, S. (1994)
‘Social stereotypes and historical analysis: the case of the imperial women at Rome’, in L.J. Archer, S. Fischler and M. Wyke (eds.), Women in Ancient Societies 115-33
@Flory, M.B. (1996)
'Dynastic Ideology, the Domus Augusta, and Imperial Women: A Lost Statuary Group in the Circus Flaminius' TAPA 126: 287-306
Hemsoll, D. (1990) 'The architecture of Nero's Golden House', in M. Henig, ed. Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire pp.10-38 [NA 310.A7]
@Last, H. (1948) 'On the Flavian reliefs from the Palazzo della Cancelleria', JRS 38: 9-14
@Packer, J.E. (2003)
'Plurima et amplissima opera: parsing Flavian Rome' in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text, eds A.J. Boyle, W.J. Dominik (Brill, Leiden) 167-98
Pollini, J. (2012) From Republic to Empire. Rhetoric, Religion, and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome [N 72.P6.P655]
Rowe, G. (2002) Princes and Political Cultures: The New Tiberian Senatorial Decrees [DG 282.R6]
@Severy, B. (2000) 'Family and State in the Early Imperial Monarchy: The Senatus Consultum de Pisone Patre, Tabula Siarensis, and Tabula Hebana' Classical Philology 95.3: 318-37
@Syme, R. (1981) ‘Princesses and others in Tacitus’, G&R 28.1: 40-52
Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1990) ‘Roman Arches and Greek Honours: the Language of Power at Rome’, PCPhS 36: 143-81

  • Sejanus

@Boddington, A. (1963) 'Sejanus. Whose Conspiracy?' AJPhil 84.1: 1-16
Syme, R. 'Sejanus on the Aventine' in Roman Papers I pp.305-15
@'The Fall of Sejanus' - departmental 'vodcast' by Kevin Butcher

  • The Senate and Maiestas (excludes general books on Tiberius; Tacitus)

@Bauman, R. (1996) Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome [DG 88.B2]
@Bradley, K.R. (1973)Tum primum revocata ea lex”, AJPhil 94.2: 172-81
@Chilton, C.W. (1955) Roman law of treason under the early Principate’, JRS 45: 73-81
@Evans, J.K. (1979) ‘The trial of P. Egnatius Celer’, CQ 29: 198-202
@Katzoff, R. (1971) ‘Tacitus, Annales 1.74: the case of Granius Marcellus’, AJPhil 92.4: 680-84
@Keaveney, A. & Madden, J.A. (1998) ‘The crimen maiestatis under Caligula: the evidence of Dio Cassius’, CQ 48: 316-20
@Levick, B. (1979) Poena legis maiestatis’, Historia 28: 358-79
@Levick, B. (1983) The senatus consultum from Larinum’, JRS 73: 97-115
@McAlindon, D. (1956) ‘Senatorial opposition to Claudius and Nero’, AJPhil 77.2: 113-32
@Richardson, J.S. (1997) ‘The senate, the courts and the SC de Cn. Pisone Patre’, CQ 47.2: 510-18
@Rogers, R.S. (1960) ‘A group of Domitianic treason-trials’, CPhil 55.1: 19-23
Rutledge, S.H. (2001) Imperial inquisitions: prosecutors and informants from Tiberius to Domitian [JC89.R87]
@Shotter, D. (1966) ‘Tiberius’ part in the trial of Aemilia Lepida’, Historia 15.3: 312-17
@Shotter, D. (1969) ‘The trial of Clutorius Priscus’ G&R 16.1: 14-18
@Shotter, D. (1980) ‘A group of maiestas trials in AD 21’, Hermes 108.2: 230-33
@Talbert, R. (1984) The Senate of Imperial Rome, 460-87 [DG 83.T2]
@Talbert, R. in CAH X2, 324-43
@Williamson, C. (2016) ‘Crimes against the State’, in P.J. du Plessis, C. Ando, and K. Tuori (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Law and Society, 333-44. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

City Life in the Latin West

@Alföldy, G. (2000) 'Spain' ch. 13 in CAH XI (2nd edn), pp.444-61
Boatwright, M.T. (2000) Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire [DG 295 T2]
Edmondson, J. (2002) 'Writing Latin in the province of Lusitania' in A.E. Cooley, ed. Becoming Roman, Writing Latin? 41-60 [PA2057.B43]
Keay, S.J. (1988) Roman Spain [DP 94.K3]
@González, J. (1986) ‘The Lex Irnitana: a new copy of the Flavian Municipal Law’, JRS 76: 147-243 [initial publication of text & translation]
@Galsterer, H. (1988) ‘Municipium Flavium Irnitanum: a Latin town in Spain’, JRS 78: 78-90 [espec. sections 1-3]
Fear, A. (1996) Rome and Baetica. Urbanization in Southern Spain c.50 BC-AD 150 [DG 59.B2]
@Ward-Perkins, J.B. (1970) 'From Republic to Empire: Reflections on the Early Provincial Architecture of the Roman West' JRS 60: 1-19

