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Validation of English version of WEMWBS in different populations

Children and Young People (11 years plus)

  • Clarke, A., Friede, T., Putz, R., Ashdown, J., Martin, S., Blake, A., ... & Stewart-Brown, S. (2011). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): validated for teenage school students in England and Scotland. A mixed methods assessment. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 487.
  • Michael T. McKay, James R. Andretta. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents. Psychiatry Research 2017; 255:382-386
  • Mendes-Torres Gl et al. Measurement invariance properties and external construct validity of the short Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale in a large national sample of secondary school students in Wales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2019;17:139
  • Rebecca Anthony · Graham Moore · Nicholas Page · Gillian Hewitt · Simon Murphy · G. J. Melendez‑Torres Measurement invariance of the short Warwick‑Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and latent mean differences (SWEMWBS) in young people by current care status. Quality of Life Research (2022) 31:205-213.

For children under 11year we recommend

  • Liddle I, Carter GF. Emotional and psychological well-being in children: the development and validation of the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale. Educational Psychology in Practice. 2015 Apr 3;31(2):174-85.

Cross-Cultural Validation Studies of English Version (see Translations page for validations of translated versions)

  • Stewart-Brown, S. (2013). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS): Performance in Different Cultural and Geographical Groups. In C.L.M. Keyes (2013), Mental Well-Being: International Contributions to the Study of Positive Mental Health. (pp. 133-150). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Taggart, F., Friede, T., Weich, S., Clarke, A., Johnson, M., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2013). Cross-cultural evaluation of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS)- a mixed methods study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11:27.
  • Waqas A, Ahmad W, Haddad M, Taggart FM, Muhammad Z, Bukhari MH, Sami SA, Batool SM, Najeeb F, Hanif A, Rizvi ZA, Ejaz S. (2015) Measuring the wellbeing of health care professionals in the Punjab: a psychometric evaluation of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale in a Pakistani population. PeerJ 3:e1264
  • Lloyd, K., & Devine, P. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS) in Northern Ireland. Journal of Mental Health, 21(3), 257-263.

Clinical Populations in the UK and Internationally

  • Bass M, Dawkin M, Muncer S, Vigurs S, Bostock J. Validation of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in a population of people using Secondary Care Mental Health Services. Journal of Mental Health. 2016 Jul 3;25(4):323-9.
  • Marion Trousselard, Dominique Steiler, Frédéric Dutheil, Damien Claverie, Frédéric Canini, Sarah Stewart-Brown and Franck Nicolas Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in French Psychiatric and General Populations. Psychiatry Research 2016;245: 282–290
  • Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Edimansyah Abdin, Siow Ann Chong, Rajeswari Sambasivam1, Esmond Seow, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Louisa Picco, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Mythily Subramaniam Psychometric properties of the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS) in service users with schizophrenia, depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. (2017) 15:153
  • Crawford, M. J., Robotham, D., Thana, L., Patterson, S., Weaver, T., Barber, R., Wykes T. & Rose, D. (2011). Selecting outcome measures in mental health: the views of service users. Journal of Mental Health, 20(4), 336-346.
  • Neha Shah, Mizaya Cader, William Andrews, Dilini Wikijsera, Sarah Stewart-Brown Responsiveness of the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS) in a clinical sample. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Under 2020;16:239
  • Neha Shah, Mizaya Cader, William Andrews, Sarah L Stewart-Brown Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS): performance in a clinical sample in relation to PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Under review 2019 (available from Sarah Stewart-Brown)
  • Orgeta, V., Lo Sterzo, E., & Orrell, M. (2013). Assessing mental well-being in family carers of people with dementia using the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 1-9.

Validation in Populations with Learning Difficulties

  • Kaija Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, Riikka L¨ams¨, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson. (2020) Factors associated with positive mental health in young adults
    with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2020;106;doi:10.1016

Occupational Groups

  • Bartram DJ, Yadegarfar G, Sinclair JM, Baldwin DS. Validation of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) as an overall indicator of population mental health and well-being in the UK veterinary profession. The Veterinary Journal. 2011 Mar 31;187(3):397-8.
  • Bartram DJ, Sinclair JM, Baldwin DS. Further validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) in the UK veterinary profession: Rasch analysis. Quality of Life Research. 2013 Mar 1;22(2):379-91.
  • Jermaine M. Ravalier, Andrew McVicar, Charlotte Bolchat. (2020) Work Stress in NHS Employees: A Mixed-Methods Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17;doi:10.3390/ijerph17186464


  • Deary, I. J., Watson, R., Booth, T., & Gale, C. R. (2012). Does Cognitive Ability Influence Responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale?. Retrieved from
  • Davoren MP, Fitzgerald E, Shiely F, Perry IJ: Positive Mental Health and Well-Being among a Third Level Student Population. PLoS One; 2013;8(8):e74921