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Essays

ESSAYS


Term I

 

1. Is it possible to gain a coherent overall picture of how a battle works from the Iliad?


W. Donlan, ‘Chiefs and followers in pre-state Greece’, in id. The Aristocratic Ideal (1999) DF 78.D6
M.I. Finley, The World of Odysseus. Second edition (1977) PA 4037.F4
R. Fowler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Homer (2004) PA 4037.C2
P. Greenhalgh, ‘Patriotism in the Homeric world’, Historia 21 (1972), 528-37
P. Greenhalgh, ‘The Homeric Therapon and Opaon’, BICS 29 (1982), 81-90
J. Griffin, Homer on Life and Death (1980) PA 4037.G7
G.S. Kirk (ed.), The Iliad: A Commentary. Vols. I-VI (1985-1993) PA 4037.K4
I. Morris & B. Powell (eds.), A New Companion to Homer (1997) PA 4037.N3
J. Redfield, Nature and Culture in the Iliad (1975) PA 4037.R3
L. Tritle, ‘Hector’s body: mutilation of the dead in ancient Greece and Vietnam’, Ancient History Bulletin 11 (1997), 123-36; also Tritle 2000, 34-54
H. van Wees, ‘Leaders of men ? Army organization in the Iliad’, CQ 36 (1986), 285-303
H. van Wees, Status Warriors: war, violence ad society in Homer and history (1992) PA 4037.W3
H. van Wees, 'The Homeric way of war: the Iliad and the hoplite phalanx I', G&R 41 (1994) 1-18 [DOWNLOAD]
H. van Wees, 'The Homeric way of war: the Iliad and the hoplite phalanx II', G&R 41 (1994) 131-155 [DOWNLOAD]
H. van Wees, ‘Heroes, knights and nutters’, in Lloyd (ed.), Battle in antiquity (1996) 1996, 1-86 U 29.B2
M.M. Willcock, A Companion to the Iliad (1976) PA 4037.W4
 



2. Why was the development of naval warfare so politically relevant?


L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton 1971) VM 16.C2
G. Cawkwell, Athenian naval power in the fourth century, CQ 34 (1984) 334-345 [DOWNLOAD]
G. Cawkwell, ‘Persian and Greek naval warfare; the diekplous’, in id. The Greek Wars (2005), 221-32
V. Gabrielsen, Financing the Athenian Fleet (Baltimore 1994) DF 90.G2
V. Gabrielsen, ‘The naukrariai and the Athenian navy’, Classica &Medievalia 36 (1985), 21-51
C.J. Haas, ‘Athenian naval power before Themistokles’, Historia 34 (1985), 29-46 [DOWNLOAD]
J. Lazenby, ‘Naval warfare of the ancient world’, International History Review 9 (1987), 438-55
A. Momigliano, ‘Sea power in Greek thought’, Classical Review 58 (1944), 1-7 [DOWNLOAD]
C. Starr, The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History (New York 1989) DE 66.S8
J.S. Morrison, J.F. Coates and B. Rankov, The Athenian Trireme. Second edition (Cambridge 2000) VM 16.M6
B. Strauss, ‘The Athenian trireme, school of democracy’, in Demokratia, eds. J. Ober & C. Hedrick (1996), 313-26
H. Wallinga, Ships and Sea Power Before the Great Persian War (Leiden 1993) VM 16.W2



3. What information about Greek warfare can we extract from the archaic lyric poets and the contemporary archaeological evidence?


H. Bowden, ‘Hoplites and Homer’, in Rich and Shipley (eds.) 1993, 45-63
J.E. Lendon, Soldiers and Ghosts: a history of battle in classical antiquity (New Haven and London 2005), 20-57 U 29.L3
H. Lorimer, 'The hoplite phalanx with special reference to the poems of Archilocus and Tyrtaeus', AnnBSA 42 (1947), 76-138
W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, Vol. IV (1985), 7-33 U 33.P7
K. Raaflaub and H. van Wees (eds.), A Companion to Archaic Greece (2009), ch. 9 DF 77.C6955
A. Snodgrass, Snodgrass, 'The hoplite reform and history', JHS 85 (1965), 110-122 [DOWNLOAD]
H. van Wees, ‘Kings in combat’, Classical Quarterly 38 (1988), 1-24 [DOWNLOAD]
H. van Wees, ‘The development of the hoplite phalanx’, in H. van Wees (ed.) 2000, 125-66 E.L. Wheeler, ‘The general as hoplite’, in V.D. Hanson (ed.), 1991, 126-31
J. Whitley, 'The monuments that stood before Marathon: thomb cult and hero cult in archaic Attica', AJA 98 (1994), 213-230 [DOWNLOAD]



