Bayernkaserne reception facility, Munich, Germany. Photo taken by Georg Lofflmann and Nick Vaughan-Williams, 26 November 2016
It is estimated by the UNHCR that in 2015 1,007,716 migrants and refugees arrived irregularly by boats in southern Europe. The testimonies of 'irregular' arrivals have become an important focus for research in order to disaggregate what has been retroactively packaged as the 'Mediterranean crisis'. Yet if meanings of migration and border security are produced intersubjectively and contested politically then the perceptions and experiences of 'regular' citizens -- as well as elites and 'irregular' populations -- are significant in shaping fields of knowledge, policy, and practice in which responses are made possible.
An encounter between the English Defence League (EDL) and United Against Racism, Coventry, UK, 26 May, 2016. Photo taken by Nick Vaughan-Williams.
Little is known about perceptions and experiences of migration and border security among diverse publics across Europe in view of the 'crisis'. Long-standing opinion poll surveys suggest that European citizens are largely negative or at best indifferent towards non-EU populations seeking entry to Europe. Since 2015 the hardening of attitudes has been associated with the rise of the far right with groups such as PEGIDA and AfD in Germany, the EDL in England, and the Swedish Democrats Party in Sweden. At the same time, the widespread sense of public shock and anger in response to the circulation of the images of the drowned Syrian boy Alan Kurdi and Germany's Willkommenskultur (culture of welcoming) suggest a more complex and multi-layered picture.
'Kein Mensch ist Illegal' (no-one is illegal) pro-immigration slogan seen at a music festival in Germany in July 2016. Photo taken by Georg Löfflmann.
Project aims and methodology
The aim of the 'Border Narratives' project is to investigate how diverse publics perceive, understand, and experience 'the crisis'; how they narrate their own identities and those of their communities and nations in relation to perceptions of 'irregular' migration and border security; and how these narratives compare across different geographical sites and converge/diverge with media and policy representations shaping cultures of hospitality, hostility, and (in)security across Europe.
The programme of research employs a range of qualitative and participatory research methods, including three phases of focus group discussions in cities in Germany, Greece, Hungary, Spain and the UK throughout 2016 and 2017. In-depth discussions with local communities will generate rich insights into how diverse publics narrate the crisis and their own relationship to it, the kinds of stories they tell about how migration and border security affects their own lives, and the impact of media and policy representations at the level of the everyday.
The first phase (November and December 2016) included 8 pilot group interviews involving 61 EU citizens (31 male, 30 female) in Munich, Thessaloniki, Miskolc, and Nottingham. Participants were varied according to gender, age, education, and attitudes towards immigration. Each discussion lasted for 90 minutes on average.
The second phase (September 2017) included 12 group interviews involving 88 EU citizens (46 male, 42 female) in Berlin, Cologne, Budapest, Coventry, and London; and the third phase (November 2017) included 4 further groups involving 31 EU citizens (16 male, 15 female) in Barcelona and Cadiz .
Overall, the project will listen to the views and experiences of 179 EU citizens (93 male, 86 female) across 11 cities generating 2,200 minutes of discussion and an archive consisting of more than 300,000 words of original transcript materials.
The 'Border Narratives' project is funded by a £100,000.00 Philip Leverhulme Prize (2016-2019) in Politics and International Studies awarded to Principal Investigator Professor Nick Vaughan-Williams (PLP-2015-081).