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What is a Genetic Marker?



Genetic markers are used to identify different features in DNA sequence that can be used to differentiate between individuals in a population, or to classify individuals between different varieties or cultivars within a species.

The different features in the sequence can be used to identify if that particular region was inherited from the female or male parent.

By using this information we can build up a more complete picture of each individuals genotype at each marker.

This allows us to track the inheritance of different regions of the genome.

Types of molecular genetic marker

There are many, but some of the commonly used ones are:

RFLP – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

SSR – Simple Sequence Repeat, or Microsatellite

AFLP – Amplified Fragment length Polymorphism

CAPS – Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence

dCAPS – derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence

STS – Sequence Tagged Site

RAPD – Ramdomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

SNP – Single Nucleotide Polymorphism - technology to screen thousands in one go

Also Phenotypic markers