4. What aspects of war receive particular attention from Thucydides? Are there any significant blind spots or omissions?

G. Cawkwell, Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War (1997) DF 229.T6
W.R. Connor, Thucydides (1984) PA 4461.C6
W.R. Connor, Thucydides (1984) PA 4461.C6K.J. Dover, Thucydides (1973)
A. Gomme, et al. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, Vols. I-V (1945-1981) PA 4461.G6
K.J. Dover, Thucydides (1973) A. Gomme, et al. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, Vols. I-V (1945-1981) PA 4461.G6
S. Flory, Thucydides' hypotheses on the Peloponnesian War, TAPhA 118 (1988) 43-56. [DOWNLOAD]
S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, Vols. I-III (1991-2009) PA 4461.H6
D. Kagan, The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (1969) DF 229.2.K2
D. Kagan, The Archidamian War (1974) DF 229.3.K2
D. Kagan, The Peloponnesian War (2003) DF 229.K2
L. Kallet-Marx, Money, Expense and Naval Power in Thucydides (1993) DF 229.T6
J. Price, Thucydides and Internal War (2001), one copy ordered
J. de Romilly, Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism (1963) DF 229.T6
T. Rood, Thucydides: Narrative and Explanation (1998) DF 229.T6


5. How do Aeschylus and Herodotus differ in their presentation of Xerxes’ invasion?

D. Boedeker, ‘Heroic historiography: Simonides and Herodotus on Plataea’, in Boedeker and Sider (eds.), The New Simonides (2001), 120-34 PA 4411.N3
A. Burn, Persia and the Greeks: the defence of the West, c. 546-478 BC (1984) DF 225.B8
J. Dillery, ‘Reconfiguring the past: Thyrea, Thermopylae and narrative patterns in Herodotus’ American Journal of Philology 117 (1996), 217-254 [DOWNLOAD]
M. Flower, ‘Simonides, Ephorus and Herodotus on the battle of Thermopylae’, Classical Quarterly 48 (1998), 365-79 [DOWNLOAD]
E. Hall, ‘Asia unmanned’, in Rich and Shipley (eds.) 1993, 106-33
T. Harrison, The emptiness of Asia: Aeschylus’ Persians and the history of the fifth century (2000) PA 3825.P4
C. Pelling, ‘Aeschylus’ Persae and history’, in id. (ed.), Greek Tragedy and the Historian (1997), 1-19 PA 3131.G7
J. Wiesehöfer, ‘Greeks and Persians’, in K. Raaflaub and H. van Wees (eds.), A Companion to Archaic Greece (2009), ch. 9 DF 77.C6955



Term II


1. What does the Anabasis tell us about equipment, organisation, discipline, logistics, pay, etc., of a mercenary army?


J.K. Anderson, Xenophon (1974) PA 4497.A6
A. Dalby, ‘Greeks abroad: social organisation and food among the Ten Thousand’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 112 (1992), 16-30 [DOWNLOAD]
J. Dillery, Xenophon and the history of his times (1995) PA 4497.D4
C. Grayson, ‘Did Xenophon intend to write history?’, in B. Levick (ed.), The Ancient Historian and His Materials (1975), 31-43 DE 8.L3
R. Lane Fox (ed.), The Long March: Xenophon and the ten thousand (2004) PA 4494.A7
J. Roy, ‘The mercenaries of Cyrus’, Historia 16 (1967), 287-323
N. Wood, ‘Xenophon’s theory of leadership’, Classica & Medievalia 25 (1964), 33-66.



