- Helmholtz free energy [Units: Joules, J]
- Boltzmann constant. [Value: 1.381 x 10-23 J K-1]
- Absolute temperature. [Units: Kelvins, K]
What it means
In statistical mechanics and thermodynamics the Helmholtz free energy is a theremodynamic potential which measures the "useful" work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at constant temperature, volume and particle number. For such a system in equilibrium the Helmholtz free energy is minimised.
Further information at Warwick