Roman Greece

  • Hadrian and Greece

Adams, A. (1989) 'The arch of Hadrian at Athens', 10-16 in Cameron, A. & Walker, S. The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire (BICS Suppl 55) [ DF 239.G7, quarto]
Boatwright, M.T. (2000) Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire [DG 295.T2 + Learning Grid]
Clinton, K. (1989) 'Hadrian's contribution to the renaissance of Eleusis', 56-68 in Cameron, A. & Walker, S. The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire (BICS Suppl 55) [ DF 239.G7, quarto]
@ Gordillo Hervas, R. (2017) ‘Talking with the emperor: diplomacy and language between Greece and Rome’ Greece & Rome 64.2: 168-181
@Jones, C.P. (2006)
‘A letter of Hadrian to Naryka (Eastern Lokris)’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 19: 151-62
@Romeo, I. (2002) 'The Panhellenion and ethnic identity in Hadrianic Greece; Classical Philology 97: 21-40
@Spawforth, A. and S. Walker (1985) 'The world of the Panhellenion I' Journal of Roman Studies 75: 78-104
@Spawforth, A. and S. Walker (1986) 'The world of the Panhellenion II', Journal of Roman Studies 76: 88-105
@Spawforth, A. (2012) Greece and the Augustan Cultural Revolution [DF 240.S67] ch. 6

Greek Literature under Rome

  • General

Anderson, G. (1990) ‘The Second Sophistic: some problems of perspective’, in D.A. Russell, ed. Antonine Literature [PA 3086 A6] pp.91-110
@Bowie, E. (1970)
'Greeks and their past in the second sophistic', Past and Present 46: 3-41 = also in Finley, M., ed. Studies in Ancient Society 166-209 [DE71.F4]
@Bowie, E. in CAH XI: ch.31 'Literature and sophistic'
@Goldhill, S., ed. (2001) Being Greek under Rome. Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic and the Development of Empire (CUP) [DG 78 B3]
Russell, D., ed. (1990) Antonine Literature [PA 3086.A6]
Swain, S. (1996) Hellenism and empire : language, classicism, and power in the Greek world, AD 50-250 [PA 3081.S9]
Whitmarsh, T. (2001) Greek literature and the Roman empire : the politics of imitation [PA 3086.W4]
Whitmarsh, T. (2010) Local knowledge and microidentities in the imperial Greek world [DF135.L6]
Woolf, G. (1994) 'Becoming Roman, staying Greek: culture, identity and the civilizing process' Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 40: 116-43

  • Arrian

Stadter, P. (1980) Arrian [PA 3935.Z5]

  • Dio Chrysostom/ of Prusa

Jones, C. The Roman world of Dio Chrysostom [PA 3965.D22]
Swain, S. (2000) Dio Chrysostom : politics, letters, and philosophy [B 557.D35]

  • Pausanias

@Alcock, S., Cherry, J. and Elsner, J. (2001) Pausanias: travel and memory in Roman Greece
Arafat, K. (1996)
Pausanias' Greece [DF 27.P2]
@Elsner, J. (1992) 'Pausanias: A Greek Pilgrim in the Roman World' Past and Present 135: 3-29
Habicht, C. (1985) Pausanias' guide to ancient Greece [DF 27.P2]

  • Plutarch

Jones, C. (1971) Plutarch and Rome [PA 4382.J6]
Mossman, J., ed. (1997) Plutarch and his Intellectual World [PA 4382.P5]
Pelling, C. (2002) Plutarch and history [PA 4383.P45]
@Stadter, P. (2014)
Plutarch and his Roman readers

Greek East

  • Elites in the East

Boatwright, M.T. (1993) 'The city gate of Plancia Magna in Perge' in Roman Art in Context, ed. E. D'Ambra [N 5760.R6]
@Burrell, B. (2009) ‘Reading, hearing and looking at Ephesos’, in Johnson and Parker, eds, Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome 69-95
@Smith, R.R.R. (1998) 'Cultural choice and political identity in honorific portrait statues in the Greek East in the second century AD' JRS 88: 56-93
Zanker, P. (1995) The Mask of Socrates ch.5 'Hadrian's Beard' [N 7585 Z2]

  • A world of festivals?

Burrell, B. (2004) Neokoroi : Greek cities and Roman emperors [DS 155.B8]
Spawforth, A.J.S. (1989) 'Agonistic festivals in Roman Greece, 193-97 in Cameron, A. & Walker, S. The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire (BICS Suppl 55) [ DF 239.G7, quarto]

Robert Graves' Novels

  • Graves, R. Claudius the God [PR 6013.R2]
  • BBC I Claudius [SRC Video]
  • Seymour-Smith, M. (1982) Robert Graves: his life and work [PR 6013.R2]
  • @Gibson, A.G.G. (2016) Robert Graves and the Classical Tradition