2. In what ways and why were ‘international prestige’ and ‘profit’ causes and goals of Greek wars?


F.E. Adcock & D.J. Mosley, Diplomacy in Ancient Greece (New York 1975) DF 82.A3
R.A. Bauslaugh, The Concept of Neutrality in Classical Greece (Berkeley 1991) DF 82.B2
G. Herman, Ritualized Friendship and the Greek City (Cambridge 1987) DF 78.H47
A. Missiou, ‘Reciprocal generosity in the foreign affairs of fifth-century Athens and Sparta’, in C. Gill, N. Postlethwaite and R. Seaford (eds.), Reciprocity in Ancient Greece (Oxford 1998), 181-98 DF 78.R3
L. Mitchell, ‘Philia, Eunoia and Greek Interstate relations’, Antichthon 31 (1997), 28-44
L. Mitchell, Greeks Bearing Gifts (Oxford 1997) DF 78.M4
K. Raaflaub, ‘Politics and interstate relations in the world of early Greek poleis’, Antichthon 31 (1997), 1-27
R. Sealey, ‘Thucydides, Herodotus and the causes of war’, CQ 51 (1957), 1-12 [DOWNLOAD]


3. What role did mercenary soldiers hold in the polis army?

N. Luraghi, 'Traders, pirates, warriors: background to Greek mercenary explosion', Phoenix 60 (2006), 21-47 [DOWNLOAD]
P. McKechnie, 'Greek mercenary troops and their equipment', Historia 43 (1994), 297-305 [DOWNLOAD]
H. Miller, ‘The practical and economic background to the Greek mercenary explosion’, Greece & Rome 31 (1984), 153-60 [DOWNLOAD]
H.W. Parke, Greek Mercenary Soldiers (Oxford 1933) UB 148.P2
A.G. Russell, 'The Greek as a mercenary soldier', G&R 11 (1942), 103-112 [DOWNLOAD]
R.K. Sinclair, ‘The King’s Peace and the employment of military and naval forces, 387-78’, Chiron 8 (1978), 29-54 [DOWNLOAD]
D. Whitehead, ‘Who equipped mercenary troops in classical Greece?’, Historia 40 (1991), 105-113 [DOWNLOAD]



4. How significant were the military roles of non-hoplites in polis warfare?


G. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens (Princeton 1988) DF 289.B8
L. Foxhall, ‘A view from the top’, in L. Mitchell and P. Rhodes (eds.), The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece (London 1997), 129-31 DF 81.D3
P. Low, ‘Cavalry identity and democratic ideology’, PCPS 48 (2002), 102-22
J. McCamp, Horses and horsemanship in the Athenian Agora, Athens 1998. DF 287.A23
V. Rosivach, ‘Zeugitai and hoplites’, Ancient History Bulletin 16 (2002), 33-43
R. Sargent, ‘The use of slaves by the Athenians in warfare’, Classical Philology 22 (1927), 201-12, 264-79 [DOWNLOAD I][DOWNLOAD II]
I.G. Spence, The Cavalry of Classical Greece (Oxford 1993), UA 724.S7
 


5. To what extent was classical Greek warfare ritualised?


W. Connor, ‘Early Greek Land Warfare as Symbolic Expression’ P&P 119 (1988), 3-27 [DOWNLOAD]
M. Goodman & A. Holladay, ‘Religious scruples in ancient warfare’, CQ 36 (1986), 151-71 [DOWNLOAD]
V.D. Hanson, ‘Hoplite battle as ancient Greek warfare: when, where, and why?’, in H. van Wees (ed.) 2000, 201-32
J. Hurwitt, "Reading the Chigi Vase', Hesperia 71 (2002), 23-39 [DOWNLOAD]
A.H. Jackson, ‘Hoplites and the gods: the dedication of captured arms and armour’, in Hanson (ed.) (1991), 228-49
M.H. Jameson, ‘Sacrifice before battle’, in Hanson (ed.) (1991), 197-227
P. Krentz, The nature of hoplite battle', CA 4 (1985), 50-61
P. Krentz, ‘Deception in archaic and classical Greek warfare’, in H. van Wees (ed.) 2000, 167-200
P. Krentz, ‘Fighting by the rules: the invention of the hoplite agon’, Hesperia 71 (2002), 23-39 [DOWNLOAD]
J. Ober, ‘The rules of war in classical Greece’, in id. The Athenian Revolution, 53-71 DF 277.O2
J. Ober, ‘Thucydides, Pericles and the strategy of defense’, in id. The Athenian Revolution, 72-85 DF 277.O2