Genetic markers are used to identify different features in DNA sequence that can be used to differentiate between individuals in a population, or to classify individuals between different varieties or cultivars within a species.
The different features in the sequence can be used to identify if that particular region was inherited from the female or male parent.
By using this information we can build up a more complete picture of each individuals genotype at each marker.
This allows us to track the inheritance of different regions of the genome.
Types of molecular genetic marker
There are many, but some of the commonly used ones are:
RFLP – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
SSR – Simple Sequence Repeat, or Microsatellite
AFLP – Amplified Fragment length Polymorphism
CAPS – Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence
dCAPS – derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence
STS – Sequence Tagged Site
RAPD – Ramdomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA
SNP – Single Nucleotide Polymorphism - technology to screen thousands in one go
Also Phenotypic markers