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Dietary sodium and potassium intake in Hungarian elderly: results from the cross-sectional Biomarker2019 survey.

Eszter Sarkadi-Nagy, Andrea Horváth, Anita Varga, Leonóra Zámbó, Andrea Török, Georgina Guba, Nikolett Szilfai, Andrea Zentai and Márta Bakacs.

Int J Env Res Public Health 2021;18(16):8806. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18168806

Abstract: High sodium intake and inadequate potassium intake are associated with high blood pressure. The elderly are more salt sensitive than other age groups, yet a reliable estimate of the dietary sodium and potassium intake of this age group in Hungary is unavailable. The study aimed to estimate the sodium and potassium intakes in the Hungarian elderly from 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretion. In this cross-sectional study, participants were selected from patients of general practitioners practicing in western Hungary. The participants comprised 99 men and 90 women (mean age 67.1 (SD 5.4] years) who participated in the Biomarker2019 survey and returned a complete 24 h urine collection. We assessed dietary sodium and potassium by determining 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretions and 3-day dietary records. The mean urinary sodium was 188.8 (73.5) mmoL/day, which is equivalent to 11.0 g of salt/day; and the mean urinary potassium was 65.8 (24.3) mmoL/day, which is equivalent to 3.03 g of potassium/day, after adjusting for non-urinary potassium losses. Only 7% of the subjects met the World Health Organization’s recommended target of less than 5 g of salt/day, and 33% consumed at least the recommended potassium amount of 3.5 g/day, based on the estimates from 24 h urine excretion. For most elderly, sodium intake exceeds, and potassium does not reach, dietary recommendations. The results underline the need to intensify salt reduction efforts in Hungary

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Salt intake (g/day) in Hungary (2019)

  Mean SD
Men (n=99) 13.4 4.0
Women (n=90) 9.9 3.0
All (n=189) 11.7 4.0

Method: 24h urine collection